İngilizce’de cümle dizilimi şu şekildedir.Subject+ Verb+ Object(nesne) /complement (tümleç)
1- Subject +Verb (nesne almayan fiil) (Intransitive- geçişsiz fiil – neyi kimi neye kime sorularına yanıt veremez
e.g. She slept for hours.
2- S+V+Object bir nesne alan fiil ile oluşan cümle (Geçişli fiil) kimi neyi – neye kime sorularına yanıt verir)
She broke the window last night. Geçişli filler passive hale gelebilirler.
The window was broken.
3- S+V + O + O ( direct object and indirect object- nesne ve dolaylı tümleç)
She gave me a present. She gave a present to me.
I was given a present A present was given to me.
Subject (özne) olarak kullanılabilecek yapılar.
Elif is a student at Balıkesir University.
She studies Literature.
3- Noun phrase
Some rude rich men asked you.
4- Gerund (Ving)
Smoking too much damages your health seriously.
5- to +Vo (infinitive)
To read daily newspapers keeps one knowledgeable.
6- İşaret zamirleri
This will help you to recover.
7- Bazı miktar ifadeleri (some, both, none, all many, etc)
Both are my friends.
Some believe that life has no meaning.
8- Noun Clauses (isim cümlecikleri)
a- that-the fact that (kararlı durum bağlaçları) cümle net bir yargı içerdiği için kararlı durum bağlacı deriz.
That George invited Mary should make her happy.
b- whether- if (kararsız durum bağlacı)- net bir yargı yoktur. Belirsiz kararsız bir durum söz konusudur.
Whether they will come is not certain yet.(IF yapısı özne konumunda kullanılmaz.
c- wh- how (kararsız durum bağlacı)- net bir yargı yoktur. Belirsiz kararsız bir durum söz konusudur.
How she cooks the meals is still a mystery.
Where she was yesterday isn’t known by us.
9- NP+ Adjective Clauses
The man who came late made us angry.
The method which was used was very violent.
10- It ( Boş özne)
It is claimed that he stole the money. ( Burada It kendisinden önce gelen bir ismin zamiri değildir. Kendisinden sonra gelen dizilimin yerini tutar)
11- Ever clauses
Whatever George says seems to make her happy
Vo—- Yalın hali özne ya da zamana göre çekimlenmemiş hali She can play the guitar very well.
V1- present simple hal—I go to school . She goes to school.
V2 – past simple hal — I went to the hospital to visit my friend.
V3- past participle – present perfect- past perfect- (bütün perfect yapılarda)passive yapılar ve fiilden sıfat yapılır
She has finished the school
She had finished the school
She will have finished the school by June.
This song was sung by John Lennon.
Developed countries (sıfat yapar)
Ironed clothes ( olayların bittiğini gösterir)
Pasif sıfat cümleciklerinde kısaltmalarda kullanılır
The method which was used last year was very effective.
The method used last year was very effective.
Pasif Zarf cümleciklerinde kısaltmalarda kullanılır
If it is used properly, It will last for a long time.
If used properly ….
Ving – Progressive yapı- Gerund –fiilimsi yaparken kullanırız.
The man is watering the flowers.
Sıfat yapar developing countries
Olayların devam ettiğin gösterir – developing countries
Aktif sıfat cümleciklerinin kısaltmalarında kullanılır
The woman who is reading the magazine is my aunt.
The woman reading the magazine is my aunt.
Aktif Zarf cümleciklerinde kısaltmalarda kullanılır.
While he was walking down the street, he saw an old friend.
Walking down the street, he saw an old friend.
VERB( fiil) TÜRLERİ
- Linking Verbs (be, look seem, taste, become, turn, sound,appear, grow,etc.) Özne ile complementi Tümleci bağlarlar. Gerçek eylem değildirler.)
She is ill. They look happy. He grew old.
- Transitive verb He loves me.
- Intransitive Verb He swam for hours.
OBJECT (NESNE) OLARAK KULLANILABİLECEK YAPILAR
- Noun/Noun phrase
I like Susan. I want the truth
2- Object Pronoun
I like her because she is honest.
I like kind people
4- Ving Gerund
He admitted stealing the money.
I like playing the piano.
They suggested going on a holiday.
I like to sing songs.
She decided to study History at university.
- işaret zamirleri
I want to buy these.
6- Bazı miktar ifadeleri (some, both, none,all, many etc)
I learned both.
He believes neither.
- Noun clauses
I don’t remember what I did.
I admit that I make mistakes.
I don’t know whether they will come.
I don’t know where Ali was yesterday.
You can do whatever you want.
- Noun phrase + Adjective clauses(relative clauses)
I know the man who came late.
8- IT (boş nesne)
The president made it clear that the revenge would be taken.
Complement (Tümleç –tamamlayıcı olarak kullanılabilecek yapılar)
- Noun phrase
One problem we are faced with is air pollution.
- Adj+noun + relative clause
The main problem we have today is air pollution, which is getting worse day by day.
One of the aims of education is to train the staff needed.
My hobby is collecting stamps.
- Noun Clause
The problem is that the available resources are inadequate.
What is not clear is what caused the fire.
What seems uncertain now is whether he will come to the ceremony or not.