Bir dilde bağlaçların işlevi çok önemlidir. Bir eylemin yapılma sebebini, zamanını, yapıldığında ortaya çıkan sonucu, belli koşullara rağmen yapıldıysa bunların ne olduğunu, yapılabilmesi için gerekli koşullar varsa bunların ne olduğunu, varsa yapılma amacını, belirteç cümleleri ve uygun bağlaçlar yardımıyla dile getiririz. Bu nedenle genel olarak bakıldığında ÜDS ve KPDS gibi sınavlarda bağlaçların ve belirteç cümlelerinin anlamı ve işlevini bilmek çok önemlidir. Soru türü açısından bakıldığında, bağlaç ve belirteç cümlesi bilgimizin ilk ölçüldüğü bölüm, gramer sorularının yer aldığı ilk 20 soruluk bölümdür. Burada sınavına göre değişmekle birlikte sayı olarak en az 5 tane bağlaç sorusu bulunmaktadır. Daha sonra 10 sorunun bulunduğu cümle tamamlama sorularında da ya soruda ya da şıklarda bulunan yan cümlelerin bağlaçlarının işlevini bilmek te önemlidir. Bağlaçların çok gerekli olduğu diğer iki bölüm, paragrafta eksik cümleyi bulma soruları ile paragrafta anlam bütünlüğüne uymayan cümleyi bulma sorularıdır.
Bu soruların çözümü için yalnızca bağlaçların anlamını bilmek yetmez. Özellikle 13-18. Sorularda sorulan bağlaç sorularının şıklarını kolay eleyebilmek için, bağlaçların isimle mi yoksa cümleyle mi kullanıldığı, ilk cümlenin mi yoksa ikinci cümlenin mi başında kullanıldığını bilmek gerekir. En önemlisi de, “however” vb. zıtlık bağlaçları dışında kalan tüm bağlaçların genellikle anlam veya yapı olarak iki olumlu veya iki olumsuz cümleyi bağladığını ve bu cümlelerin fiilleri arasında “V1+V1”, “V2+V2” gibi zaman uyumu olduğunu unutmamak gerekir. Zıtlık bağlaçları bu snavlarda genellikle biri olumlu, diğeri olumsuz olan iki cümleyi bağlarlar. Bazen geçmiş bir olayı şimdiki bir olayla karşılaştırmak için kullanıldıklarından, bu bağlaçların olduğu cümleyle diğer cümlenin fiili arasında mutlaka zaman uyumu olması gerekmez. Yani fiiller “V2+V1” şeklinde de olabilir.
13-18. bağlaç sorularında, şıklarda bulunan eş anlamlı veya yakın anlamlı bağlaçlar elenerek doğru bağlaca ulaşmak kolay olmaktadır.
Bağlaç kelimeleri, deyimleri veya cümlecikleri bağlayan sözcüklerdir. Üç tür bağlaç vardır: birleştirme bağlaçları, bağlaşıklık bağlaçları, yan cümle bağlaçları.
Birleştirme bağlaçları; Bu bağlaçlar kelimeleri veya kelime gruplarını bağlayabilir. Bu sözcükler özne+özne, eylem+eylem, cümle+cümle gibi cümle öğelerini bağlar. Bunlar: and, but, or, yet, for, nor, so, bağlaçlarıdır.
Bağlantılı/bağlaşıklık bağlaçları; Bunlar da cümle öğelerini birleştirme bağlaçları gibi bağlarlar, ancak onlardan farklı olarak tek tek değil, çift olarak kullanılırlar. Örnekler; both – and, not only – but also, not – but, either – or, neither – nor,
whether – or, as – as.
Yan cümle bağlaçları; Bu bağlaçlar bir olayın sebebini, zamanını, hangi koşulda yapıldığını, sonucunu, neye karşı yapıldığını belirten belirteç cümlelerini, bu olayın anlatıldığı ana cümleciğe bağlarlar. Örnekler;
- Cümle ile kullanılanlar: When, After, Before, While, As, Once, As soon as, By the time, Until, Since.
- İsimle kullanılanlar: by, since, for, during.
- Zıt durumu bildiren cümle başında bulunanlar; Although, Though, Even though, Even if.
- Zıt duruma rağmen yapılan eylemi anlatan 2. cümle başında kullanılanlar; However, but, nevertheless, yet, Even so, still.
- Zıt durumu anlatan bir isimle kullanılanlar; despite, in spite of.
- Zıt bir durum kadar, aynı sınıftan iki varlık arasındaki farkı anlatanlar; while, whereas.
- Cümle ile kullanılanlar: If, on condition that, provided that, providing that, suppose that, supposing that, should, so long as, as long as,
- İsimle kullanılanlar; without
- Cümle ile kullanılanlar; Since, because, as, now that, for, in that, on grounds that.
- İsimle kullanılanlar; because of, on account of, due to, owing to, on grounds of, thanks to, but for.
Sonuç bağlaçları: Therefore, Thus, so, for this reason, Hence, that’s why, so…..that, such ……that.
- Cümle ile kullanılanlar; so that, in order that, in case, lest, for fear that.
- Fiille kullanılanlar; so as to, in order to, to.
Karşılaştırma bağlaçları: more…than, as…..as, the more…..the more, as well as , rather than
Durum bağlaçları: as if, as though
|Before||-meden önce||On condition that||Koşuluyla||Therefore||Bu yüzden|
|After||-dıktan sonra||Provided that||Koşuluyla||Thus||Bu yüzden|
|Once||-yapar yapmaz||Prividing that||Koşuluyla||Hence||Bu yüzden|
|As soon as||-yapar yapmaz||Suppose that||Koşuluyla||For this reason||Bu yüzden|
|Until||-e kadar||Supposing that||Koşuluyla||That’s why||Bu yüzden|
|By the time||-e kadar||Should||Eğer||So ….that||Öylesine…ki|
|By||-e kadar||So long as||-dığı sürece||Such…that||Öylesine…ki|
|since||-den beri||As long as||-dığı sürece|
|for||-dır, -den beri||Without||…. olmasa||AMAÇ|
|during||-sırasında||So that||-sin diye|
|SEBEP||In order that||-sin diye|
|ZITLIK||Because||-dığı için||In case||-lir diye|
|Although||-e rağmen||Since||-dığı için||For fear that||Korlusuyla|
|Though||-e rağmen||As||-dığı için||So as to||-mek için|
|Even though||-e rağman||For||-dığı için||In order to||-mek için|
|Even if||-se bile||Now that||-dığı için||to||-mek için|
|However||Ancak||In that||-dığı için|
|But||Fakat||On grounds that||-dığı için||KARŞILAŞTIRMA|
|Yet||Fakat||Because of||Yüzünden||The more..the more||Ne kadar…o kadar…..|
|Nevertheless||Yine de||On account of||Yüzünden||As well as||–kadar|
|Even so||Yine de||On grounds of||Yüzünden||Rather than||-nin yerine|
|While||-iken, oysa||Owing to||Yüzünden||DURUM|
|Despite||-e rağmen||Thanks to||Sayesinde||As if||-miş gibi|
|In spite of||-e rağmen||But for||Olamasaydı||As though||-miş gibi|
Not…only….but ..also= yalnızca …değil, aynı zamanda ….
Both…and = hem….hem de…….
Neither..nor= Ne…..ne de…..
In addition to, besides, moreover =dahası
Rather than= -nın yerine
As well as= -e kadar
Such as= gibi
Alıştırmalar: Aşağıdaki boşlukları yukarıdaki bağlaçlardan uygun olanlarla doldurunuz. Aynı bağlacı birden fazla kullanmak gerekebilir.
|(as if, unless, if, so that, whereas, however, although, because, so, until, in case, as though)|
|1 You can come to the meeting ______ you don’t say anything while I speak. |
2 I’m not leaving ______ I get an apology from you.
3 I came here ______ you could give me an explanation.
4 Bob is very tall ______ Bill is very short.
5 You look ______ you’ve seen a ghost.
6 I refuse to pay anything ______ you do the work properly.
7 I’m going shopping for food this evening ______ I don’t have to go at the weekend.
8 You look ______ you haven’t eaten for a week.
9 I came early ______ I could talk to you privately.
10 ______ I don’t think she’s perfect for the job, she’s certainly better qualified than Steve.
|(but, while, in order that, until, though, if, as long as, as though, however, because, as if)|
|1 I don’t mind if you go out for lunch ______ you’re back for the meeting at two. |
2 Are you OK? You seem ______ you have a problem with your car.
3 ______ the job is very interesting, it’s also very badly paid.
4 We’ll go to the mountains on Saturday ______ it doesn’t rain.
5 The winters here are very cold ______ the summers are very hot.
6 You can write the report whenever you want ______ it’s ready by the end of the month.
7 It looks ______ the government has got a lot of problems at schools.
8 I want Mary to be responsible for my duty ______ I get back from holiday.
9 ______ I don’t approve of what you did, I’m not going to punish you for it.
10 I’m learning English ______ I can get a better job after my graduation.
|(so that, even though, in case, since, when, if, however, in that, yet, despite)|
|1 I need an office for myself ______ I can study on this project. |
2 Write it down ______ you forget it soon.
3 I need to get to work early ______ I can finish the report before the meeting.
4 I’ll tell her about the problem ______ I see her after school.
5 ______ you left, the atmosphere in the office has not been as nice.
6 ______ he was the best qualified candidate, he didn’t get the job at the airport.
7 He is learning English ______ he can get a better and more interesting job.
8 ____ all the people who could have got the job, he managed to get the job.
9 I’m going to buy an old Beetle, ______ I don’t have enough for a new one.
10 ______ you’re next time in Chicago, just give me a cal
|(so, nevertheless, when, since, if, although, since, for, as, therefore, just as)|
|1 ______ you already know Mary, you should go to meet her at the airport. |
2 ______ we want to open a branch in Oxford, we will probably wait for another year or so.
3 The job is well- paid ______ I’m looking for another one.
4 I hate living in London ______ I’m moving to the country.
5 I don’t know him very well, ______ I have met him socially on a couple of occasions.
6 I don’t know ______ I’ll be back.
7 I haven’t seen her ______ last Summer.
8 ______ we have so much to do, let’s delay discussing this until our next meeting.
9 We’re not making much profit ______ we need to raise our prices.
10 The exercise was boring ______ I stopped doing it soon.
|(although, because, but, or, since, so, unless, until, when, unless|
|1. Things were different _____ I was young. |
2. I’ll do it _____ I don’t like it very much.
3. Let us wait here _____ the rain stops.
4 .You cannot be a lawyer _____ you have a law degree.
5. He made a terrible mistake, ______ that was years ago.
6. She has not called me again _____ she left last week with her boy friend.
7. I saw him leaving an hour _____ he did not feel all right.
8. This is an expensive _____ very useful book written by a famous author.
9. We were getting tired _____ we stopped for a rest under a tree.
10. _____ he heard when had happened, he wasn’t angry with anybody.
|(because, where, due to, unless, provided that, now that, because, where, so, although, so as to)|
|1. ______ you don’t walk quickly, we will be late for school. |
2. He had to retire _____ ill health.
3. We will go swimming next Sunday _____ it rains.
4. Last night, I heard a noise in my room, _____ I turned the light on.
5. I would like a coffee _____ I feel terribly thirsty.
6. Do you know _____ she will arrive for the party?
7. _____ the car is old, it still runs well.
8. Do you want a pen _____ you are going to write a letter?
9. I would like to go for a walk _____ I am too busy with this project.
10. She will not die _____ the doctors operate on her immediately.
|( while, although, therefore, yet, until, however, unless, if, because, due to, so that)|
|1. I haven’t really studied for this exam, ________ I feel a little nervous. |
2. He came anyway ______ I told him not to come very firmly.
3. Do not do anything ________ you hear from him first.
4. I was really tired _________ I took only a nap for 15 minutes last night.
5. ________ she likes to play basketball, her favorite sport is tennis.
6. ________ it was really hot outside, I wore shorts and a T-shirt.
7. He has always done well on exams. This time, ________, he failed due to his cold.
8. I won’t be able to borrow any more money ________ I pay off some of my previous debts.
9. He worked hard ________ he could be a good player in his school’s football team.
10. The little girl slept ________ her father played the guitar in her room..
|(though, because, while, however, despite, when, even though, unless, until)|
|1. He’s just like his brother, ____________ he has a bit more fat on him. |
2. I won’t tell you, ____________ you bribe me.
3. It wasn’t wonderful ____________ it was well acted.
4. ____________ he has the money in the bank, he still won’t lend it to me.
5. He had already finished ____________ I started my course in İstanbul last term.
6. I used to read a lot ____________ I could learn about the world so much.
7. I can’t understand him ____________ my French is not so good.
8. ____________ most of his friends study hard, he’s quite lazy.
9. I regret telling it you,________ your son simply isn’t good enough.
10. I’ll go to my brother’s party ____________ his objecting to my presence.
|(whenever, as if, if, in case, when, why, because, so that, unless, wherever, but,)|
|1. I will go to the concert, but ________ you go as well. |
2. I brought along a sandwich, ________ I get hungry.
3. ________ she calls me, I feel very happy like children.
4. Take this photo, ________ you can remember me.
5. I will not talk to him ________ he apologizes for what he did.
6. I’ll find you, ________ you are.
7. She spoke ________ she knew what she was talking about, but she didn’t.
8. ________ the police arrived, we had to end the party.
9. I couldn’t figure out ________ he spoke so rudely when I took her pen mistakenly.
10. I bought you a birthday card ________ I like you more than I can say.
|(however, although, so, while, before, in case, otherwise, because, when, if, thus, so that)|
|1. Karen is rich; ___, her cousin Kate is poor. |
2. You’d better take a taxi. ___, you’ll arrive late.
3. I enjoy reading this new magazine ___ it has good articles.
4. Jack wasn’t tired. ___, he took a nap before the match on TV.
5. ______Phil was not thirsty, he drank five glasses of water after dinner.
6. The kids didn’t study. ___, they failed the course.
7. _____ it began to rain, we decided to stop the game.
8. You must buy the tickets immediately _____ we want to see that play.
9. The neighborhood isn’t very interesting _____ I am not going to rent the house.
10. We had lived in the same building for a year_____ we met by chance..
|(so that, in case, as if , because, when, Therefore, besides, but, though, because, unless, if,)|
|1. He didn’t earn enough money. ___, his wife decided to get a job. |
2. That house isn’t big enough for us, and ___, it’s too expensive.
3. We don’t have plenty of money and workers; ___, we hope to finish the house remodeling soon.
4. She’s extremely rich _____ she’s got a very rich father.
5. It was a windy and rainy that night ___ I decided to go out.
6. ________ it was raining, I didn’t get wet so much.
7. Jerry worked hard to pass the exam ________he didn’t want to retake it again.
8 ________ Mei Li speaks English, she can’t go to university in Canada.
9. I will be late today ________ my car does not break down again.
10. Paula got the job ________ she was able to look after her family.
|(until, while, though, because, since, after, even if, as, that, in order to)|
|1. You could go and play _____ you have done your homework. |
2. Roger went swimming ______ it was raining hard.
3. He is fat ______ he eats a lot of chocolate.
4. She hasn’t seen her son ______ he was a little boy.
5. Tom went to the doctor yesterday ______ he was ill.
6. You stay home and wait ________ the rain stops completely.
7. Susan likes to eat dinner ________ returning home from school.
8. Steve told her _______ he loved her very much.
9. Henry went to the shop ________ buy some tomatoes for breakfast.
10. I will go on my holiday ____________ you forbid me.
|(so as to, in case, because, in order to, if, yet, although, therefore, while, and, in order to)|
|1. I’m going to go shopping on Sunday ___ buy some new clothes. |
2. I’ve just eaten dinner _____ I was not hungry.
3. Why don’t you ring Sue ______ find out what time she’s coming over tonight?
4. Don’t tell John about his birthday party ______ you spoil the surprise.
5. I have been saving my money this year______ I’m planning to take a long holiday in Europe.
6. Secretary to Boss: _____ you don’t want anything else, can I go home now?
7. I love to travel _____ I hate travelling by bus.
8. I’m bored! Let’s go out to dinner _________ see a movie.
9. I like living in the city ________ my brother prefers living in the country.
10. Betty’s just got a promotion at work ______ she’s very happy.
|(so, otherwise, that, when, but, since, as, now that, thus, That’s why, while, when)|
|1. Father to Son: You’re thirty now. Don’t you think it’s time ____ you settled down and got married? |
2. Tom got a great Christmas bonus from work this year ____ he and his family can have a good vacation this year.
3. It’s late. You should go to bed now. ______, you’ll be tired tomorrow.
4. ______the taxi stopped at the train station, two men got out of it.
5. ______ I was in the area I thought I’d drop in and say hello.
6. I really hate to have to sell my car ______ I need the money urgently.
7. My friend sprained his ankle _____ he fell down the stairs.
8. The department store closed at six o’clock _____ everyone had gone home.
9. I won’t be home for Christmas ______ I will have to work then, too.
10. Julia was very angry with Tom _____ she went for a long walk to cool down .
|(or, so that, because, in order to, so, when, after, despite, if, even so, in case, by the time)|
|1. Can you stop at the shop _____ get some milk on your way home from work? |
2. _____ you are not busy this weekend, I need some help moving to my new house.
3. You’ve been working hard in the garden all day______ I’ll bring you a nice cold drink
4. Nobody was home _____ I rang Jenny, so I left a message for her.
5. I’ve been dieting _____ I’m not losing any weight nowadays.
6. Will you eat that last chocolate biscuit _____ will you leave it for me?
7. It’s raining. Wear your raincoat _______ you don’t get wet.
8. I’m sorry I missed your birthday party Alan, _______ my car broke down and it took me hours to walk to a phone.
9. His parents bought him a new car _____ Bill graduated in his class at University.
10. We were not very late this morning ________ a traffic jam on the freeway.
1) ( if, until, so that, whereas, as if, unless, so that, as though, so that, although)
2) (unless, as if, although, if, while, as long as, as though, until, although, in order that)
3) (so that, in case, in order that, when, since, although, so that, despite, because, when)
4) (since, if, but, so, now that, when, since, as, thus, for this reason)
5) (when, though, until, unless, but, since, because, but, so, although)
6) (Unless, due to, unless, so, because, where, although, if, though, provided that)
7) (so, though, until, because, although, since, however, unless, so that, while)
8) (but, unless, however, although, when, therefore, because, while, yet, despite)
9 (if, in case, whenever, so that, unless, wherever, as if, when, why, because, but,)
10) (while, otherwise, because, however, although, so, when, if, thus, before, in case, so that)
11) (Therefore, besides, but, because, when, though, because, unless, if, so that, in case, as if)
12) (after, though, because, since, as, until, while, that, in order to, even if)
13) (in order to, although, so as to, in case, because, if, yet, and, while, therefore)
14) (that, so, otherwise, when, since, but, when, as, now that, thus)
15) (in order to, if, so, when, even so, or, so that, because, after, despite)