YDS Dil bilgisi notları



  • Virgülden sonra that kullanılmaz (non-defining relative clause)
  • Preposition (edat) dan sonra that kullanılmaz. ( on that – at that – during that)
  • all, everything, something, anything, nothing, none, little, few, much dan sonra that kullanılır.
  • There’s something that you should know.
  • Superlative lerden sonra that kullanılır.
  • It was the best film that I’ve ever seen.


Why                            yanlarında fiil kullanılmaz.



Of whom yanına fiil alır.

  • What soluna isim almaz. İsim what ın içinde gizlidir



            Most                                                   whom


Noun +            All                               of      +              which


            Neither                                                           whose




However + sıfat

However + zarf

No matter + soru sözcüğü

  • No matter how hard you try, you will not eant a lot of money in a very short time.
  • However hard we worked, we could never save enough.
  • However weak we are, however difficult the circumstances, however little hope there seems, God will be with us.
  • However much people have criticised her style and some of her policies no one will gainsay her courage.

By the time + simple present /present perfect                          +  will + v1

                                                                                    + will be Ving

                                                                                    + will have V3

                                                                                    + will have been Ving

By the time + simple past                                           + had V3

                                                                                   + had been Ving

  • By the time he finished, I had cooked dinner.
  • We will have finished our homework by the time they arrive.
  • By the time the experts reached the area the animals had disappeared.
  • By the time they realize that anthrax is the cause of their unexplained illnesses and fatalities, many of the people exposed will be as good as dead.
  • He will be 24 by the time he has finished school.
  • We will have finished our homework by the time they arrive.



Inasmuch as

Insomuch as                     + cümle    , cümle

Seeing that

Now that


  • Inasmuch as the product is quickly cooled below the temperature at which bacterial, mold and yeast growth occur, decomposition during the freezing is prevented.
  • Disability can make extra demands on financial resources because the disabled need extra care.
  • Since these substances are not licensed, they cannot be sold in the continental United States.
  • The manager of the company reportedly called in the police because the employees had started to destroy the company’s equipment.

                       Because cümle başında neden belirtmek için de kullanılır.

            The scientist could’t compare the two groups properly. Because, there were many participants in the first group  excluded from the study due to their deaths.

Cümle , for cümle   (Çünkü)

  • He had a great desire to have a home of his own , for he had always lived with my grandmother.

As opposed to                        isimUnlike

Contrary to                             Ving       ,    cümle

In contrast with / to

  • Unlike any other type of cell, embryonic stem cells have the capacity to develop into any type of tissue in the body.
  • We ate in the restaurant, as opposed to the bistro.
  • In contrast to the limitations of sensory and short-term storage, long-term memory is indefinite; much of it lasts a lifetime.
  • Contrary to popular belief, women cause fewer road accidents than men.

Cümle ;     on the contrary  ,                  cümle

                   in contrast,


                  on the other hand,

  • It is not an idea around which the Community can unite. On the contrary, I see it as one that will divide us.
  • On the one hand, if the body doesn’t have enough cholesterol, we would not be able to survive. On the other hand, if the body has too much cholesterol, the excess begins to line the arteries.




Treat                                as if / as though




  • The unsubstantial story was as if she were retelling a dream.
  • For example, although tropical forests may look as though they are lush, they are actually highly susceptible to destruction.

Wish   + simple past                                      Present

               Modal V1

Wish + past perfect                                                                        FARAZİ

             Modal  have  v3                           Past


            I wish she’d stop bragging about how rich her parents are.

            Wish ten önceki ve sonraki özne aynı ise would kullanılmaz. (gramer polisleri)

Be used to

Get used to

Be accustomed to

Get accustomed to

Look  forward to

Be opposed to

Object to

Feel like

Can’t help                                                                                          +     Ving

Can’t stand

Can’t bear

It is no use

It is no good

It is worth

In the habit of

There is no point in

Feel like

It is a waste of time/money

To have difficulty / trouble /problems

To have a hard time / a-an bad-good-hard/ enjoyable time

  • It is no good complaining all the time.
  • There was no point in staying any longer.
  • Some people still object to teaching children about sex in public schools.
  • People who have trouble falling or staying asleep may be more likely to die sooner from natural causes compared to those who sleep well.

Of all


Of these

One of the…

Have/has ever V3                       + superlative

In the world vb

By far

  • Insects are among the most fascinating animals on earth.
  • We’ve had some pretty good directors over the years but Dr. Radcliff is by far the most capable of them.
  • Japanese people are among the healthiest in the world, and one of the reasons for this is their diet.
  • Of all speech impediments stammering is probably the most embarrassing.

Though                                                   zıtlık bildirir. … e rağmen, ….. se….de, se….da

Even though


Much though

Much as                                                     cümle    ,    cümle

Sıfat- zarf+as

Sıfat-zarf +though


  • Although Darwin was not the first evolutionist, modern evolutionary biology begins with him.
  • The rainforest contains more than half of Earth’s plant and animal species, even though rain forests cover only about 6% of the earth’s surface.
  • Much as I would like to I can´t go.
  • Though cümlenin diğerlerinden farklı olarakta cümlenin heryerinde (başta, sonda, ortada) kullanılabilir.
  • Though the United States has spent billions of dollars on foreign aid programs, it has captured neither the affection nor esteem of the rest of the world.
  • Though the cold weather, they went out.
  • It’s a beautiful, though unimaginative, building.
  • It’s often believed that the birthplace of chess is China, though it is not.

In addition to                                   yanı sıra, ek olarak

As well as

Along with                                 + isim (öbeği)

Apart from                                  Ving


  • Today, in contrast, many Negroes have achieved outstanding success in the arts and sciences as well as in the business and professional world.
  • Apart from hydro-electricity, there are several other non-depletable energy sources in use such as wind turbines and solar heating.
  • Besides those who directly lost money in this week’s fall, investors in Europe have good reason to be wary of continental Europe’s banking sector.
  • Besides aynı zamanda cümleleri bağlamak içinde kullanılabilir.
  • Another species of mosquito was found to spread the disease called malaria. Malaria isn’t as dramatic as yellow fever. It isn’t as rapid a killer. Besides, there is a drug, quinine (obtained from the bark of a South American tree), that, for centuries now, has been known to control the disease.
  • Boys were found to be much more likely to prefer kinaesthetic learning; besides, during the course of a week, children often had fewer opportunities to learn kinaesthetically.

Because of                                  … ın yüzünden, ….den dolayı

On account of

As a result of                               + isim (öbeği)

As a consequense of                       Ving

Due to

Owing to

Many children fail to take advantage of the present facilities for higher education because of economic stress in the family.

  • Due to the devastation of the forests on a large scale, the authorities will take all the necessary precautions on the matter.
  • Owing to a substantial increase in oil prices in the 1980’s, the Turkish economy was under a severe strain until the mid 1990’s.
  • Amazon basin has always attracted businessmen on account of its valuable and rich resources such as rubber, coffee and cocoa.
  • Older drivers are more likely to be seriously injured because of the fragility of their bones.
  • A lot of people are hospitalized as a result of accidents on roads and this puts a great strain on health resources.

Not only … but also      tekil / çoğul

Niether … nor             tekil / çoğul

Either… or                  tekil / çoğul

Both… and                    çoğul fiil

  • What is great about DNA is that not only can it tell the identity of a person, but it can also give information about four thousand genetic conditions and diseases.
  • It’s no longer news that stress can take its toll on both your physical and mental health.
  • Many people today either don’t have the money or time to give help to poor people.
  • Electrical cords are usually made with both conductors and insulators.
  • Both Leonardo and Michelangelo were Florentines, near contemporaries, and undeniable geniuses.

No sooner… had v3 … than cümle

Scarcely … had v3 ….. when

Hardly…… had v3 …. When

Barely … had v3 …. when

  • No sooner had I gone out than the bomb exploded.
  • He’d no sooner begun to speak than the lights went out.

Would rather   V1   than   v1

I would rather drink coffee than drink tea

Would rather   subject V2  than V2

I would rather you told the truth than told lie.

Would rather  have   V3   than   have V3   (past)

I would rather have stayed in Turkey than have gone abroad last year.

Would prefer to  V1   than   to V1

I would prefer to learn English than to learn German.

Would prefer subject   to V1 to V1

I prefer tea to coffee.

I prefer dancing to swimming.

Via                                                   … sayesinde, …ın yardımı ile, … yoluyla


By means of                                     + isim (öbeği)

Thanks to                                            Ving

With the help / aid of

  • Thanks to recent research, effective treatments are available.
  • The brain receives and sends information by means of nerves, many of which lie partly in the spinal cord.
  • The cells of the human body convert food to energy through the process of oxidation.
  • Our brains have been processing sophisticated information via our senses for millions of years.
  • The polio vaccine, kidney transplants, and heart surgery techniques have all been developed with the help of animal research.



Until                                  Bu yapıların bulunduğu yan cümlelerde continuous tense

Since                                  kullanılmaz.

As soon as

By the time

  • Antibodies are never produced naturally until our body is attacked by bacteria.
  • Before the computer was invented in 1822, people were performing boring, repetitive tasks that we now take for granted.

A number of + çoğul fiil

The number of + tekil fiil

A great deal of + sayılamayan isim

A big/small amount of + sayılamayan isim

A small/big quantity of + sayılamayan isim

So far

Up to now

Till now

Up until know

By now                                                      Genelde prefect tense ile kullanılırlar.




As yet

Thus far

  • Certain records have come to light recently, which suggest that it was the Chinese who discovered America.
  • Scientists haven’t found an effective cure for AIDS so far.
  • Hitherto, the main emphasis has been on the need to resist aggression.

Have / get something done

Have somebody do smt

Get somebody to do smt

Make somebody do smt

Let somebody do smt

Help somebody (to) v1

allow, assist,  compel, convince,  employ,  encourage, force, hire, motivate, permit, require


                                                           to v1

So as to

In order to

To                                                      +   verb 1 – cümle gelmez

In an effort to

In an attempt to

  • In order to understand why computers are important, we have to understand what a computer is and what it does.
  • In their attempt to overcome the anti-social effects of modern architecture, architects have directed their attention to more informal settlements.
  • Euthanasia, practice of ending a life so as to release an individual from an incurable disease or intolerable suffering, also called “mercy killing”.
  • The market is highly fragmented in an effort to cater to the numerous different customer groups.





Fear                                                bu isimler yanlarına that almayı severler.







Interesting                                         kendilerinden sonra that almayı severler.


A shame




  • The assumption that the elimination of economic and social grievances may help the prevention of war leads us naturally to the idea that we must try to solve these problems as soon as possible.
  • The belief that everyone must sleep 8 hours a night is a myth.
  • Her main contention is that staff should get better training.
  • Many people dispute the claim that Columbus discovered America and insist that that was done by a Viking explorer.



Depend on

Remember                             yanlarına whether  /that/ soru kelimeleri (noun clause) almayı severler.




  • Numerous legends have tried to explain why human nature is not perfect and why people die.
  • Scientists have long wondered which parts of the brain are involved in musical tasks.
  • When economists try to explain why the Internet is more popular in one country than another, they usually point to factors such as the number of PCs, telephone lines or average years of schooling.

Than that of

Than those of

  • His salary as a bus driver is much higher than that of a teacher
  • Most of the highways in Germany are wider than those in the Balkan countries.
  • Turkey is not only trying to be a part of EU. It is trying to have laws in accordance with those of international for the sake of its people too.

Too+ sıfat+ to

Sıfat +enough +to

Enough +isim

  • He is too short to play basketball.
  • She is old enough to marry.
  • Rural ozone pollution in China is high enough to threaten agriculture there.
  • We have not enough time to play football.
  • The opposition now seems too weak to stage any serious protests against the government.

I like coffee.

So do I.

I don’t like coffee.

Neither do I.

Nor do I.

I don’t like coffee.

I don’t like coffee either. / I don’t either.

I like coffee.

I like coffee too.

in that   : Şu açıdan ki…

  • Mammals differ from other vertebrates in that they have bodies that are covered with hair at some period of their lives.
  • English has an advantage over languages in that it has become a commercial language all over the world.
  • Petroleum differs from coal in that coal retains within itself visible evidence of the kind of material from which it was formed, and petroleum does not.

everyone      someone      anyone      no one

everybody    somebody     anybody    nobody                Kendilerinden sonra tekil fiil alırlar.

everything    something     anything    nothing

At the time  —————– past

If only ———————– past

YAN CÜMLE                                   ,                      TEMEL CÜMLE




Since               SVO                                                              SVO

Whereas          CÜMLE                      ,                                 CÜMLE




As long as

  • Although he was seen to be an aggressive politician, he was a quiet and loving family man at home.
  • Since life began eons ago, thousands of creatures have come and gone.
  • While there are few delays for chemotherapy, waits for radiotherapy have lengthened over the past few years.

TEMEL CÜMLE                                                        YAN CÜMLE



As long as


SV(O)                                                 Unless                   SV(O)


As long as



In case

  • Photosynthesis cannot take place unless light has access to the leaves.
  • Women have been playing football as long as the game has existed.

This time next year  I ­­_____ English.

  1. Will teach
  2. Will be teaching ***

This time next year I _____ for five years.

  1. Will be teaching
  2. Will have been teaching ***
  • I’ll buyhim a present in return for his help. (in reply to / in respond to)

On the point of

On the brink of

On the cliff of                                        Ving   (… mek üzere / …nın eşiğinde)

On the edge of

On the verge of

  • The country is on the point of making a major decision about its future.
  • The recovery of private industries which were on the verge of bankruptcy was the main issue for the new government.
  • The country seems almost on the brink of civil war as fighting intensifies between government troops and rebel forces.

I _____ him before.

  1. Haven’t seen ***
  2. Didn’t see

I _____ him before last Christmas.

  1. Have seen
  2. Saw ***

Instead of smt                      yerine

On behalf of smb

  • The assistant lectured on behalf of the professor.
  • Light colors reflect heat, but dark colors absorb heat instead of throwing it back.

You can pass the exam           only if                         you study.

                                               provided that

                                               providing that

                                               as long as

                                               so long as

                                               on condition that

  • Women have been playing football as long as the game has existed.
  • You can stay here on condition that you look after the animals and the garden.
  • A patient has the right to refuse to give consent to treatment, provided that the patient is able to exercise his judgement clearly and freely.

If   =     provided that

            Providing that

            Supposed that                           şartıyla

            Supposing that

            Assuming that

            On condition that

  • Provided that the conditions are appropriate, each living organism will be able to multiply and spread.
  • You can stay here on condition that you look after the animals and the garden.



As regards               …e ilişkin

With regard to


  • Most of our knowledge regarding the structure of the earth has been from the study of rocks.
  • As regards the development of moral standards in the growing child, consistency is very important in parental teaching.
  • Concerning the question of capital punishment, the U.S. and its allies stand on opposite sides of a great divide.

In terms of:              itibariyle, bakımından

With respect to:       …e göre (kıyaslamada)

According to:           …e göre (görüş belirtirken)

İn addition to:          …e ilaveten

  • The amount of air pollution over the cities in the inner parts of the country is of great importance in terms of human health.
  • People who learn longer live longer according to a study of links between health and education among adults.
  • The report arranged with respect to the factors affecting the development of the under develop countries is of great importance in many respects.

Since  =   1. için ( because , as )      2.  …den beri

  • Since most of the members were absent the meeting were delayed.
  • Since nearly all drugs and medications can cause fetal damage or malformations it is important for pregnant women to avoid them as much as possible.
  • Since we were in the computer lab, our English has improved.
  • Since life began eons ago, thousands of creatures have come and gone.
  • Since the great oil crisis of the 1970s, the International Energy Agency has encouraged and supported research carried out to discover alternative energy sources.

While =  1. iken  (zaman)                  2. karşıt, rağmen, oysa ( = whereas)

  • The majority will of the people rules in a democracy, while in a dictatorship, power is in the hands of a single person.
  • Boys who play video games on school days spend 30% less time reading, while girls spend 34% less time doing homework if they play video games.
  • In recent years, the number of students applying to Ph.D. programs has increased steadily, while the number of places available has remained constant.
  • I normally look after the children while she is practising.

As = 1. iken,dikçe (zaman)                2. çünkü, için ( = since, because)

  • As he didn’t bring the money, he didn’t get the book.
  • As she reached the age of thirty she became convinced she would remain single all her life.
  • As they were investigating molecular electronics, they started seeing hints of an unexpected effect in their experiments.
  • As the can is opened, the content heat automatically.
  • Health spending tends to rise disproportionately as countries become richer; but even adjusting for this, America is a case apart.
  • As the deadline approached she experienced a bewildering array of emotions.
  • As the plants grow and start to bear fruit they will need a lot of water

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