YDS Kapsamlı Ders Notları

 

BASİT TÜMCE

  1. TÜMCE

Normal koşullarda (yani, devrik yapı vs. bulunmayan durumlarda) en yalın şekli ile tümce iki unsurdan oluşur:

Özne + Yüklem / (Subject) + (Verb)

Türkçede özne çoğu zaman yüklemin sonuna bir “kişi eki” olarak eklenebildiği için açıkça kullanılmasına gerek kalmayabilir.

(Ben) geldim. / (Sen) nasılsın ?

İngilizcede böyle birşey – çok sınırlı da olsa bazı konuşma durumları dışında – söz konusu olamaz.

* (I) came. / * How are (you) ?

Çoğu zaman basit tümcede bir ya da daha fazla nesne / tümleç de bulunur.

1.1. Subject + verb

Türkçe bir basit tümcede şu yapı her zaman için geçerlidir.

ÖZNE + YÜKLEM

Mehmet   öğretti.

İngilizce bir basit tümcede de, nesne bulunmadığı durumlarda, bir farklılık görülmez.

SUBJECT + VERB

Mehmet  taught

1.2. Subject + verb + object

Türkçe bir tümceye nesne eklendiği zaman, sıralama şöyle olur:

ÖZNE + NESNE + YÜKLEM

Mehmet  oğluna  öğretti

İngilizce bir tümceye nesne eklendiği zaman, Türkçe tümce yapı ile arasındaki ilk temel fark ortaya çıkar.

SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT

Mehmet  taught his son.

  1. BASİT TÜMCELERİN ÇEVİRİSİ

2.1. Subject + verb

Türkçe ve İngilizce basit tümce yapıları sadece özne ve yüklem söz konusu olduğunda bir farklılık göstermediği için, çeviri konusunda yapı açısından bir sorun çıkmamaktadır.

ÖZNE + YÜKLEM

Mehmet  geldi.

Mehmet  came./has come.

SUBJECT + VERB

2.2. Subject + verb + object

Nesne söz konusu olduğunda Türkçe ve İngilizce basit tümce yapıları birbirinden farklı olduğu için, çeviri işlemi sırasında da tümceyi oluşturan unsurların dizilişinde değişiklik yapmak gerekecektir.

ÖZNE + NESNE + YÜKLEM

Mehmet  bacağını kırdı.

Mehmet  broke his leg.

SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT

Bu tümcelere yer, zaman ve durum belirten sözcük ve yapıların da eklenmesi durumunda her iki dil arasındaki yapısal farklılıklar iyice belirginleşecektir.

Basit tümcelerin yapısı konusu çeviri açısından – kolay göründüğü için – önemsenmeyebilir. Ancak,

SVO (İngilizce) / SOV (Türkçe)

yapısının, karmaşık tümcelerin çevirisini yaparken sürekli göz önünde tutulması gerekecektir. Bu konu ileri konularda ayrıntılı olarak ele alınmakta.

 

SUBORDINATION

  1. TANIM

İngilizcede ve Türkçede tümceler birbirlerine basit bağlaçlarla bağlanabildikleri gibi, çeşitli tamlamalar yapılarak da bağlanabilirler. Bu yapılar İngilizcede Clause Sentence, Super Structure gibi adlar alır.

Ana fikri taşıyan ve mutlaka tam bir yargı oluşturan tümceye “Baş / Ana Tümce” (= Main Clause), her türden diğer bileşene ise “İkincil / Yan Tümce” (= Secondary / Subordinate Clause) denilmektedir.

When I met him, he was in the army.

Yan tümce     Ana tümce

  1. ÇEVİRİ İŞLEMİ

Tümce içindeki görevleri “özne” [1] ya da “nesne” [2] yerine geçmek olduğunda ikincil tümceler basit tümce yapısının özne ya da nesneleri olarak kabul edilebilir ve Türkçeye rahatlıkla aktarılabilirler. Relative Clause ve Noun Clause bu tür yapılardır.

The sentence (that) I am reading is a complex clause sentence. [1] (Relative Clause)

They say that it is easy to make a noun clause. [2] (Noun Clause)

Comparison Clause ve Adverbial Clause yapılarda ise bir tümcecik / yan tümce + ana tümce durumu söz konusudur ve çeviri işlemini de buna göre yapmak gerekecektir. Bu durum biri Noun Clause [1] diğeri ise Adverbial Clause [2] olan iki tümcenin çevirisi ile açıklanırsa:

Tom claims that the a child stole his vallet. [1]

tümcesinde,

Tom claims (that) a child stole his vallet.

şeklinde bir yapı mevcuttur.

İngilizce bir basit tümce (S + V + O) Türkçeye S + O + V (Ö+ N+ Y) şeklinde aktarılabileceğine göre, önce kendi içinde bir basit tümce yapısı taşıyan “nesne” Türkçeye çevrilirse:

.. (that ) a child stole his vallet.

.. bir çocuğun cüzdanını çaldığını

Bu nesne tüm tümceye eklendiğinde,

Tom claims that a child stole his vallet.

Tom bir çocuğun cüzdanını çaldığını iddia ediyor

çevirisi ortaya çıkacaktır.

Oysa bir adverbial clause olan

Because he was late, he missed the bus.

tümcesi incelendiğinde ise,

Because he was late,  he missed the bus

Yan tümce                Ana tümce

yapısı ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu durumda da çeviri işlemi,

Because he was late, he missed the bus.

(O) geç kaldığı için (o) otobüsü kaçırdı.

şeklinde olacaktır.

RELATIVE CLAUSE

  1. TANIM

Relative Clause yapı bir ad ve o adı niteleyip ada genelde who, which, that, where, .. gibi sözcüklerle bağlanan bir nitelikten oluşur:

The ring that/which was stolen has finally been found.

Türkçede bu tür bir yapı, İngilizcenin aksine, önce nitelik, sonra da nitelenen ad şeklinde yapılmaktadır:

Çalınan yüzük sonunda bulundu.
Nitelik   Ad

Bu örnekten de anlaşılacağı gibi, çeviri yaparken nitelik ile adın yerlerini değiştirmek gerekmektedir. Türkçede ayrıca yükleme “-En” ya da “-DIğI” eklenir.

  1. DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

2.1. who/which/that

Nesne adları için which ya da that kullanılır.

Tom didn’t like the computer which they recommended.

   Tom, önerdikleri bilgisayarı beğenmedi.

Kişi adları için ise who ya da that kullanılır.

The man who killed the leader is being questioned.

   

 

Peter does not know the name of the man ….. borrowed his bicycle yesterday.

  1. whose
    B. which
    C. whom
    D. who
    E. of whom

Bağlayan sözcüğün (who, which, ..) hemen arkasından bir yüklem gelmesi durumunda bağlayan sözcüğün kullanılması zorunludur.

The car which was parked there was towed away.

   

Bağlayan sözcüğün (who, which, ..) hemen arkasından bir yüklem gelmemesi durumunda (ad + [who/which/..] + ad/adıl) bağlayan sözcüğün kullanılması zorunlu değildir.

The man my sister loves is an engineer.

Ad +    Ad

   

İngilizcede kimi yüklemler ve sıfatlar bir preposition ile birlikte kullanılırlar (look at, listen to gibi). Bir Relative Clause yapıda bu türden bir preposition olması durumunda yüklem ya da sıfata ait preposition who / which sözcüğünün hemen önüne alınabilir.

He didn’t tell me who he shouted at.

He didn’t tell me at whom he shouted.

   

 

The game ….. I am interested is called water-polo.

  1. in which
    B. with which
    C. which
    D. whose
    E. that

Bu yapıda prepositiondan sonra kesinlikle that kullanılamaz. Who yerine de whom kullanılır.

All that … yapısında “-En/DIğI herşey” anlamı vardır. Dikkat edilmesi gereken nokta, kimi zaman iki yüklemin birbiri ardına gelmesidir.

All (that) I own is yours.

   

I will give you all you want.

   

None /All / .. (of) those / the people /.. .. who /whom /.. yapısı “-EnlErIn tümü / hepsi / ..” anlamını taşır.

All those who want a ticket should go to the entrance

   

anything / nothing /.. to + yüklem yapısı aslında anything / nothing /.. which someone can / will / .. + yüklem yapısıdır.

I can’t find anything to say. (= anything I can say.)

   

Relative Clause yapılarda what sözcüğü de – the thing which anlamında – kullanılabilir.

The gained first position in what is the most important competition of the year.

   

The man ….. wife died a year ago is in a hopeless mood.

  1. who
    B. that
    C. of whom
    D. which
    E. whose

2.2. Ving clause

Bu tür tümceler who/which ile yapılan tümcenin bir tür kısaltması niteliğindedir. Örneğin,

I like the girl (who is) studying over there.

   

Bu yapıda genelde yükleme continuous anlam yüklenir. Bu nedenle de, örneğin,

* The boy bringing the milk has been sick in bed for some time,

tümcesi yanlıştır. Buradaki mantıksızlık, oğlanın hem sütü getiriyor olması (The boy [who is ] bringing) hem de bir süredir hasta yatıyor olmasıdır. Bu tümce,

The boy who brings the milk has been ill for some time,

   

şeklinde düzeltilebilir.

People ….. in flats above the second floor complain about water problem.

  1. live
    B. lived
    C. living
    D. have lived
    E. have to live

2.3. Past Participle (=V3) Clause

Bu yapıda adı izleyen ve past participle durumda kullanılan yüklem, edilgen (= passive) özellik taşımaktadır.

The purse (which was) lost has not been found yet.

   

 

Soldiers ….. at the battlefield were all taken to the nearest hospital tent.

  1. to wound
    B. wounded
    C. wounding
    D. who wounded
    E. whose wound

2.4. Prepositional Phrases

.. the man who is waiting over there.

.. the man waiting over there. ¿

…the man over there. ¿

Bu yapı çeviri açısından bir sorun oluşturmaz.

2.5. Cleft Tümce

Tümcenin belirli bir parçasını vurgulamak gerektiği zaman, Türkçede vurgulanacak bölüm yükleme yaklaştırılmaktadır. İngilizcede bunun yazı dilinde yolu vurgulanacak bölümün altını çizmek ya da o bölümü yatık harflerle yazmak, ya da bazı yapılar için devrik yapı kullanmak; konuşma dilinde ise sesin yükselmesi ile vurguyu belli etmektir.

Relative Clause özelliği taşıyan cleft tümce, vurguyu sağlamanın bir diğer yoludur. İki tür cleft tümceden söz edilebilir.

  1. a) It is/was/.. who/that..

My mother threw an egg at the President yesterday.

It was my mother who threw an egg at the President yesterday.

   

It was an egg that my mother threw at the President yesterday.

   

It was at the President that my mother threw an egg yesterday.

   

It was yesterday that my mother threw an egg at the President.

   
  1. b) What … is / was

What my mother threw at the President was an egg.

   

My left leg hurts. ® What hurts is my left leg.

   

I like her charm. ® What I like in her is her charm.

   
  1. NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

Bu yapıda kesinlikle that kullanılmaz. Tamlayan bölüm bir tür fazladan bilgi verir konumdadır ve bu yüzden de ana tümceden virgül yolu ile ayrılmaktadır. Non-defining relative clause bu özelliğinden ötürü Extra Information Clause olarak da tanınır.

3.1. , who(m) / which

John, whom you know well, is totaly crazy

tümcesinde

whom you know well

bölümü, aynı Defining Relative Clause yapılarda olduğu gibi, kendisinden önce gelen adı nitelendirmektedir. Bu nedenle, çeviri esnasında aradaki virgülleri yok saymak yeterli olacaktır.

John whom you know well is totally crazy.
The doctor, who was rather disappointed with the operation results, didn’t know what to tell the patient’s relatives.

  1. Doktor hasta yakınlarına ameliyat sonuçlarından hayal kırıklığına uğradığını ve ne söyleyeceğini bilemediğini söyledi.
    B. Ameliyat sonuçlarından ötürü hayal kırıklığına uğrayan doktor, hasta yakınlarına ne söyleyeceğini bilemedi.
    C. Doktor ameliyat sonuçlarının kendisini hayal kırıklığına uğrattığını söyleyince, hasta yakınları ne diyeceklerini bilemediler.
    D. Doktor oldukça hayal kırıcı ameliyat sonuçları karşısında hasta yakınlarına ne diyeceğini bilemedi.
    E. Doktor, ameliyat sonuçları karşısında hayal kırıklığına uğrayan hasta yakınlarına ne söyleyeceğini bilemedi.

I liked your neighbours, ….. I met at your New Year party.

  1. that
    B. when
    C. where
    D. which
    E. whom

Aristotle, ….. natural science dominated the western thought for centuries, was a Greek philosopher.

  1. that
    B. which
    C. of whom
    D. who
    E. whose

3.2. , where / when

Who, which ve that yerine where ve when sözcüklerini kullanmak da mümkündür. Bu yapı defining relative clause için de geçerlidir.

Edinburgh, where I was born, is a beautiful city.

   

Where / when sözcüklerinin defining ve non-defining relative clause içinde kullanımı:

when / where + tümce

when / where = preposition + which 

I’ll have to go back to the place ….. I probably dropped my keys.

  1. that
    B. when
    C. where
    D. which
    E. whom

3.3. all / none / both / .. of whom / which

He has three sisters, all of whom are students.

tümcesi aynı bir Defining Relative Clause gibi ele alınabilir ve bu şekilde Türkçeye aktarılabilir. Ancak, en iyisi virgülden sonra gelen bölümü ayrı bir tümce halinde aktarmaktır.

Üç kızkardeşi var; üçü de öğrenci.

Bir başka örnek bunun nedenini daha iyi açıklayacaktır.

Tim invested all his money on four companies, three of which went bankrupt in a year.

tümcesi tek bir tümce halinde Türkçeye aktarıldığında ortaya çıkan

* Tim bütün parasını üçü bir sene içinde iflas eden dört şirkete yatırdı,

tümcesi hatalı bir anlam aktarıyor olacaktır, zira, bu durumda Tim üçü zaten iflas etmiş dört şirkete parasını yatırmış olmaktadır. Oysa virgülden sonra gelen bölüm ayrı olarak aktarılırsa,

Tim parasını dört şirkete yatırdı; bunlardan üçü bir sene içinde iflas etti

tümcesi ile anlam tam ve doğru olarak aktarılmış olmaktadır.

Kurt Vonnegut, one of ….. books I had translated, wrote his best novels during the 80’s.

  1. his
    B. those
    C. which
    D. whom
    E. whose

3.4. Sentential Relative Clause

Sentential Relative Clause diğer relative clause yapılardan farklı bir özellik taşımaktadır. Bu nedenle de çeviri esnasında büyük dikkat gösterilmesi gerekir. Defining ve non-defining yapılarda ortak olan nokta tamlayan bölümün kendisinden önce gelen adı nitelendirmesidir.

Sentential Relative Clause yapıda ise tamlanan virgülden önceki tümcenin tümüdür.

He died young, which was a pity.

   

Around 40,000 people bought tickets for the stadium concert, which was more than was expected.

   

The rain has finally stopped, ….. is to say that we can go out now.

  1. that
    B. which
    C. what
    D. this
    E. for which

NOUN CLAUSE

  1. TANIM

Noun Clause bir tür basit tümce olarak ele alınabilir ve çeviri işlemi de buna göre yapılabilir. Tümce ne kadar karmaşık yapıda gözükürse gözüksün, aşağıdaki bölümlerde yer alan örnek tümcelerden de anlaşılacağı gibi, aslında bir S+V+(O) yapısı bulunmaktadır ve bu yapı Türkçeye Ö+(N)+Y şeklinde aktarılır.

Zaman uyumu:

 Ana tümce – Present / Future ise Yan tümce – Present / Future / Past

Ana tümce – Past ise Yan tümce – Past

  1. THAT CLAUSE

2.1. Reported speech

  1. a) Normal tümceler

Ann told me that Tom liked beer.

   Ann bana Tom’un biradan hoşlandığını söyledi.
  1. b) Emir / İstek tümceleri

We told the boys to keep away from the cake.

   

 

Before the start of the final test, we told the students ….. dictionaries or grammar books.

  1. didn’t use
    B. don’t use
    C. not to have used
    D. not to use
    E. not using

2.2. be + that

Be yükleminin ardından, öznenin niteliğini açıklamak için that ile bağlanan bölüm kullanılabilir.

My assumption is that inflation will remain a problem.

   

 2.3. realise / see / .. + that

Bu yapıda notice, realise, understand, see, hear, imagine gibi yüklemlerin ardından that ile başlayarak bu yüklemin nitelediği unsur anlatılmaktadır. Çeviri ya da kullanım açısından diğer Noun Clause yapılardan bir farklılığı yoktur.

I noticed that he was telling the truth.

   

2.4. Ad, that ..

The report, that he will take measurements, justifies me.

   

 

Don’t you think it is significant …..?

  1. in case so many people would have marched in protest
    B. if the resolution had been passed
    C. how quickly they had cancelled all the flights
    D. whether they were re-elected
    E. that 26 people have resigned since Mr Fairfax was appointed manager

I doubt ….. she will pass the test.

  1. as
    B. how
    C. that
    D. when
    E. why

2.5. That …

That the budget deficit will increase is obvious

türü bir tümce çeviri açısından sorun oluşturabilmektedir. Bunun nedeni de tümcenin başındaki That sözcüğüne aldanılıp “Bu …” ile çeviriye başlanmasıdır. Böyle bir çeviri, yukarıdaki örnek tümce açısından, iki yönden yanlıştır.

Birincisi, That sözcüğü that book / pen / man gibi yapılarda olduğu gibi kendisinden sonra gelen adı niteliyor olsa, bu durumda örnek tümcedeki the sözcüğünün kullanılmaması gerekirdi. İkincisi, tümce “Bu” sözcüğü ile başlanarak aktarılacak ise bu durumda tümce incelendiğinde,

That the budget deficit will increase is obvious
S                                        V       ?

durumu ortaya çıkacaktır. Yani tümcenin sonunda yer alan is obvious bölümü ortada kalacaktır.

Bu tür tümceler

That the budget deficit will increase is obvious (S( THAT +S+V+O) + V + O)

 

yapısı taşımaktadır ve tümcenin başındaki That Türkçeye “yüklem + -DIğI / -EcEğI” şeklinde aktarılır.

Bütçe açığının artacağı ortada(dır).

That ile başlayan tümceler It … that … yapısı ile de oluşturulabilir.

It is obvious that the budget deficit will increase.

  1. WH CLAUSE

Who(m/se), which, where, when, why, how (much / many / far / tall / .. ) gibi yapıların kullanıldığı tümcelerdir.

….. how they can expect to make any profit at all.

  1. We were puzzled
    B. They didn’t assume
    C. I don’t see
    D. It has already been
    E. They had been denied

3.1. Reported Speech

Konuşan kişinin sorularının aktarımıdır.

Peter asked where they had put the box.

   

 3.2. WH .. + be + (WH ..)

Why he didn’t call the police is a mystery.

   

What I gave Tom was not what he wanted from me.

   

3.3. be + WH

Be yükleminin ardından, öznenin niteliğini açıklamak için WH ile bağlanan bölüm kullanılabilir.

The problem is how the children find the way.

   

3.4. realise/see/.. + WH

Bu yapıda notice, realise, understand, see, hear, imagine gibi yüklemlerin ardından WH ile başlayarak bu yüklemin nitelediği unsur anlatılmaktadır. Çeviri ya da kullanım açısından diğer Noun Clause yapılardan bir farklılığı yoktur.

His wife cannot understand why Peter refused the offer.

   

3.5. Ad, WH

Your question, why Max didn’t tell it, is interesting.

   

3.6. WH + to

WH sözcüğünü izleyen bölümde should ya da ought to kullanılması durumunda bu yapı,

WH + to

olarak kısaltılabilir.

I don’t know where I should go / to go.

   

 

It is surprising ……

  1. so that his chilhood was not spent very profitably
    B. that she had given in her resignation so suddenly
    C. where such accurate and detailed information had come from
    D. how much attention even the more serious newspaper will have given him.
    E. how few people have ever seen an original Van Gogh painting.
  2. YES/NO CLAUSE

4.1. Reported Speech

Konuşan kişinin bir soru sözcüğü (WH) kullanmadan oluşturduğu soruların aktarılmasıdır.

My lawyer asked me if / whether I had sent the form.

   

 

….. whether estimating future manpower requirements is definitely desirable.

  1. From the ongoing discussion, it is not obvious
    B. We were extremely concerned
    C. The manager wondered
    D. It had been under discussion for a long time
    E. The committee was asked

4.2. whether to

Whether sözcüğünü izleyen bölümde should ya da ought to kullanılması durumunda bu yapı,

whether to

olarak kısaltılabilir.

The boss doesn’t know whether he should believe his excuse / to believe his excuse

   

4.3. If ve whether farkı

Kullanım açısından if ve whether çeşitli farklılıklar gösterirler. Whether daha geniş bir kullanım alanına sahiptir.

  1. a) Whether + tümce + V + (O) yapısında if kullanılmaması önerilir.

Whether he would pass the test was doubtful.

   
  1. b) be + whether yapısında if kullanılmaz.

My problem is whether I will get a pay rise.

   
  1. c) preposition + whether yapısında if kullanılmaz.

Everything depends on whether they will come on time.

   
  1. d) .., whether yapısında if kullanılmaz.

You have yet to answer my question, whether I can count on your vote.

   
  1. e) whether + to yapısında if kullanılmaz.

I don’t know whether to stay.

   
  1. f) whether or not yapısında if kullanılmaz.

He didn’t tell us whether or not he will be staying with us.

   
  1. EXCLAMATIVE CLAUSE

He didn’t know what a great chance he had missed.

   

It is incredible how fast he can run.

   

 

Bu yapı kimi zaman iki ayrı anlam taşıyabilir ve doğru anlamın çıkarılması için tümcenin geçtiği metnin içeriğine bakılması gerekebilir.

I told her how late she was.

(a) Ona ne kadar geciktiğini söyledim [saatten haber verdim].

(b) Ona ne kadar da geciktiğini söyledim.

They didn’t know what mistake they had made.

   

They didn’t know what a mistake they had made.

   
  1. INFINITIVE CLAUSE

Türkçeye “yüklem + -mEk” şeklinde aktarılabilir.

6.1. Ad, to ..

Your ambition, to become a lawyer, requires hard work.

   

Bu yapının benzeri, It .. ile sık olarak kullanılır.

It is natural for them to be together / that they are together / that they should be together.

   

It would be unwise for you to marry her / if you were to marry her.

   

6.2. Noun Clause Benzeri Diğer yapılar

6.2.1. To ..

To join the army was his only dream.

   

6.2.2. To ..+ be + to ..

To challenge him is to risk your life.

   

6.2.3. .. nesne + to

My father didn’t want me to argue with Tom. /my arguing …

   
  1. -ING CLAUSE

Türkçeye “yüklem + -mEk” şeklinde aktarılabilir.

7.1. Ad, Ving

Her thesis, studying cognitive factors, takes up all her time. (S(NOUN, -ING+O) + V + O) / Bilişsel unsurları incelemek konulu tezi tüm vaktini alıyor.

   

7.2. Noun Clause Benzeri Diğer Yapılar

7.2.1. Ving ..

Watching TV has been his only enjoyment.

   

 

7.2.2. be + Ving

His first job had been selling computers. (S +V + O(-ING+O)) / İlk işi bilgisayar satmak olmuştu.

   

7.2.3. .. my/his/..(=Possessive) + Ving

I am against their digging the area.

   

7.2.4. My/His/..(=Possessive) + Ving ..

My forgetting her name was a great mistake.

   

7.2.5. There … no /any + Ving

Bu yapının Türkçeye aktarılması için her zaman kullanılabilecek bir yol önermek olanaksızdır.

There was no / wasn’t any mistaking that voice.

   

There is no / isn’t any knowing what they will do next.

   
  1. BARE INFINITIVE CLAUSE

8.1. Ettirgen Yapı (Causative)

Ettirgen yapının özelliği:

Ettirgen yapı, İngilizcede yüklemin ikiye bölünüp nesnenin araya girdiği iki yapıdan biridir (diğeri phrasal verb).

have + nesne + V
get + nesne + to + V
have + nesne + V3
get + nesne + V3
make + nesne + V

(They put the fire out. Phrasal Verb)

  1. a) have + nesne + V = birisine birşeyi rica ya da atama yolu ile yaptırmak.

We had the waiter clean the table.

   

 

Finally, they’ve had to have a locksmith ….. the lock for them.

  1. open
    B. to open
    C. opening
    D. to be opening
    E. opened
  2. b) get + nesne + to + V = birisine ikna yolu ile birşey yaptırmak.

Can you get your father to lend you the car ?

   

 

He is very stubborn; it is almost impossible ….. him ….. with you.

  1. getting/agree
    B. having got/agreed
    C. to have got/being agreed
    D. to get/agreed
    E. to get/to agree
  2. c) make + nesne + V = birisine birşeyi (zorla) yaptırmak.

I’m not guilty ! They made me do it.

   

 Make ile oluşturulan ettirgen yapının edilgen hali sorun oluşturabilmekte:

 Edilgen hali = be + made to + V

As we didn’t have an official invitation, we were kindly made ….. the Celebration Party.

  1. leave
    B. leaving
    C. left
    D. to have left
    E. to leave
  2. d) have / get + nesne + V3 = birşeyi yaptırmak

She has had her hair dyed.

   

Even though her diamond ring was stolen, she was lucky as she had got it ….. only a few days before.

  1. being insured
    B. insure
    C. insured
    D. to be insured
    E. to insure

İngilizce ettirgen yapıların çevirisi esnasında sorun oluşturmasa da, yanlışlıkla eklenecek bir “t” harfi yanlış anlam ile sonuçlanabilmektedir. Yani, hatalı olarak “yüklem + -DIrmEk” yerine “yüklem + – DIrtmEk” yapısının kullanılması. İkinci yapının doğru olarak kullanılması aşağıdaki örnekte açıklandığı şekilde olmalıdır.

I’ve had the car cleaned. ETTİRGEN

   

I’ve got someone to have the car cleaned.

   

 

Will you please get the vacuum cleaner ….. while I’m away?

  1. repair
    B. to repair
    C. to be repairing
    D. repaired
    E. to have repaired
  2. d) let + nesne + V = izin vermek

Will you let me ask a question!

   

As a teacher, I never let my students ….. mother tongue in the classroom.

  1. having used
    B. to have used
    C. to use
    D. use
    E. using

Let sözcüğünün bir diğer anlamı:

 let alone = … bir yana

8.2. but / except

İstisna belirten durumlarda but ve except sözcüklerinden sonra gelen yüklem to almadan kullanılır.

She did everything but come to the point.

   

COMPARISON CLAUSE

  1. EŞİTSİZLİK

1.1. … than yapıları ( = Comparative)

Sıfata “daha” niteliği kazandıran –er ve more eklenmesi ile oluşan yapılardır.

sıfat + -er / more + sıfat + than

She is more intelligent than she looks.

   Göründüğünden daha zeki.

This year the political situation is ….. complicated than it used to be.

  1. more
    B. most
    C. the most
    D. so
    E. as

Bu yapı Türkçeye “… -dEn daha + sıfat / belirteç” şeklinde aktarılır.

Dikkat:

Comparative yapı the ile ve than sözcüğüne gerek olmadan da kullanılabilir.

Actually, both these cars are wonderful, but I can’t decide which one is ….. of them.

  1. as beautiful
    B. beautiful enough
    C. so beautiful
    D. the more beautiful
    E. the most beautiful

1.2. rather than + sıfat / ad

Bir kıyaslama tümcesi olmamasına karşın bu kullanım sık sık karıştırılmasından ötürü bu bölümde ele alınmaktadır.

I’d call her hair chestnut rather than brown.

   

Bu yapı Türkçeye “-dEn çok/ziyade” yapısı ile aktarılır.

1.3. more and more / -er … -er

“Gitgide”, “daha da” anlamını katmak amacı ile kıyaslama yapısının tekrarlanması gerekmektedir.

It is getting colder and colder.

   

She is becoming more and more aggressive.

   

1.4. more + ad

More sözcüğü her zaman bir sıfatı nitelemez. Bazen bir adın niceliğinin belirtilmesinde de kullanılabilir.

More people than ever leave their villages for a major city.

   

In general, I have _____energy in the evening ….. in the morning.

  1. as / as
    B. enough / than
    C. more / than
    D. so much / that
    E. the most / as

1.5. most ve –est yapıları ( = Superlative )

Sıfata “en” niteliği kazandıran most ya da -est yapılarının eklenmesi ile oluşturulur.

the/my/.. + ad + sıfat + -est / most + sıfat

My biggest contribution is this monument.

   

 

As far as I am concerned, he must be just about ….. notorious lawyer we’ve ever had to deal with.

  1. so
    B. more
    C. most
    D. such
    E. the most

Bu yapı Türkçeye “en + sıfat + ad” şeklinde aktarılır.

1.6. most + ad

Ad ile kullanıldığı zaman most sözcüğü bir kıyaslama niteliği getirmemektedir.

Most people do not care about the dangers of pollution.

   

Bu yapı Türkçeye “çoğu + ad” şeklinde aktarılır.

1.7. The + comparative, the + comparative

The sooner you come the better (it is).

   

….., the more you realize how complicated it is.

  1. The more you think about the problem
    B. The less importance you give to your health
    C. The more remarkable his achievement was
    D. The longer it has taken them to complete the dam
    E. The fewer the people who are involved

Bu yapı Türkçeye “ne kadar … o kadar” ile aktarılır.

  1. EŞİTLİK

2.1. as + sıfat / belirteç + as

He is as tall as I am / me.

   

The new accountant we have recruited is not ….. efficient ….. the previous one.

  1. such/as
    B. so/that
    C. as/as
    D. either/or
    E. both/and

Bu yapı Türkçeye “kadar” kullanılarak aktarılabilir.

As yapısı birden fazla anlam için kullanılabilir. Ayrıntılı bilgi için parantez içinde verilen bölüme bakılması gerekmektedir.

as well as

He can’t dance as well as me. (Comparison)
She is clever as well as (being) beautiful. [=yanısıra]

as long as

My hair is as long as his. (Comparison)
I’ll work as long as I live. (Time)
He can come as long as he is sober. (Condition)

as soon as

I’ll come in as soon as five minutes. (Comparison)
As soon as she saw him, she fainted. (Time)

as far as

I went as far as Istanbul. (Comparison)
As far as I know, she is a vet. (Comment)

İlginç bir kullanım:

so/as … as yerine that + sıfat/belirteç

(He is not so intelligent as he seems ð He is not that intelligent.)

2.2. the same + ad + as

He earns the same (money) as me / I do.

   

Özellik:

Bu yapıda mutlaka the kullanılmalıdır.

When I joined the cocktail party, to my surprise, there were three other ladies wearing dresses with ….. colour ….. mine!

  1. as / as
    B. more / than
    C. so / as
    D. such / as
    E. the same / as
  2. YETERLİLİK VE FAZLALIK

3.1. Sıfat / belirteç + enough (for so.) to + yüklem

The water is acidic enough to scare people.

   

 

The new staff we have recruited are, as far as I am concerned, qualified ….. to tackle this sort of crisis.

  1. enough
    B. fairly
    C. so
    D. so much
    E. such

Bu yapı Türkçeye “- EcEk / – EbIlEcEk” ile aktarılır.

3.2. too + sıfat / belirteç (for so.) to + yüklem

It is too heavy for me to lift.

   

I am ….. to do anything.

  1. as tired
    B. much tired
    C. the most tired
    D. tired enough
    E. too tired

Bu yapı Türkçeye “yüklem + – EmEyEcEk kadar” ya da “yüklem + – EbIlEcEğIndEn çok / fazla” yapıları ile aktarılabilir.

  1. MUCH / EVEN / FAR / A LOT / A LITTLE / A BIT / ALL THE + COMPARATIVE

İngilizcede kıyaslamayı güçlendirmek amacı ile comparative yapının önüne çok ya da biraz anlamı taşıyan sözcükler yerleştirilebilir.

Bu yapılar kendi başlarına kıyas oluşturamazlar. Yani,

* He is much experienced than the rest of the applicants

tümcesi hatalıdır. Doğru tümcenin

He is much more experienced than the rest of the applicants

   

şeklinde olması gerekir.

Bu yapılardan much, far, a lot, even, all the Türkçeye çok ile, a little ve a bit ise biraz/ bir parça ile aktarılabilir.

  1. SO … THAT / SUCH … THAT

So … that İngilizcede

so + sıfat + (that) [1]
so + belirteç + (that) [2]
so + sıfat + a(n) + ad + (that) [3]
so + many/much/few/little + ad + (that) [4]

such … that ise

such + sıfat + ad + (that) [5]

şeklinde oluşturulur.

The problem was so difficult that we couldn’t solve it. [1]

   

He spoke so eloquently that everybody congragulated him. [2]

   

It was so difficult a problem that we couldn’t solve it. [3]

   

He has so many books that he can’t remember how many. [4]

   

He gave such a wonderful speech that we were astounded. [5]

   

The storm broke out with ….. strength ….. it caused great damage within a few hours.

  1. the same/as
    B. as/as
    C. more/than
    D. such/that
    E. so/that

The plan he proposed at the annual meeting was ….. humiliating ….. I couldn’t help protesting.

  1. as / as
    B. so / that
    C. such / as
    D. such / that
    E. too / to

Bu yapılar Türkçeye “o … kadar ki” şeklinde aktarılır.

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE

TIME CLAUSE

  1. TANIM

Time Clause yapılarda zaman uyumu kuralına dikkat etmek gerekir. Bu tümcelerde, ana tümce ile yan tümcede kullanılan tense uyumlu olmalıdır. Yani,

PRESENT« PRESENT
I never forget to pray before I go to bed.
PRESENT«FUTURE
She will be there when I arrive at the airport.
PAST«PAST
When we got there, the film was over.

Time Clause yapılarda zaman uyumu kuralına bir tek since uymamaktadır.

PRESENT« PAST
I have known him since I left school.

  1. TIME BEFORE

2.1. Until/Till

KULLANIMI
until/till + ad / tümce / Ving

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -EnE / -IncEyE kadar [1]
ad + -E kadar [2]

He worked patiently until he completed polishing. [1]

   Cilalamayı tamamlayana kadar sabırla çalıştı.

Until the war, they didn’t know any poverty. [2]

   

Until ve by sözcüklerinden hangisinin kullanılacağı konusu çeviri ya da İngilizce yazma/konuşma esnasında bir tereddüt konusu olabilmektedir.

Until belirli bir zamana kadar süren bir olay ya da durum için kullanılır.

I have to keep writing until the end of next year.

   

By belirli bir zamanda ya da o zamandan önce oluşan bir olay için kullanılır.

My book will be finished by the end of next year.

   

Burada belirtilmesi gereken önemli bir nokta da, by sözcüğünün zaman yapılarında bu tür kullanımında hiçbir zaman bir conjunction olarak kullanılamaması, yani, ardından bir S+V+(O) yapısının gelememesidir.

I hadn’t liked Spielberg’s films ….. I watched his masterpiece “ET”.

  1. after
    B. by the time
    C. in case
    D. until
    E. while

The sailors decided that it was better to wait ….. .

  1. as they have heard the weather forecast.
    B. by the time the mist settles
    C. since the time the weather conditions changed
    D. until the sea was calmer
    E. whether their boat is thoroughly ready for sail

2.2. Before

KULLANIMI
before + ad / tümce / Ving

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -mEdEn önce
yüklem + -DEn önce

They left before the door was opened.

   

Before the geological age of a fossil can be established, ……

  1. theory of evolution was not fully understood
    B. movements within the earth’s crust have been measured
    C. the necessary equipment has been provided
    D. the measurements were not sufficiently accurate
    E. the evolutionary significance of the remains must be fully understood

2.3. By the time

KULLANIMI
by the time + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -EnE kadar

They will have gone by the time we arrive.

   

 Kullanım özelliği:

by the time + present tense, future perfect (continuous)
by the time + simple past, past perfect (continuous)

By the time something ….. to save them, whales ….. extinct before it is too late.

  1. had done/would have gone
    B. has been done/will go
    C. is done/will have gone
    D. was done/had gone
    E. will be done/have gone

By ile by the time farkı:

 by + tümce
  1. SAME TIME

3.1. As

KULLANIMI
(just) as + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
(tam) … -(i)ken

As she was walking down the road, she was hit by a lorry.

   

3.2. As long as / So long as

KULLANIMI
as long as/so long as + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -DIğI sürece/müddetçe

I’ll love you as long as I live.

   

3.3. While/(Whilst)

Bu sözcüklerden whilst çok resmi yapılarda kullanılabilir.

KULLANIMI
while / whilst + tümce [1] / Ving [2]

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -(i)ken

They came while I was sunbathing. [1]

   

While walking, he stumbled and fell. [2]

   

 

The secretary took notes ….. I explained her how to use the new software.

  1. before
    B. by the time
    C. in case
    D. though
    E. while

3.4. When / Whenever

KULLANIMI
when + tümce [1] / sıfat [2] / Ving [3]; whenever + tümce [4] / sıfat [5]

ÇEVİRİSİ
(her ne) zaman … -sE
yüklem + – DIğI zaman/-E/Ir(i)ken/-DIğI(n)dE/-IncE/ -DIkçE

When I sleep I always snore. [1]

   

Please do your exercise when(ever) possible. [2]

   

Be careful when lifting this bag. [3]

   

 

She visits her parents whenever she finds time. [4]

   

 

When I last ….. Peter he ….. to be transfered to the firm’s new factory.

  1. was seeing/had hoped
    B. have seen/hoped
    C. saw/would hope
    D. saw/was hoping
    E. see/will hope

Dikkat:

Yan tümcede present perfect tense mümkündür.

 

When I ….. my last exam I ….. for, I plan to have a long holiday.

  1. had taken/studied
    B. have taken/have been studying
    C. take/study
    D. took/had been studying
    E. will take/am studying

3.5. Now that

KULLANIMI
now that + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
-DIğI için
(Hazır) … yüklem -DIğI [(n)E] göre

Now that everybody is here, we can start the meeting.

   

3.6. Ving

He came in shouting.

   

Bu yapıya benzer bir yapıda hiç yüklem kullanılmamaktadır:

He came in drunk. (= When he came in he was drunk.)

3.7. During

KULLANIMI
during + ad

ÇEVİRİSİ
esnasında

During the storm, a lot of people hid in the cinema.

   
  1. TIME AFTER

4.1. After

KULLANIMI
after + tümce [1] / Ving [2] / ad [3]

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem/ad + -DEn/(mEsIn)In ardından/sonra

After he had seen the murder, he couldn’t sleep whole night. [1]

   

After finishing his meal, Peter went to bed. [2]

   

After the riot, everything is calm and quiet. [3]

   

 

You will be responsible for the whole project ….. I’ve left, so now listen carefully!

  1. after
    B. during
    C. for
    D. since
    E. while

4.2. As soon as

KULLANIMI
as soon as + tümce [1] / Ving [2]

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -Er yüklem + -mEz

As soon as she saw the poster, she burst out a laughter. [1]

   

As soon as leaving work, he rushes to the bar. [2]

   

Bir eş anlam:

  as soon as = the minute

4.3. Directly/Immediately

Bu iki yapı da sık kullanılmaz.

KULLANIMI
directly / immediately + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -Er yüklem + -mEz

She smiled immediately she heard the news.

   

İki eş anlam:

 directly / immediately = the moment / the minute

4.4. Once

KULLANIMI
once + tümce [1] / Ving [2]

ÇEVİRİSİ
Bir kez .. yüklem + -DI mI/-mEyE gör-

Once I make make up my mind, nothing can stop me. [1]

   

Once signing this contract, you will have to obey the rules. [2]

   

4.5. Since

KULLANIMI
since + tümce [1] / Ving [2] / ad [3]

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -Den beri/bu yana

He feels much better since he completed his exams. [1]

   

We haven’t gone out since visiting you. [2]

   

I’ve been typing since 12. [3]

   

 

I haven’t had a single accident ….. I got my driving license almost ten years ago.

  1. after
    B. as
    C. before
    D. for
    E. since

Present perfect konusunda da belirtildiği gibi …

since + simple past

 

4.6. When / Whenever

Kullanım ve çeviri açısından yukarıda Same time başlığı altında ele alınan when / whenever ile aynıdır.

4.7. Now that

Kullanım ve çeviri açısından yukarıda Same time başlığı altında ele alınan now that ile aynıdır.

4.8. No sooner … than

KULLANIM
No sooner + had + Subject + V3 + than ..+ Simple Past

ÇEVİRİ
Daha yeni/Henüz … yüklem + -mIştI ki …

No sooner had he left than he heard the explosion.

   

Çok önemli özellikler:

No sooner + had + özne + V3 + than ..+ simple past 
No sooner … yapısında mutlaka than kullanılır.
No sooner … yapısının tümce başında yer alması durumunda, mutlaka devrik yapı kullanılır.

4.9. Hardly / Scarcely … when

Kullanım ve çeviri açısından No sooner … than yapısı ile aynıdır.

Çok önemli özellikler:

Hardly/Scarcely + had + özne + V3 + when ..+ simple past
Hardly/scarcely yapısında mutlaka when kullanılır.
Hardly/Scarcely yapısının tümce başında yer alması durumunda, mutlaka devrik yapı kullanılır.

4.10. On, upon

Ving başlığı altında (aşağıda 5 numaralı başlık) ele alınmaktadır.

4.11. (only) to …

Geçici bir durumu göstermek ve durumun ortaya çıkardığı sonucu ifade etmek için kullanılır.

I rushed to the door to discover it was locked

tümcesinde to discover yapısı in order to discover anlamı taşımamaktadır, zira bu anlamı taşıyor olsa kapının kilitli olduğunu bile bile kapıya gitme söz konusu olacaktır.

* Kapının kilitli olduğunu keşfetmek için kapıya koştum.

Bu yapının gerçek karşılığı

… to discover = and I discovered

yaklaşımı ile

Kapıya koştum ve kilitli olduğunu farkettim

şeklinde olacaktır.

I woke up one morning to find myself on the floor.

   

She turned the corner, to find the car gone.

   

The curtain parted, to reveal a market scene.

   

4.12. yüklem + to + yüklem

Aslında yüklem + and + yüklem şeklinde kullanılabilecek bir yapıdır ve uzunca bir süreye bağlı bir sonucu ifade eder.

She lived to be 100. (= and she became 100.)

   

The show went on to become a great success.

   
  1. Ving

5.1. Same time (= When)

Returning to the village, I met an old friend.

   

(On/Upon) receiving the letter, you should reply immediately.

   
Vingyapısı ile time ve reason anlatıldığı zaman, ana tümcenin ve yan tümcenin öznesinin aynı olması gerekir.

When I returned to the village I met an old friend. (= Returning to the village I met an old friend.)

….. us that the flat was in perfect condition, the estate agent asked us if we would like to see the flat.

  1. Tell
    B. Telling
    C. To be told
    D. To tell
    E. Told

The applicants, ….. for the interview all morning, looked very bored when they were finally allowed in.

  1. being waited
    B. having waited
    C. to have waited
    D. waited
    E. waiting

5.2. Time after (= When / After)

Having + V3 ya da -ing yapısı ile oluşturulur.

Having completed his study he submitted it to the committee. (= After he had completed …)

   

5.3. (By) + Ving

Bu yapı zaman belirtmesinin yanısıra neden de (= reason) belirtebilir.

By taking advantage of the darkness, he escaped.

   

5.4. …, Ving

He rose to his feet, spilling coffee on his pants. (= When he was rising to his feet, he spilt coffee on his pants.)

   
  1. PAST PARTICIPLE (= V3)

Çok önemli özellikler:

Edilgen özellik taşır.

Past Participle ile time ve reason anlatıldığı zaman, ana tümcenin ve yan tümcenin öznesinin aynı olması gerekir.

(When it is) taken as it is, the sentence will mean nothing.

   

CONDITION CLAUSE

  1. IF

1.1. First condition

Şu an ya da geleceğe ait gerçekleşmesi mümkün olasılık anlatır.

KULLANIMI
If + Present, Future / Present tense

ÇEVİRİSİ
(Eğer) … -I/Er ise, -EcEk / -I/Er

If nothing is done about high rate of population growth, world population will have doubled by the year 2005.

   

DEVRİK YAPI

Should you see her, give her the message.

   

 
If you ….. to a doctor straight away as I advise, you ….. a great deal of discomfort.

  1. would go/would have been spared
    B. have gone/were spared
    C. had gone/would have been spared
    D. were going/have been spared
    E. go/will have been spared

If ile başlayan bölüm (= yan tümce) ile ilgili önemli bir not:

If + will / may / might … , ….

1.2. Second Condition

Şu an ya da geleceğe ait gerçekleşmesi pek mümkün olmayan olasılık anlatır.

KULLANIMI
If + Simple past, could / would (be able to) / might

ÇEVİRİSİ
(Eğer) … -sE(ydI), … -I/ErdI

If you were a man, I’d slap you here and now.

   

DEVRİK YAPI

Were you a man, I’d slap you here and now.
Would you accept the offer if you ….. in my shoes.

  1. are
    B. can be
    C. were
    D. had been
    E. should be

Was yerine were kullanımı önem taşır:

If I / she / you / it / they / … WERE ….

Ayrıca şu yapılara dikkat:

Would you mind …?
Do you mind … ? 

Kim: I urgently need an envelope for this card.
Tom: Do you mind if I go and buy you one?
Kim: …..
Tom: I’ll be back in a minute.

  1. Yes, and buy a pen as well, please.
    B. Yes, this would be lovely.
    C. No, not at all; most appreciated.
    D. I’d better have an envelope immediately.
    E. Actually, what I need is that one.

Progressive / Continuous kullanıma dikkat:

 Would be + VingèSecond Condition

She must be earning a lot. Otherwise, she ….. such a luxurious life.

  1. couldn’t have led
    B. hasn’t been leading
    C. isn’t leading
    D. wasn’t leading
    E. wouldn’t be leading

1.3. Third Condition

Geçmişe ait ve gerçekleşmesi artık mümkün olmayan olasılık anlatır.

KULLANIMI
A. If + Past Perfect, would /could / might + have + V3 [1]
B. If + Past Perfect, would / could / might + V1 + (now) [2]
C. If + would / could + have + V3, would / could / might + have + V3 [3]

ÇEVİRİSİ
A.
(Eğer) -sEydi /-mIş olsaydı, … -I/ErdI

If he had known the result he wouldn’t have been so happy. [1]

   

 

B.
(Eğer) -sEydi /-mIş olsaydı, (şimdi) … -I/ErdI

If you had been more careful, you’d be earning more. [2]

   

 

C.
(Eğer) -sEydi /-mIş olsaydı, … -EbIlIrdI

I could have helped him if I could have swum. [3]

   

 

DEVRİK YAPI

Had he been more careful, he could have won.

   

 

If I ….. you were coming I ….. you a lift.

  1. knew/can give
    B. know/have given
    C. had known/could have given
    D. have known/gave
    E. will know/would give

1.4. If + should

Az gerçekleşme olasılığı gösterir.

If you should see him, let me know.

   

1.5. If + happen to

If + should yapısı ile aynı anlamdadır.

1.6. If + were to

Were to yapısı gelecekte gerçekleşme olasılığı az bir olayı anlatmada kullanılabilir.

What would you do if a war were to break out ?

   

Were to yapısı zorlayıcı bir öneri ifade edebilir.

If you were to move your chair a bit, we could all sit down comfortably.

   

 

If Turkey ….. to withdraw from the NATO alliance, certainly it ….. a global crisis.

  1. had/will cause
    B. was/would have caused
    C. will have/causes
    D. were/would cause
    E. would have/had caused

1.7. If it weren’t for

Bu yapı olayın bir başka olayı değiştirdiğini / etkilediğini göstermede “olmasa” anlamında kullanılır.

If it weren’t for his wife’s money, he’d never be a boss.

   

1.8. If it hadn’t been for

If it weren’t for yapısının geçmiş zaman halidir.

If it hadn’t been for your help, she could have gone to prison.

   

1.9. But for

If it hadn’t been for yapısı ile aynı anlamı taşır.

But for you, I could have given up long ago.

   

1.10. If only (= I wish …)

  1. A) If only + Past tense

If only I had more money, I could buy a drink.

   

If only you hadn’t told Jackie the truth, everything would have been all right.

   
  1. B) If only + would / could

Bu yapı istek / amaç belirtir.

If only she wouldn’t speak all the time, she’d make a perfect guest.

   

If only he wouldn’t snore !

   

 

If only we ….. more money on us, we wouldn’t have got so embarrassed at the supermarket.

  1. had taken
    B. have taken
    C. took
    D. would have taken
    E. would take

If only you ….. in my affairs that much! I really don’t want to offend you.

  1. don’t interfere
    B. hadn’t interfered
    C. haven’t interfered
    D. won’t interfere
    E. wouldn’t interfere
  2. AS LONG AS, SO LONG AS
KULLANIMI
as long as, so long as + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
– DIğI sürece/takdirde

She can come in as long as she promises to keep silent.

   

You can leave the room ….. you promise to tidy your things.

  1. unless
    B. as long as
    C. although
    D. however
    E. before
  2. ASSUMING, PROVIDED, PROVIDING, SUPPOSING
KULLANIMI
assuming/provided/providing/supposing + (that) + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
Assuming/supposing -DIğInI varsayarsak/varsayınca
Provided/providing -mEsI koşulu ile/-DIğI takdirde

Assuming that the journey is likely to take a full day, we may except him any minute.

   

You can borrow the car provided that you promise to drive carefully.

   

 

You can use my computer ….. you are careful with it.

  1. as much as
    B. even if
    C. expecting
    D. in case
    E. providing
  2. IN CASE
KULLANIMI
in case + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
-sE diye

Buy another bottle of vodka in case more people come.

   

 

We should have the car checked before we set out for our holiday ….. something goes wrong.

  1. although
    B. before
    C. by the time
    D. in case
    E. while

Bu yapı in (the) case of + ad/Ving ( … “durumunda”) şeklinde de kullanılabilir.

In case of a fire, use the side doors.

   

In case of meeting him, do not offer to shake hands.

   

Just in case kullanımı ise “ne olur ne olmaz” anlamını yansıtır.

“Why do you always carry that umbrella ?” “Just in case.”

  1. IN THE EVENT THAT, JUST SO (THAT), ON CONDITION (THAT)
KULLANIMI
in the event that + tümce
just so (that) + tümce
on condition (that) + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
-mEsI durumunda/-DIğI takdirde

In the event that the police ask you your address, you are not legally bound to give it.

   
  1. UNLESS
KULLANIMI
unless + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
-mEz ise/-mEmEsI durumunda

I’ll quit unless I’m given a pay rise.

   

 

This boy of yours will be very spoilt ….. you stop treating him as if he were a baby.

  1. as though
    B. if
    C. in case
    D. unless
    E. when
  2. GIVEN
KULLANIMI
given (that) + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
olsa, -mEsI durumunda

Given that x = y, then n(x+a) = n(y+a) must also be true.

   

Given yapısı “rağmen” anlamını taşıyan tümce (Concession Clause) olarak da kullanılabilir.

  1. WISH

Dilek belirten bir yapı olarak I wish / He wishes / .. çeşitli zamanlarla birlikte kullanılabilir. Bu zamanın seçimi elbette tümcenin oluşturulduğu duruma bağlıdır.

(Simple Present)
I’m not rich. I wish I was/were rich.
I don’t earn a lot. I wish I earned a lot.
She talks a lot. I wish she didn’t talk a lot.

(Present Continuous)
It’s raining. I wish it wasn’t/weren’t rainining.
She is studying. I wish she wasn’t/weren’t studying.

(Simple Past)
She didn’t come. I wish she had come.

(Present Perfect)
He has lost it. He wishes he hadn’t lost it.

(Will)
You will always complain! I wish you wouldn’t complain.
He will sing all the time! I wish he wouldn’t sing.

wish + simple past / past continuous / would / could = Second condition

wish + past perfect = Third condition 

I wish they ….. to the party with us tomorrow.

  1. can come
    B. com
    C. could come
    D. had come
    E. would have come

I wish nobody ….. of hunger in our present day.

  1. is dying
    B. died
    C. dies
    D. had died
    E. has died

Bu yapılar Türkçeye “keşke” olarak aktarılabilir.

PLACE CLAUSE

  1. WHERE
KULLANIMI
where + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -DIğI yerde

Where I come from, this is called injustice.

   
  1. WHEREVER
KULLANIMI
wherever + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
(neresi olursa orada)
yüklem + -DIğI her yer(d)e/yerin

They went wherever they expected to find work.

   

CONCESSION CLAUSE

  1. TÜMCE İLE KULLANILANLAR

1.1. Although / Though

yüklem + -mEsInE rağmen / karşın; -DIğI halde

Although he is young, he is not inexperienced.

   

Devrik yapı ile de kullanılabilir.

Careful though/as she was, she couldn’t prevent the accident. (=Although she was …)

   

Although ve though farkı:

Though, tümce içinde ve sonunda however anlamında kullanılabilir.

1.2. Even if / Even though

Türkçeye çevirisi although ile aynıdır. Even if “-sE bile” olarak aktarılabilir.

He borrowed my jacket even though I’d told him not to.

   

You have to be on time even if the lesson starts very early.

   

1.3. Whereas

Türkçeye although gibi ya da “… ise de”, “… iken” ile aktarılır.

Whereas he has plenty of money, he has no-one to trust.

   

1.4. While / Whilst

Türkçeye although gibi aktarılır.

While he is quite nice, sometimes he is a menace.

   

1.5. Despite / In spite of / Regardless of / Notwithstanding / Irrespective of + the fact that

Türkçeye “…( gerçeğin)e karşın / rağmen” ile aktarılırlar.

Despite the fact that he is rather nice, sometimes he is a menace. (=Although he is …)

1.6. As

Devrik yapı durumunda “rağmen” anlamı taşıyabilir.

Tired as I was, I went on walking. (=Although I was tired …)

   

Change your mind as you will, you will gain no support. (=Although you may change …)

   

Bu yapı Reason veya Similarity Clause olarak da kullanılabilir.

As sözcüğü yerine that kullanıldığı da görülür.

Fool that he was, he made no mistakes.

   

1.7. As … as

Bu yapı ender olarak kullanılır.

As widespread as his fame may be, he is not well-known in this part of the country. (=Although his fame may be widespread, …)

   
  1. TÜMCE İLE KULLANILMAYANLAR

2.1. Despite/In spite of

KULLANIMI
despite/in spite of + ad [1] / Ving [2]

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -mEsInE rağmen / karşın
ad + -E rağmen / karşın

He came in spite of his illness. [1] / being ill. [2]

   

 

He still chooses to play with his plastic toy gun despite the many electric toys he has.

  1. Although he has many electric toys, he prefers to play with his plactic toy gun.
    B. Due to the number of his toys, he’s having difficulty in choosing between his plastic toy and electric toys.
    C. He has electric toys as well, but today he is playing with his plastic toy gun.
    D. He may choose to play with his plastic toy gun, but his favourite is his electric toy.
    E. In spite of playing with his plastic toy gun, he still has some electric toys as well.

2.2. Irrespective of, Regardless of, Notwithstanding

KULLANIMI
irrespective of / regardless of / notwithstanding + ad / WH

ÇEVİRİSİ
ad + -E rağmen / karşın
yüklem + -mEsInE rağmen / karşın
göz önüne almaksızın

Regardless of whatever he may say, do it as you please.

   

2.3. …, still / yet

KULLANIMI
…, still/yet + Ving [1] / tümce [2]

ÇEVİRİSİ
yine de, ancak, fakat, bun(lar)a karşın

He suffered a lot, yet never giving in. [1] / he never gave in. [2]

   
  1. Given (that)

Yerine göre koşul anlamı da verebilen bu yapı pek sık kullanılmamaktadır.

Given her charm, she is alone. / Given that she has charm, she is alone.

   
  1. For all

For all his efforts, he failed.

   

Aşağıdaki farklı kullanıma dikkat:

For all + tümce = as far as

CONTRAST CLAUSE

Dilbilgisi kitaplarında ayrı bir başlık altında yer alsa da yapı olarak Concession Clause ile aynıdır. Whereas, while, whilst ile oluşturulur ve Türkçeye en basit olarak “oysa” sözcüğü ile aktarılır.

REASON CLAUSE

  1. TÜMCE İLE KULLANILANLAR

1.1. Because, As, For, Since

Türkçeye “yüklem + -I için / -IndEn ötürü / dolayı”, “yüklem + -mEsI nedeniyle / sebebiyle” şeklinde aktarılırlar.

Because he worked so hard, he deserved a holiday.

   

As sözcüğü devrik yapıda kullanılarak da Reason Clause oluşturabilir. Aynı yapı Concession Clause için de geçerli olduğu için hangi anlamın çıkarılması gerektiğine dikkat edilmesi gerekir.

Tired as she was, she went on walking. [Concession]

Tired as she was, she stopped walking. [Reason]

   

 

….. the prices are very high, I have to find a second job to make ends meet.

  1. Even though
    B. In spite of
    C. Unless
    D. Because
    E. Even if

I reckon he’ll be a great asset to the firm, ….. he really does have a good eye for business.

  1. although
    B. for
    C. therefore
    D. lest
    E. thus

1.2. Because of / Due to / Owing to / On account of + the fact that

Türkçeye “[gerçeği(nden)] ötürü / yüzünden / sayesinde” şeklinde aktarılırlar.

Owing to the fact that Tom didn’t know any French, they were able to speak comfortably in his presence.

   

 

….. a heavy rain, the game had to be stopped.

  1. Because
    B. Owing to
    C. Regardless of
    D. In spite of
    E. Provided

1.3. As long as

KULLANIMI
as long as + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
– DIğI sürece / müddetçe

As long as he doesn’t disturb me, it is okay.

   

1.4. Inasmuch as, Insomuch as

Because anlamı taşıyan bu yapılar resmi durumlarda kullanılır.

Thomas is also guilty, insomuch as he knew what they were going to do.( …, because he knew …)

   

1.5. In that

KULLANIMI
in that + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
-mEsI açısından/yüzünden, -DIğI için

The evidence is invalid in that it was obtained through illegal ways.

   

1.6. Now that

Time Clause yapılarda ele alınan Now that ile aynı anlamı taşır.

1.7. (The reason) why

KULLANIMI
(The reason) why + tümce + be + because/that …

ÇEVİRİSİ
-mE(“kişi eki”)In(In) nedeni/sebebi … (-dIr)

The reason (why) they lost is that/because they did not know the rules.

   

 

She won’t tell me the reason ….. she is leaving me!

  1. how
    B. when
    C. which
    D. whom
    E. why

1.8. While

KULLANIMI
while + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
hazır … olduğuna göre/-mIş iken

While you are in the kitchen, can you bring me a knife ?

   
  1. TÜMCE İLE KULLANILMAYANLAR

2.1. Because of, Due to, Owing to, On account of

KULLANIMI
because of / due to + owing to + on account of + ad  + (Ving) [1] / + my / his /.. + Ving [2]

ÇEVİRİSİ
Türkçeye because ile aynı şekilde aktarılırlar.

Because of rain the rescue operation had to be stopped. [1]

   

Owing to his trying to save the situation, a scandal was prevented. [2]

   

2.2. Ving …,

Önemli bir özellik:

Ving ile time ve reason anlatıldığı zaman, ana tümcenin ve yan tümcenin öznesinin aynı olması gerekir.

In any election campaign, we see that all the candidates promise to bring all essential facilities to the area, ……

  1. bearing in mind the fact that it has a potential vote population
    B. in that they were quite successful in bringing service
    C. that has always been neglected by local politicians
    D. which actually needed almost nothing other than a sewage system
    E. whose political career depends on the leading party’s policies

Seeing that it was likely to rain, he stayed in. (=Because / When he saw …)

   

Knowing their tastes, she was able to bring a good gift. (=Because she knew …)

   

Having completed the task, they had a break. (=Because / After they had completed …)

   

2.3. Past participle (= V3)

Önemli özellikler:

Bu yapı edilgen özellik taşır.

Past Participle ile time ve reason anlatıldığı zaman, ana tümcenin ve yan tümcenin öznesinin aynı olması gerekir.

Constructed according to my specifications, the building was able to withstand the earthquake. (=Because it was constructed …)

   

2.4. With

KULLANIMI
with + ad + Ving [1]
with + ad + to + yüklem [2]

ÇEVİRİSİ
“var iken”, -mekte iken, -DIğI için, -DIğIndEn ötürü

With the exams coming, we have no time for a social life. [1]

   

With so many children to support, they both have to work. [2]

   

2.5. What with

Yukarıda ele alınan With yapısı ile aynıdır.

PURPOSE CLAUSE

  1. (In order) to, so as to
KULLANIMI
in order (not) to / so as (not) to + yüklem

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -mEk için

To open the lid, turn it left.

   

They left the door open in order for me to hear what they were talking about.

   

She has to hurry in order not to be late.

   

So as to yapısının aşağıdaki örnekte görülen kullanımına sık rastlanmaktadır.

He never stayed in one place so long as to be recognised.

   

 

He has been studying ….. fail again.

  1. to
    B. because of
    C. in order not to
    D. in spite of
    E. even if
  2. In order that
KULLANIMI
in order that + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -sIn diye / -mEk için

The school closes early in order that the children can get home before dark.

   
  1. For fear that
KULLANIMI
for fear that + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -mEk /… olur + korkusu ile

They left early for fear that they’d miss the train.

   
  1. Lest

Resmi (= formal) nitelik taşıyan tümcelerde kullanılır.

KULLANIMI
lest + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -mEmEk için / -mEsIn diye

They checked the list again lest they should leave something behind.

   

RESULT CLAUSE

  1. So (that), Such that
KULLANIMI
so (that), such that + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
böylece, bu yolla, öyle ki, -sIn diye

We announced the test results immediately so that those who failed wouldn’t have to wait.

   

They had considered all the possibilities in preparing the leaflet, such that even the most inexperienced would be able to inform the candidates of the requirements for application.

   

Çok önemli bir özellik:

So that ile oluşturulan yan tümcede hemen her zaman bir yardımcı yüklem olur.
  1. Thereby
KULLANIMI
thereby + Ving

ÇEVİRİSİ
böylece, bu yüzden, bu yolla, sonuçta

Because he was so young and fiery, he drove the sport car at top speed, thereby deserving three different traffic tickets.

   

SIMILARITY CLAUSE

  1. (Just) as
KULLANIMI
(just) as + tümce [1] / it is/was/.. [2]
Kimi zaman as yerine the way kullanılabilir.

ÇEVİRİSİ
gibi

She is a fine singer, just as her father used to be. [1]

   

In autumn, as (it was) in spring, there were floods. [2]

   

Bu yapı resmi (= formal) nitelik taşıyan anlatımlarda devrik yapı (= inversion) kullanılarak oluşturulabilir.

He was Catholic, as were most of his friends.

   

He believed, as did all his colleagues, in the supremacy of the institution he worked for.

   

….. it was expected, Peter won the game.

  1. The same
    B. As
    C. Likewise
    D. Similar
    E. Contrary

Dikkat edilmesi gereken kullanımlar:

be that as it may = öyle oldu ki

such … as

I had never had ….. terrible time ….. I had in that seaside hotel.

  1. as / than
    B. so / that
    C. more / that
    D. such / as
    E. the most / as
  2. Like
KULLANIMI
like + ad / him/her/… ; like + tümce ( AmE)

ÇEVİRİSİ
gibi, benzer

My sister isn’t much like me.

   

 

Many tropical climate animals are facing the danger of extinction, ….. the panda.

  1. as
    B. as if
    C. even if
    D. like
    E. similar

As ve like farkı:

as =olarak

like = gibi

I gave her a ring ….. a birthday present.

  1. like
    B. as
    C. as if
    D. such as
    E. that
  2. As if, as though
KULLANIMI
as if, as though + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
(sanki) … (-mIş) gibi

You look as if you are about to cry.

   

 

We know that it may be wrong to treat a child as if he ….. an adult.

  1. had been
    B. has been
    C. is
    D. were
    E. will be

As soon as I entered the room, I noticed that it looked ….. it hadn’t been lived in for a very long time.

  1. although
    B. though
    C. because
    D. even if
    E. in case

EXCEPTION CLAUSE

  1. But (that)

Resmi (= formal) nitelik taşıyan anlatımlarda kullanılır.

KULLANIM
but that + tümce [1]
but for me/him/.. to + yüklem [2]

ÇEVİRİSİ
dışında, haricinde

Nothing would stop them but that the President (should) make a speech. [1]

   

Nothing would stop them but for the President to make a speech. [2]

   
  1. Except (that), excepting (that)
KULLANIMI
except/excepting (that) + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
ama, fakat, ancak, haricinde, dışında

We would most happily help you, except we are in need of cash.

   
  1. Save that
KULLANIMI
save that + tümce

ÇEVİRİSİ
dışında, haricinde

The company has lost almost all its possessions, save that they still hold a small share in a vast piece of land.

   
  1. Only

Günlük konuşma dilinde kullanılır.

KULLANIMI
only + tümce
ÇEVİRİSİ
fakat, ancak, ama

I’d love to come, only I have no time.

   

COMMENT CLAUSE

  1. Tanım

Tümce içinde paranteze alınmış bir fikir, yorum, yargı görevi üstlenen ifadelerdir. Tümce içinde altı değişik yapıda kullanılabilirler.

  1. Tümce olarak

There were no applicants, I believe, for that job.

En sık kullanılan yapılar şunlardır.

God knows Tanrı bilir (ya)
Heaven knows Tanrı bilir (ya)
it grieves me to tell you üzülerek söylüyorum
it has been claimed iddiaya göre
it is reported bildirildiğine göre
it is rumoured söylentiye göre
it is said denildiğine göre/ denir ki
it is true şurası da doğru ki/ doğru olan şu ki
it may interest you to know öğrenmek ilgini(zi) çekebilir
it pains me to tell you üzülerek söylüyorum
it seems görünüşe göre, görünüşe bakılırsa
it transpires söylenildiğine göre
I admit bence de/ kabul ediyorum
I agree bence de/ kabul ediyorum
I ask myself diye sormaktayım
I assume sanırım
I believe bence/ sanırım
I can see gördüğüm kadarı ile
I claim bence
I consider bence
I daresay sanırım
I don’t deny kabul
I doubt hiçsanmam ama/ pek sanmasam da/ korkarım
I expect umarım
I fear korkarım
I feel bence
I guess sanırım
I hear duyduğuma göre
I have heard duyduğuma göre
I have heard tell söylenenlere göre
I have no doubt hiç kuşkum yok
I have read okuduğuma göre
I have to say belirtmeliyim ki
I hope umarım
I imagine sanırım
I know bildiğime göre/ biliyorum
I may assume sanırım
I’m afraid korkarım
I’m convinced eminim/ inanıyorum ki
I’m delighted to say sevinerek söylüyorum (ki)
I’m glad to say sevinerek söylüyorum (ki)
I’m happy to say sevinerek söylüyorum (ki)
I’m pleased to say sevinerek söylüyorum (ki)
I’m sorry to say üzülerek söylüyorum (ki)
I’m sure eminim
I’m told bana anlatılana göre/ duydum ki
I must admit kabul/ itiraf etmeliyim ki
I must say söylemem gerekir ki
I must tell you anlatmam gerekir ki
I presume sanırım
I regret korkarım/ ne yazık ki
I regret to say üzülerek söylüyorum (ki)
I remember hatırlıyorum (da)
I see bence
I suppose sanırım
I think bence
I understand anlıyorum ki/ bence
I venture to say diyebilirimki
I wish umarım
I wonder acaba
mind you hatırlarsan(ız)
one hears söylenenlere göre
they allege iddiaya göre
they claim iddiayagöre
there is on doubt kuşkusuz
they say dediklerinegöre
you can see gördüğün(üz) gibi
you know biliyorsun(uz)
you may have heard duymuş olabileceğin(iz) gibi
you may know belki biliyorsun(uz)
you must admit kabul etmelisin(iz) ki
you realise anlayacağın(ız) gibi
you see gördüğün(üz) gibi
  1. As + tümce

Türkçeye “yüklem + -DIğI gibi/kadarı ile” şeklinde aktarılabilir.

I’m working overtime, as you know.

En sık kullanılan yapılar şunlardır:

as everybody knows herkesin bildiği gibi
as it appears görünüşe göre
as it happens öyle oldu ki/ tesadüf bu ya
as (it) is common knowledge bilindiği gibi
as it may interest you to know öğrenmek isteyebileceğin gibi
as (it) often happens hep olduğu gibi
as it seems görünüşe göre
as it seems likely muhtemelen
as it transpires göründüğü gibi
as (it) was pointed out belirtildiği gibi
as (it) was said earlier/later anlatıldığı gibi
as I can see (it) gördüğüm kadarı ile/ bence
as I have said söylediğim gibi
as I interpret it bence/ bana göre
as I’m told duyduğuma göre
as I remember hatırladığım kadarı ile
as I say dediğim gibi
as I see (it) bence/ bana göre
as I take it bence/ bana göre
as I understand bence/ bana göre
as you know bildiğin(iz) gibi
as you may have heard duymuş olabileceğin(iz) gibi
as you may remember hatırlayacağın(ız) gibi
as you said dediğin(iz) gibi
as you say dediğin(iz) gibi
as (it) was/seemed natural normal göründüğü kadarı ile, doğal olarak
as (it) was expected beklenildiği gibi
  1. What …

Türkçeye ” … olan şey/olan yan(ı)” ile aktarılabilir.

What was more upsetting, we lost our luggage.

En sık kullanılan yapılar şunlardır:

what is more surprising / upsetting / … işin en/daha (da) … (olan) yanı …
what is more to the point dahası, üstelik, üstüne üstlük.
  1. To + yüklem

Türkçeye “-cası, … olmak gerekirse, … olur ise” ile aktarılabilir.

To be fair, I lost the money.

En sık kullanılan yapılar şunlardır:

to be fair açıkçası
to be frank açıkçası
to be honest açıkçası
to be precise kesin konuşmak gerekirse/ tam olarak
to be serious ciddi olmak gerekirse
to be truthful açık konuşmak gerekirse
to put it briefly kısacası
to speak candidly açıkcası
  1. -ing

Türkçeye “yüklem + -Er/Ir ise” ile aktarılabilir.

I doubt, speaking as a layman, that his views are our salvage.

En sık kullanılan yapılar şunlardır:

broadly speaking genelde/ genele konuşulursa
figuratively speaking örneğin/ genele konuşulursa
generally speaking genel anlamda/ genele konuşulursa
loosely speaking genel anlamda/ genele konuşulursa
putting it crudely kabaca anlatılırsa
putting it mildly kısacası
speaking frankly işin doğrusu
speaking generally genel anlamda/ genele konuşursak
speaking personally bence
  1. Past participle (= V3)

Türkçeye “yüklem + -Il/-In .. ise” (= Edilgen) ile aktarılır.

Stated plainly, he has no chances of winning.

En sık kullanılan yapılar şunlardır:

put bluntly kabaca anlatırsak
put in another way diğer bir deyişle
rephrased diğer bir deyişle
stated quite simply basitçe anlatılırsa
worded plainly basitçe anlatılırsa

VERBLESS CLAUSE

Bu tür tümceler İngilizcede fazla kullanılmaz ve çeviri ya da sınavlar açısından önemli bir sorun oluşturmaz.

He waited, anxious for a reply. (= he was anxious for a reply)

   Tedirginlikle bir yanıt bekledi.

She was standing, a statue of innocence. (= she was like a statue of innocence)

   

Yüklem taşımayan yan tümce ayrı bir tümce gibi ele alınmalıdır. Çeviri işleminin de buna göre yapılması gerekir.

DİĞER YAPILAR

ARTICLE

  1. TANIM: A(N) VE THE

Article birkaç noktada çeviri işlemlerinde ve sınavlarda sorun haline gelmektedir. A(n) (= Indefinite article) ve the (= Definite article) adlarla birlikte kullanılırlar.

Bu iki sözcüğün nasıl ve ne durumlarda kullanıldıklarına geçmeden önce, ad yapılarını incelemek yararlı olabilir.

  1. SAYILABİLİR VE SAYILAMAYAN AD

Ad, sayılabilen ve sayılamayan olarak sınıflandırılabilir:

Sayılabilen (= countable) ad

  1. a) Tekil (= singular)

cat, leaf, man, person, iron (= ütü)

  1. b) Çoğul (= plural)

cats, leaves, men, people/persons, irons

Sayılamayan (= uncountable) ad

  1. a) Somut (= concrete)

water, oil, sugar, iron (= demir)

  1. b) Soyut (=abstract)

happiness, wealth, boredom

  1. KULLANIM ALANLARI

A(n) sadece sayılabilen tekil adlar ile kullanılır. Kendisini takip eden ad sesli bir harf (a, e, i, o, u) ile söylenerek (yazılarak değil) başlarsa, an kullanılır.

an apple, an eagle, an iron, an orange, an umbrella

fakat

a university student

(u harfi “yu” olarak telaffuz edilmekte)

an hour

(sessiz olan h harfi telaffuz edilmemekte; {h}our)

The bütün adlarla birlikte kullanılabilir. Bir adın her zaman bir article alması gerekli ya da olanaklı değildir.

  1. A(N) : KULLANILDIĞI YERLER

Önemli kullanım özellikleri:

A/an + sayılamayan ad è a kind of 
few + çoğul ad = az ve yetersiz
a few + çoğul ad = az ama yeterli
little + sayılamaz ad = az ve yetersiz
a little + sayılamaz ad = az ama yeterli

4.1. Bilinmeyen ve önceden belirginleştirilmemiş

Herhangi biri, hangisi olduğu farketmez

I have never seen an elephant.

   Ben hiç fil görmedim.

We are looking for a person to help us in the home.

   

Sözü edilen şeyin, ait olduğu sınıfın/türün herhangi bir üyesi olması

A screwdriver is a tool.

   

Bu kullanımda çoğul ad da mümkündür.

Screwdrivers are tools.

Genel nesneler yerine belirginleştirilmiş nesneler kullanılması durumunda çoğul ad kullanmak gerekir.

Cars are parked at owners’ risk. (Cars = Buraya parkedilen belirgin arabalar)

   

Tereddüte düşülmesi durumunda en iyisi çoğul ad kullanmaktır.

… de/başına

60 miles an hour

Three times a week

Ten pence a kilo

4.2. Bilinen fakat önceden belirginleştirilmemiş

Özel biri, fakat henüz belirginleştirilmemiş

I have found a good job at last.

   

She is a very old friend of mine.

   

A Mr Nash called to speak to you. (= Someone named Mr Nash …)

   

Bir tür/örnek

We have a good climate.

   

What a strange man he is !

   

I have never heard such a thing !

   

Meslek

I am a teacher by profession.

   

To be a good MP, you must be a good speaker.

   
  1. THE – KULLANILDIĞI YERLER

5.1. the + az önce/daha önce sözü geçmiş olan

“I’ve got an orange and some apples. Who wants the orange ?” “You have the orange and I’ll have the apples.”

   

5.2. the + belirginleştirilmiş ad

The dogs in our street are very noisy.

   

The Englishmen we met at the party knew a little Turkish.

   

5.3. the + eserde sözü geçen kişi(ler)/nesne(ler)

The Elephant and the Mouse

The Longest Day

The Mousetrap

5.4. the + tek olan şey

They toured the world together.

   

The earth goes round the sun.

   

She lives in the United States now.

   

5.5. the + superlative

the best/most recent/latest project

5.6. the + ordinal sayı

the first/last/next race

5.7. the + hayali bir türün/sınıfın temsilcisi olan tekil ad

The Panda is in danger of extinction.

   

The computer has replaced the typewriter in the office.

   

5.8. the + sıfat = o sıfat ile nitelenen grubun tümü

The young do not listen to the old. (= Young people do not listen to old people.)

   

Tekil kişiler için sıfat + person/man/.. kullanmak gerekir.

a / the young person / man / woman / ..

Farklı bir kullanım

the + police çoğul ad oluşturur.

5.9. the + yer adı = o yerin amacına uygun bir eyleme katılınmaması

She went to the prison ( Ü mahkum olarak değil)

   

I would like to live near the sea.

   

5.10. the + yer = içinde bulunulan durumdan ötürü tanımlanabilen yer

Her insanın kendisine ait bir çevresi olduğu ve o kişinin o çevreye ait herşeyi tanımlayabileceği düşünülürse, o çevreye yakın olan bir kimse (akraba, arkadaş, aynı şehirli gibi) açısından da o çevre tanımlanabilir özelliktedir.

I must go to the bank

tümcesindeki the bank, konuşanı tanıyan bir kimse açısından belirgin bir bankayı niteler.

There is funny animal in the garden.

   

5.11. the + otel / tiyatro / sinema/.. adı

the Hilton

the Akün

Ayrıca

the theatre / cinema / opera / concert

5.12. the + çoğul yer adı

the Netherlands

the Azores

the United States

the Alps

5.13. the + sayılabilir bir ad içeren yer adları

Canal
Channel
Desert
Gulf
Islands/Isles
Kingdom
Mountain range
Ocean
Republic
River
Sea
State(s)
Straits
Union
the Sues/Panama Canal
the English Channel
the Sahara (Desert)
the Gulf, the Gulf of Mexico
the British Isles, the Virgin Islands
the United Kingdom
the Rocky Mountains
the Indian Ocean
the Republic of Turkey
the (River) Nile
the Mediterranean (Sea)
the Gulf States
the Bering Straits
the Union of South Africa

Yer darlığından ötürü haritalarda the genelde kullanılmaz.

5.14. the + milliyet belirten sıfat

the British

the English

the Spanish

Bazı milliyetlerden söz ederken, çoğul ad kullanılır.

(the) Russians / Arabs / Turks / Scots / ..

5.15. the + bilim ve teknoloji ile ilgili sözcük

I hate the telephone.

   

5.16. the + müzik aleti

I’d like to learn the guitar.

   

Caz ve pop terminolojisinde genellikle the kullanılmaz.

5.17. the + gazete adı

the Times

Dergi adları genelde the almaz.

Times (Magazine), Scala

5.18. the + A of B (A ve B birer ad)

the University of Oxford

5.19. the + gemi adı

The Queen Mary

5.20. the + space = bir alanda boş yer

He tried to park his car but the space was not big enough.

   

The kullanılmazsa space sözcüğü “uzay” anlamı taşır.

5.21. all the / the whole

  1. a) all

all + the/ this/these/my/your/. + ad

all the time

all my life

all this confusion

all + çoğul ad ( every anlamında)

All Indian tribes were killed off. (Her bir … .)

  1. b) whole

my/your/the/this/.. + whole + ad

the whole life

my whole life

this whole confusion

whole + çoğul ad (complete, entire anlamında)

Whole Indian tribes were killed killed off. (= kimse sağ kalmadı)

the whole of + my/yourthe/this/that/. + tekil ad

the whole of the time

the whole of my life

the whole of this confusion

  1. 6. THE – KULLANILMADIĞI YERLER

6.1. A + B (A ve B birer ad)

Oxford University
London Bridge
Turkish Republic
Atatürk Airport

Bu yer adlarında the kullanılmamasının bir diğer nedeni de birer bölge ya da kişi adı taşımalarıdır.

6.2. türü / sınıfı temsil eden çoğul / sayılamayan ad

Pandas are in danger of extinction.

   

Sugar is bad for you.

   

Money can bring happiness.

   

6.3. yerin amacına yönelik eyleme katılma durumu

He was sent to prison for 2 years ( mahkum olarak).

   

He is a fisherman. He spends his time at sea.

   

6.4. ordinal sayı + yarışmada durum belirten ad / ödül

She won first prize for her essay.

   

The Irish contestant was in second place.

   

6.5. ünvan (+ kişinin soyadı)

I want to see the Captain, but Captain Smith.

   

Hello, Captain.

6.6. kıta, tekil ülke / şehir adı

Asia, Africa, South America, Great Britain, New York, Germany

6.7. tek dağ ve ada adı

Mount Everest

Cyprus, Long Island

6.8. göl adı

Lake Erie

6.9. preposition + ad

on time, for example, in turn, in harmony, at night.

Fakat

in the morning / afternoon / evening

ve

in/during/before/.. + (the) + autumn/spring/summer/winter

6.10. yüklem + ad

Artık birer terim haline gelmiş bazı yapılarda the kullanılmamaktadır.

yüklem + sayılabilir ad

to take place

yüklem + çoğul ad

to make friends

to shake hands

yüklem + sayılamayan ad

to make progress

to make love

6.11. by + ad (= … ile yolculuk)

by + bus, coach, car, train, air, plane, bike, motorbike, sea / ship / boat, Tube / underground

on + foot, horseback

İYELİK

  1. ‘S YAPISININ KULLANILDIĞI YERLER

1.1. (a/the) + kişi / hayvan adı + ad

the manager’s office

Mr Evan’s daughter

the horse’s tail

a policeman’s hat

1.2. (a/the) + organizasyon adı + ad

the Government’s decision

the company’s success

Bu yapıyı the A of B kullanarak oluşturmak da mümkündür.

1.3. (a/the) + yer adı + ad

the city’s new theatre

Britain’s system of government

Turkey’s largest dam

1.4. tekil ad + ad

my sister’s room

Mr Carter’s house

Çoğul ad + ad durumunda ‘s yerine sadece ‘ kullanmak da mümkündür.

my sisters’ room

the Carters’ house

1.5. zaman belirten ad + ad

Tomorrow’s meeting has been canceled.

   

I’ve got a week’s holiday / three weeks’ holiday.

   

Bu tümcede three weeks’ holiday yerine a holiday of three weeks, ya da a three week holiday demek de mümkün.

1.6. bir hayvan adı + o hayvandan üretilen şey

cow’s milk

lamb’s wool

a bird’s egg

goat’s cheese

Bir ürün elde etmek için o hayvan öldürülmüş ise,

calf-skin

chicken soup

a lamb chop

fox fur

1.7. bir hayvan adı + hayvanın vücudunun bir parçası

a sheep’s heart

a frog’s leg

1.8. kullanan kişi + kullanılan şey

a girl’s blouse

a children’s hospital

a bird’s nest

Kullanan kişinin eylem üzerinde bir denetimi yoksa aşağıdaki yapı da kullanılabilir.

baby clothes

a dog kennel

a birdcage

  1. OF YAPISININ KULLANILDIĞI YERLER

2.1. Of … , tümce

Of late, I haven’t been feeling well.

   

Of all the people applied, I was found suitable for the post. (= Among all the people who applied …)

   

2.2. of + nitelik / nicelik belirten sözcük + ad

It is of no use to try and solve it.

   

This is of great importance.

   

Bu yapıda, aslında, Türkçeye aktarım esnasında yapılması gereken şey yapıdaki adı, kendisinden önce gelen ve nitelik / nicelik belirten sözcüğü de gözönünde bulundurarak, sıfat haline getirmektir. Yani,

It is of no use to …

yapısı

It is useless to .. (be + of = have)

şeklinde, ya da

This is of great importance

tümcesi

This is very important

şeklinde ele alınmalı ve sonra Türkçeye aktarılmalıdır.

2.3. (a/the) + ad + nesne adı

the door of the room

the beginning of the story

Bu yapıda ‘skullanılabilirse de A of B yapısı daha iyidir.

2.4. (a/the) + ad + organizasyon adı

the decision of the Government

the success of the company

Bu yapıyı ‘s ile oluşturmak da mümkündür.

2.5. (a/the) + ad + uzun tekil ad

I met the wife of the man who lent us the money.

   

2.6. all, both, each, either, neither, none ile kullanılabilir.

  1. a) all (=hepsi)

all + (of) + the/ my/your/.. + ad/this/that

All (of) my friends like riding.

   

I’ve all (of) the books.

   

I’ve stopped believing all (of) that years ago.

   

Adın belirleyici yapı (the, my, ..) taşımaması durumunda of kullanılmaz.

All whisky is expensive

   

All children can be naughty sometimes.

   

you, us, them, .. kullanılması durumunda yalnızca all of yapısı kullanılabilir.

All of them enjoy dancing.

   

All of you are wrong.

   

They want to see all of us.

   

All yerine every kullanılabilir. Ancak, all of yerine every one of gelir.

He interviewed every one of us.

   
  1. b) both (=ikisi de)

both + (of) + the/my/your/ + ad/this/that

Both (of) the cars broke down before the start.

   

both + (of) + these/those + (ad)

Both (of) (these) vases are antique.

   

both of + us/you/them

Both of us were there.

   

both + ad

Both children have been to Rome.

   
  1. c) each (=herbiri)

each + tekil ad

He is getting better each day.

   

each + (of)+ the/ my/your/ + ad/this/that

Each of his daughters is a university graduate.

   

each of us/you/them

The police will question each of them.

   
  1. d) either (= ya … ya da/ikisinden biri)

either + tekil ad

Either day will do.

   

either + (of)+ the/my/your/ + ad/this/that

Either of your friends is welcome.

   

either of + us/you/them

Either of you could do it.

   
  1. e) neither (= ne … ne de)

neither + tekil ad

Neither job will meet his requirements.

   

neither + (of) + the/my/your/ + ad/this/that

He said neither of the books was suitable.

   

neither of + us/you/them

Neither of us knows the correct answer.

   
  1. f) none (= hiçbiri)

none + (of) + the/my/your/ + ad/this/that

None of the books was there.

   

none of us/you/them

None of us knows the correct answer.

   
  1. Reflexive pronoun: __self/selves

By ile kullanım:

by + reflexive pronoun = alone

YÜKLEM + YÜKLEM

  1. YÜKLEM + (PREPOSITION) + YÜKLEM

İngilizcede çoğu yüklemin kendisine özgü bir ya da birkaç prepositionu vardır ve çeşitli farklı anlamlar oluşturur. Her bir yüklemin hangi preposition ile kullanılıp hangi amacı taşıdığı bilinemeyeceğine göre, tek çare olarak kullanılmakta olan sözlük kalmaktadır.

İngilizce tümce oluştururken unutulmaması gereken bir kural, prepositionu izleyen yüklemin her zaman mutlaka Ving formu taşıyacağıdır. Yani,

yüklem + preposition + Ving

I’m looking forward to meeting him.

   

They accused her of stealing a diamond necklace.

   

I am not very fond of ….. to this lecture.

  1. to listen
    B. listen
    C. listening
    D. listened
    E. to have listened

Ancak, örneğin

I want to go

tümcesinde to sözcüğünün ardından Ving kullanılmamaktadır. Bunun nedeni to sözcüğünün want yüklemine ait, bu yüklemle her zaman kullanılan bir preposition olmamasıdır.

  1. EXCEPT / BUT + YÜKLEM

İstisna belirten sözcükler olan except ve but kullanıldığı zaman, bunları izleyecek olan yüklem yalın halde, to olmadan kullanılır.

What can I do but leave ?

   
  1. YÜKLEM + YÜKLEM

Bir yüklem diğerine çeşitli yollarla bağlanabilir.

I don’t like ….. what to do even by my teachers.

  1. being told
    B. having told
    C. to have told
    D. to tell
    E. to telling

Gerund ve infinitive ile kullanımları farklı anlamlar taşıyan sözcükler:

remember + gerund / infinitive
regret + gerund / infinitive 
try + gerund / infinitive 
mean + gerund / infinitive
stop + gerund / infinitive 

3.1. yüklem + preposition + yüklem

Yukarıda açıklandığı gibi.

We have been looking forward ….. a long holiday.

  1. having taken
    B. taken
    C. to have taken
    D. to take
    E. to taking

3.2. yüklem + (to) + yüklem

Sınırlı sayıda yüklem bir başka yükleme to almadan bağlanır.

Can you help me (to) lift this ?

   

3.3. yüklem + (nesne) + to + yüklem

We hope to complete it soon.

I don’t want you to go there.

3.4. yüklem + (so./so’s) + Ving

I like playing the piano.

   

I appreciate your helping my son.

   

3.5. yüklem ( = see/hear/..) + so./stg. + do/doing

We saw him leaving the house [1]

tümcesi ile

We saw him leave the house [2]

tümcesi arasında anlam açısından fark bulunmaktadır. [1] numaralı tümcede leave yükleminin -ing eklenerek kullanılması, konuşan kişinin olayın tümünü ya da bir bölümünü gördüğünü anlatmaktadır. [2] numaralı tümcede ise yüklemin leave olarak yalın kullanılması olayın tümünün görüldüğünü anlatır.

I caught them stealing my bicycle.

   

I smell something burning.

   

I saw him enter the room, unlock a drawer, take out a document, photograph it and put it back.

   

INFINITIVE (= [TO] + YÜKLEM)

  1. EDİLGEN (= PASSIVE) YAPILARDA

1.1. Present

Bu yapıda passive + to + yüklem

He is believed to live in New York.

   

ya da yüklem + to + passive

I didn’t expect to be invited

   

kullanılmaktadır.

1.2. Continuous

Progressive infinitive olarak bilinen yapı to be + Ving ile oluşturulur ve etken yapıda da kullanılabilir.

It is nice to be sitting here with you.

   

Bu yapı passive + to be + Ving şeklinde de kullanılabilir.

He is known to be writing his autobiography.

   

1.3. Past/Perfect

Perfect Infinitive olarak bilinen yapı to have + V3 şeklinde oluşturulur.

It is good to have finished the day’s work.

   

Bu yapıda passive + to have + V3

He is known to have visited this city

   

ya da to have been + V3

I’d like to have been invited

   

kullanılabilir.

  1. BE +TO

2.1. be + the first/last/only/.. + ad + to + yüklem

He was the first man to cross the Channel.

   

Bu yapı Türkçeye “-En + ilk/son/tek + ad” şeklinde aktarılır.

2.2. be + to

Bu yapının kullanımı will ya da should ile aynıdır.

  1. ad + to + yüklem

He was to have been the new ambassador but he fell ill.

   
  1. Why (not) + yüklem

Bu yapıda to kullanılmaz

Why pay more ?

   

Why not leave now ?

   
  1. and / or / except / but / than + yüklem

Bu yapılarda to gereksizdir.

I told him to lie down and rest.

   

I’d rather stay than go.

   
  1. do + (to) + yüklem

All I did was to lend him a hand.

   

What a computer does is (to) process the data for you.

   
  1. to my/his /.. + sıfat / ad, tümce

Their rejection of the offer surprised me,

I was surprised by their rejection of the offer,

What surprised me was their rejection of the offer,

tümcelerinden her birinde “teklifin onlar tarafından reddedilmesi” olayı konuşan kişiyi şaşırtmıştır. Kimi zaman, tepkiyi anlatan yapı tümcenin dışına çıkarılabilmektedir. Bu durumda da

To my surprise, they rejected the offer

şeklinde bir tümce ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu yapıda en sık

regret, annoyance, relief, surprise, horror, delight

ad ve sıfatları ve bunların yakın anlamlarını taşıyan ad ve sıfatlar kullanılır.

Çeviri söz konusu olduğunda

Benim hayretime / şaşkınlığıma

türü bir çeviri yanlış olur. Bunun yerine, To ile başlayan bölümü ayrı bir tümce gibi ele almak daha anlamlı olacaktır.

Şaşırdım kaldım. Teklifi reddettiler.

Bu yapı ile ilgili şu örnekler de verilebilir:

To my mind, their rejection of the offer was a surprise.

   

To a man of his age, such changes are unacceptable.

   
  1. be + sıfat + to + yüklem

He is hard to satisfy. (= It is hard to satisfy him.)

   

This violin is excellent to play Mozart on.

   

GERUND (= VING)

  1. instead of + Ving

Instead of studying, he spent the night watching TV.

   

Bu yapı Türkçeye “yüklem + -EcEğIne/-EcEğI yer(d)e” ile aktarılır.

  1. without + Ving

Without saying a word, he left.

   

Bu yapı Türkçeye “yüklem + – mEdEn / – mEksIzIn” ile aktarılır.

  1. by + – Ving

You can open the lid by turning the handle.

   

Bu yapı Türkçeye “yüklem + – ErEk” ile aktarılabilir.

INFINITIVE VE GERUND: ÖZNE KONUMUNDA

  1. Giriş

Infinitive ve gerund yapıların diğer kullanımları yukarıda ayrı ayrı başlıklar altında ele alınmaktadır.

  1. Kullanım

2.1. Özne olarak kullanım

İngilizcede, artık pek güncel olmayan bir şekilde, infinitive tümcenin öznesi olarak kullanılmaktaydı.

To err is human, to forgive is divine.

Günümüz İngiliz dilinde, tümceye yüklem ile başlanması gerekiyorsa, gerund yapı kullanılması  ya da en iyisi It … yapısının kullanılması doğru olur. Bu durumda,

To make mistakes is easy

yerine

It is easy to make mistakes

tümcesi kullanılabilir.

2.2. Belirgin eylemler

Belirgin bir eylemden sözedildiğinde infinitive özne olarak kullanılabilir. Yine de en iyisi It … kullanmaktır.

To sell my car was difficult.

   

It was difficult to sell my car.

   

Genel bir eylemden sözedildiğinde de gerund özne olarak kullanılabilir. Yine de en iyisi, infinitive yapıda da olduğu gibi, It … kullanmaktır.

Selling insurance is a boring job.

   

It is a boring job to sell insurance.

   

2.3. Zaman ve Neden belirtmede

Infinitive ve gerund özne olarak kullanılabildikleri gibi zaman ve neden belirtmekte de kullanılabilirler. (Time Clause ve Reason Clause)

IT

  1. Tanım

Tümcenin öznesi bir infinitive clause

To meet you is nice

ya da that-clause

That she is here at this time of the day is strange

olduğunda, bu yapıların yerini Prop It yapısı alabilir:

It is nice to meet you.

   

It is strange that she is here at this time of the day.

   

It is difficult to guess the meaning.

   

It is surprising that she is so late.

   

It was claimed that he was murdered.

   

Sınav açısından önemli iki nokta:

It + be + sıfat + to + V

It + be + sıfat + that / WH + tümce

Bu kadar çok başvuran arasından en uygununu bulmak bizim için gerçekten zordu.

  1. It really was a hard selection for us as there were plenty of applicants.
    B. It really wouldn’t be easy for us to select the best of all of many applicants.
    C. It was really hard for us to select the best applicant among so many of them.
    D. There were so many applicants that it was really hard for us to select the best one.
    E. We really had difficulty in selecting the best applicant among the many.
  2. Kullanım

2.1. Özne durumunda

  1. a) Önem belirtmede

It is essential to book in advance.

   

It is vital that this plan is followed.

   
  1. b) Zorluk belirtmede

It is difficult for him to change his mind.

   
  1. c) Olasılık belirtmede

It is likely that we’ll be a bit late.

   

Is it possible to go by road ?

   
  1. d) Fayda belirtmede

It is pointless to argue with him.

   
  1. e) Normallik ve Geleneksellik belirtmede

It is unusual to see snow in this season.

   

Is it customary to tip the driver here ?

   
  1. f) Süre belirtmede

It takes eight hours to get to Istanbul.

   
  1. g) Duygusal Tepki belirtmede

It was really surprising to see him.

   

It shocked me that he didn’t know about the accident.

   
  1. h) Gerçeği belirtmede

Is it true that she is leaving tomorrow ?

   
  1. i) Uygunluk belirtmede

It’ll be best to leave early.

   
  1. j) Bir fikrin doğuşunu, akla gelişini belirtmede

It occurred to me that I’d left the keys at home.

   
  1. k) Görünümden elde edilen fikri belirtmede

It seems that we are in for a change.

   
  1. l) Putative should ile

It is interesting that you should think this way.

   
  1. m) Çeşitli kullanımlar
  2. A) It + for + ad + to + yüklem

It is better for you wait here.

   

It is essential for the pages to be read before the weekend.

   
  1. B) It + Ving

It was nice meeting you.

   

Is it worth reserving a seat ?

   

It is no use trying to argue with him.

   
  1. C) It … + (as) if / though

It looks as if it will rain.

   

It will be a pity if we have to leave the project half-completed.

   
  1. D) It … + (preposition) + ad (= Cleft tümce)

It was my mother who threw an egg at the President yesterday.

   
  1. E) It + be + (not) + until / before

It was before the war that we knew what extravagance was.

   

2.2. Nesne durumunda

Normalde, nesne ile ilişkili bir sıfat bulunması durumunda kullanılır.

George made it clear that he disagreed.

   

I thought it peculiar that she hadn’t written.

   

I think it important that we should keep calm.

   

Owe ve leave yüklemleri ile de kullanılabilir.

We owe it to you to save our daughter.

   

We leave it to you to choose.

   

SHOULD

Should yardımcı yüklemi “gereklilik” belirtmesinin yanısıra bazı yapılarda bunun dışında anlamlar üstlenmektedir. Bu bölümde ele alınan yapıların hiçbirinde, görüleceği gibi, Putative – Tentative should yardımcı yüklemi “gereklilik” anlamını taşımamaktadır.

  1. Condition Clause ile

Düşük bir olasılık belirtmek için in case, lest, ya da if ile kullanılır.

I’ll go and get some more beer in case Bill should come.

   

He was cautious lest he should make a mistake.

   

If you should see him, tell him to see me.

   

If ile kullanımında devrik yapı oluşturabilir.

Should you see him, tell him to see me.
I will to have my car insured in case it ……

  1. might have stolen
    B. should be stolen
    C. were stolen
    D. will be stolen
    E. will have stolen
  2. So that ve in order that ile

He turned the volume down so that we should hear him.

   

Bu kullanımda should yerine could/would gibi yardımcı yüklemler de kullanılabilir. Çeviri açısından, could kullanıldığında “-EbIl” takısının eklenmesi dışında, hiçbir değişiklik oluşmaz.

  1. Zorunluluk ya da önem belirtmede

Zorunluluk, önem ve tercih belirten

agree, demand, marvel, regret, advise, desire, move, rejoice, allow, determine, ordain, request, arrange, enjoin, order, require, ask, ensure, pledge, resolve, beg, entreat, play, rule, command, grant, prefer, stipulate, concede, insist, pronounce, suggest, decide, instruct, propose, urge, decree, intend, recommend, vote, wonder

yüklemleri ve

absurd, better, just, ridiculous, advisable, concerned, ludicrous, right, amazing, eager, natural, strange, annoying, essential, necessary, surprising, anxious, important, odd, vital

sıfatları ile noun clause yapıda kullanılır. Kimi zaman, aşağıda verilen üçüncü örnek tümcede olduğu gibi, should atılır ve yüklem yalın kalır. Çeviri açısından should sözcüğünün olması ya da olmaması bir değişiklik getirmez.

He insisted that the contract should be read aloud.

   

We recommend that you wait until the rain stops.

   

People are demanding that she should leave the company.

   

People are demanding that she leave (Amerikan İngilizcesi) the company.

People are demanding that she leaves (İngiliz İngilizcesi) the company.

It is amazing that she should confess the murder.

   

The jury demanded that the defendant ….. be questioned thoroughly.

  1. must
    B. ought to
    C. should
    D. is to
    E. may

As a matter of fact, it is of vital importance ……

  1. me to have my tooth filled before I go on holiday.
    B. not to study that much as it may cause exhaustion.
    C. staying in bed and resting a bit.
    D. that he had answered the question.
    E. that we should book our seats in advance.

It was absurd that he ….. away from his office so long.

  1. must stay
    B. had stayed
    C. will stay
    D. can stay
    E. has to stay

DEVRİK YAPI (= INVERSION)

  1. Tanım

Tümce içindeki normal yapının (S+V+O) vurgu sağlamak amacı değiştirilmesidir. Bu yapıda ya yardımcı yüklem [1] (asıl yüklemin be olması durumunda yüklemin kendisi [2]) ya da özneyi niteleyen sıfat [3] öznenin önünde yer almaktadır.

We came late, and so did he. [1]

   

We are here, and so is he. [2]

   

Tired as he was, he went on walking. [3]

   
  1. Kullanım

Aşağıdaki kullanım örneklerinde gösterilen sözcük ve yapılar, tümce içinde bu örneklerde verilen konumlarında (tümce başında vs.) olmaları durumunda sadece devrik yapıda kullanılabilmektedir. Örneğin,

You can never find a better friend

tümcesinde never sözcüğü tümcede ortalarda yer almaktadır ve tümcede devrik yapı söz konusu değildir. Oysa never sözcüğü aşağıda da (2.1) ele alındığı gibi, tümcenin başına alındığında, her zaman devrik yapı ile kullanılır.

Never can you find a better friend.

   

Devrik yapıların Türkçeye aktarımı esnasında, mümkünse, devrik yapının sağladığı vurgunun verilmesine çaba göstermek gerekir.

2.1. Zaman ve yer belirten yapılarla

Zaman ve yer belirten

at no time, hardly … when, never, no sooner … than, not till, nowhere, only, only after, only then/when, rarely, scarcely, scarcely … when, seldom

yapıları ile kullanılır.

At no time was he aware of the facts.

   

Hardly / Scarcely had I said hello when he punched me.

   

Never before have I received such a nice present.

   

No sooner had I said hello than he punched me.

   

Not till he got home did he understand what the joke was.

   

Nowhere can you find a better servant.

   

Only here do they sell octopus meat.

   

Only after a year did she start to talk to me again.

   

Only then did I see that the plan was faulty.

   

Rarely could we get fresh bread.

   

Scarcely / Seldom had he been late.

   

Hardly ….. the results when the players started their protest.

  1. they had declared
    B. would they declare
    C. had they declared
    D. they would declare
    E. they declared

2.2. Koşul belirten yapılar ile

Koşul belirten

in no circumstances, in no way, only by, only this way, only when, on no account, under no circumstances

yapıları ile kullanılır.

In / Under no circumstances are we authorised to seal this document.

   

In no way can your money be refunded.

   

Only in this way were we able to make the car start.

   

Only by pushing were we able to start the car.

   

Only when he became ill did he appreciate the central heating.

   

On no account are people allowed to eat in the theatre building.

   

2.3. Not only, so, neither, nor ile

Not only did they steal his money, but they also beat him.

   

We all like horror films, and so does my father.

   

“I’m not hungry.” “Neither / Nor am I.”

   

He didn’t protest, nor did he say a single word.

   

2.4. so / such … that ile

So delicious was the meal that we couldn’t help wondering whether it was really Jane who had cooked it.

   

2.5. Yer belirten preposition ile

In came Tom.

   

Up jumped two large dogs.

   

Round the corner walked a policeman.

   

Under the table was lying a huge dog.

   

2.6. Comparison clause ile

His answer was shameful; equally regrettable was his behaviour.

   

A year ago two crashes occurred at the corner, and more recently has come the news of a third.

   

2.7. Condition clause ile

Should there be a delay, call me.

   

Had we known about your coming, we could have met you at the airport.

   

2.8. Concession clause ile

Hard as you may study, I doubt you’ll pass.

   

2.9. Reason clause ile

Tired as he was, he stopped walking.

   

2.10. Similarity and Comparison clause ile

Tom was a man of power, as had his father been.

   

2.11. Çeşitli sıfatlarla

Little did we imagine that the whole Soviet Union would collapse.

   

ANY / EVERY

  1. Any

Any aşağıdaki anlamlarda kullanılabilir.

I haven’t got any brothers.

   

Olumsuz yapı/anlam + any = hiç

I can eat anything.

   

Olumlu yapı/anlam + any = ne olursa olsun/herhangi bir

Bundan ötürü,

Nobody can ride this horse.

   

Anybody can ride this horse.

   

In Turkey, anybody can be a taxi driver.

   
  1. Every

Every sözcüğünün, çeviri / sınav açısından, bir tek aşağıda değinilen kullanımı önem taşımaktadır.

Not everyone knows this formula.

   

Bu yapı olumsuz yüklem ile Türkçeye aktarılmaktadır.

Some people argue that not ….. people should be allowed to have children.

  1. some
    B. all
    C. any
    D. much
    E. a little

ÖZNE – YÜKLEM UYUMU

  1. The + sıfat = çoğul ad

Farklı bir kullanım.

the + police çoğul ad oluşturur.
  1. No, none, all, some, any, hardly any, half, each, every / any / no / .. + uygun eylem

Kullanım:

None/Some/All/Most/.. of the + çoğul ad

None of + us / them

Most/all/Some/Many + çoğul ad

  1. all, half, ..

Kullanım:

All + çoğul ad + çoğul eylem

All + the/my/.. + çoğul ad + çoğul eylem

All of + the/my/.. + çoğul ad + çoğul eylem

The/My/.. + çoğul ad + çoğul eylem be + all

All + çoğul eylem

All of + them/us + çoğul eylem

They/We+ çoğul eylem be + all

  1. Özne ile yüklemin ayrılması

Özne ile yüklem arasına aşağıdaki yapılar girdiği zaman, öznenin tekil ya da çoğul durumu etkilenmez:

accompanied by, along with, as well as, together with, including
  1. Gerund özne + tekil yüklem

Özellik:

Birkaç gerund sözcükten oluşan özne varsa, yüklem çoğul olur.
  1. Nicelik ve sayılar

Özellik:

Bir birim olarak düşünülen nicelik ve sayılar tekil yüklem alır.
  1. There

Özellik:

There …yapısı, ardından gelen adın tekil, çoğul ya da sayılamaz olmasına göre tekil ya da çoğul yüklem alır.

In the last few years, there ….. a great reduction in the number of pandas.

  1. has been
    B. have been
    C. is
    D. were
    E. will be
  2. a pair of, a group of, …

Özellik:

A pair of …, a group of, a pack of … gibi yapılar tekil yüklem alır.

 

Çok önemli bazı özellikler:

a number of + çoğul ad + çoğul yüklem

the number of + çoğul ad + tekil yüklem

a lot of + çoğul ad + çoğul yüklem

a lot of + sayılamaz ad + tekil yüklem

QUESTION TAG

  1. Zamanlar ve yardımcı yüklemler

Prior to taking up this appointment, he used to work for the government, …..?

  1. wasn’t he
    B. did he use
    C. didn’t he
    D. did he
    E. didn’t he use

Olumsuzluk veren yapılar:

 Never, at no time, hardly gibi yapılar tümceyi olumsuz yapar.

You’ve never been to Paris, …..?

  1. have you
    B. have you ever
    C. have you not
    D. haven’t you
    E. haven’t you ever
  2. İstisnalar
I am …….., AREN’T I?

Let’s ……., SHALL WE? ( + + )

Let me ……, SHALL I? ( + + )

Let’s not ……, SHAN’T WE? ( – – )

SO VE NOT: DEĞİNME SÖZCÜKLERİ OLARAK

  1. Belirli yüklemlerle

Tom: Do you think unemployment will increase in the next two years?

Pat: …… The economic situation is getting better each year.

  1. I expect not.
    B. I hope so.
    C. I think so.
    D. I’m afraid not.
    E. I’m afraid so.
  2. so + devrik yapı

Everybody got shocked when Sally wouldn’t enter the test, and ……

  1. I didn’t either
    B. neither was I
    C. nor would I
    D. so did I
    E. so would I

AD (= NOUN)

Niteleme sözcükleri çok değişik olabilir:

the / my /your / .. + very + first / next / last + ad

BELİRTEÇ (= ADVERB)

  1. Sıfat ve belirteç olan sözcükler

Hem sıfat hem de belirteç olanlar:

early, daily, hourly, monthly, weekly 
  1. Belirteç olamayan sıfarlar

Yalnızca sıfat olanlar:

courtly, deadly, earthly, heavenly, leisurely, lively, lonely, lovely, wordly, brotherly, sisterly, motherly, queenly, kingly, princely, friendly, scholarly, saintly 
  1. Sık karıştırılan yapılar

Yazılış ve anlam bakımından karıştırılanlar:

deep, deeply; high, highly; hard , hardly; fast (adj), fast (adv); late, lately; like (v), like (prep), likely (adj); near, nearly; present, presently

 

  1. Belirteçlerin tümcede bağlayıcı olarak kullanımı

Sıralama gösterenler:

  • first, second, …; firstly, secondly, …; next, then, finally, last(ly), in the first place, …; first of all, last of all; to begin with, to start with, to end with

Benzerlik gösterenler:

  • equally, similarly, in the same way: aynı şekilde
  • likewise: benzer şekilde

Yineleme, ekleme gösterenler:

  • again, also, further, furthermore, moreover; what is more, in addition: ayrıca
  • above all: herşeyin ötesinde

Sonuç gösterenler:

  • in conclusion, to conclude: sonuç olarak
  • to summarize: özetle

Örnek, ek açıklama gösterenler:

  • namely, that is (to say): yani
  • for example, for instance: örneğin

Neden-sonuç ilişkisi gösterenler:

  • so, therefore, thus; hence: böylece, bu nedenle
  • consequently; as a result, as a consequence, in consequence: sonuç olarak

Alternatif gösterenler:

  • otherwise: aksi taktirde
  • else: yoksa; aksi taktirde
  • rather: ya da
  • alternatively: ya da
  • in other words: diğer bir deyişle

Karşıtlık gösterenler:

  • on the contrary: (tam) aksine
  • anyway, anyhow: her neyse
  • besides: ayrıca
  • however, nevertheless, nonetheless: fakat
  • still, though, yet: yine de
  • in spite of, despite: rağmen
  • in any case, at any rate: her halikarda
  • after all, at the same time, all the same: zaten
  • for one thing: herşeyden önce
  • for another thing: ayrıca

Farklı ve karşıt bir yönü gösterenler:

  • on the one hand: bir yandan
  • on the other (hand): öte yandan

Konu değişimini gösterenler:

  • incidentally, by the way: bu arada, konu açılmışken

She must be earning a lot. ….., she wouldn’t be leading such a luxurious life.

  1. Anyway
    B. But
    C. Despite
    D. In other words
    E. Otherwise

SIFAT (= ADJECTIVE)

Çok karıştırılan iki yapı (interesting ve interested gibi):

 – ing ile biten sıfat = yüklem + -ıcı/ici/ucu/ücü

ed ile biten sıfat = yüklem + -an / en, yüklem + -mış / miş / muş / müş

If there are any ….. scenes in the film, it might be harmful for my children.

  1. frighten
    B. frightened
    C. frightening
    D. having frightened
    E. to frighten

PREPOSITION

preposition + Ving

Some parents are accused by experts on child education ….. too permissive.

  1. for being
    B. of being
    C. to be
    D. to have been
    E. with being

PHRASAL VERB

Bazı phrasal verb yapılar bölünüp nesne araya yerleştirilebilir, bazıları ise kesinlikle bölünemezler. Kullanım özellikleri:

Araya nesne almayanlarda:

phrasal verb + ad

phrasal verb + adıl (= pronoun)

verb + ad/adıl + preposition

 

Araya nesne alanlarda:

phrasal verb + ad

verb + ad + preposition

verb + adıl + preposition

phrasal verb + adıl

ÖN VE ART TAKILAR (= PREFIX, SUFFIX

Çok karıştırılan ön takılı sözcükler:

valuable, invaluable; amoral, immoral; non-Amerikan, un-American; non-scientific, unscientific; inflammable, non-flammable; different, indifferent; famous, infamous

Çok karıştırılan art takılı sözcükler:

 economic, economical; historic, historical; helpful, helpless 

Sözcüğün Anlamını Tahmin

Aşağıdaki notlar anlamını bilmediğiniz bir sözcüğün anlamını tahmin etmenizi kolaylaştırabilir.

  1. Sözcüğün türü ne? (Ad, yüklem, sıfat, vs.)
  2. Sözcüğün içinde bulunduğu bağlama (context) bakın.
  3. Sözcük metin içinde yinelenmekte mi? Ne kadar sık yinelenirse bağlam sayısı da o kadar fazla olacaktır.
  4. Sözcük başka sözcük ya da yapılarla karşılaştırılmakta mı?
  5. Sözcük metin içinde tanımlanmakta mı?
  6. Kesin olmasa bile bir tahminde bulunmaya çalışın.

ALIŞTIRMALAR

Bu bölümde yer alan alıştırmalar yukarıda belirtilen noktaların uygulamaya konulabilmesi için hazırlanmıştır. Bu nedenle de sözlük kullanılmaması gerekir.

ALIŞTIRMA 1

Because he comes from a poor family, Thomas has always wanted to be wealthy. When he was twenty, he started his own business. His business was a total failure. He started working at a car factory. However, success was still too far away from him because he had a bad argument with his boss and he was sacked. Today, he is still poor but he has not changed much. He still thinks that one day he will be very successful.

Bu paragrafta poor sözcüğü ………. sözcüğü ile kıyaslanmakta ve failure sözcüğü ………. ile kıyaslanmakta.

These characteristics include the regulation of temperature, the capacity for prolonged physical labour, protection from the sun, immunological (defensive responses to infectious diseases) and nutritional and metabolic flexibility.

Bu paragrafta, immunological ………. anlamını taşımakta.

The Greek marriage was monogamous – men and women were allowed one spouse at a time. In rural areas, exchange marriage, in which two men marry each other’s sister – was also found.

Bu paragrafta monogamous ………. anlamını ve exchange marriage ………. anlamını taşımakta.

ALIŞTIRMA 2

Aşağıdaki sözcükler İngiliz dilinde mevcut sözcükler:

FAMISHED, FLIPPER, GAUDY, GOGGLE, LINTEL, PILLION, SALLOW, SHRED, TRUDGE

  1. Have you got something to eat ? I’m absolutely famished.
  2. “My God! She is swimming very fast!” “Of course. She’s got flippers on.”
  3. She read the letter to the end and then tore it to shreds.
  4. On the way, we saw a group of depressed-looking soldiers. They were very tired and they were trudging along through mud and heavy rain.
  5. He was so tall that he hit his head on the lintel when he was entering the room.
  6. Sebastian hates festivals. The loud, bad music, the cheap gaudy colours, the noise, the whole atmosphere – everything makes him feel sick.
  7. He had spent twenty years in an unhealthy tropical climate. That’s why his face had a permanent sallow complexion.
  8. Why are you all goggling at me like that ? Have I got two heads or something ?
  9. Mark got on his motorbike, I sat behind him on the pillion, and we roared off into the night.
 SÖZCÜK SÖZCÜK TÜRÜ OLASI ANLAM
FAMISHED    
FLIPPER    
SHRED    
TRUDGE    
LINTEL    
GAUDY    
SALLOW    
GOGGLE    
PILLION    

ALIŞTIRMA 3

Aşağıdaki metinde bir trafik kazası anlatılmakta. Metni okuyun ve soruları cevaplandırın. Okurken, koyu yazılı sözcüklere özellikle dikkat edin. İçeriğe bakarak sözcüğün anlamını tahmin etmeye çalışın.

DRIVER ESCAPES THROUGH CAR BOOT

Mr. Peter Johnson, aged 23, battled for half an hour to escape from his trapped car yesterday when it landed upside down in three feet of water. Mr. Johnson took the only escape way – through the boot.

Mr. Johnson’s car had fallen into a dike at Romney Marsh, Kent, after skidding on ice. “Fortunately, water began to come in very slowly,” Mr. Johnson said. “I couldn’t open the doors because they were touching the banks of the dike, and I didn’t open the windows because I knew water would come in.”

Mr. Johnson, a sweets salesman, of Holy Bank Hill, London Road, Kent, first tried to attract the attention of the other motorists by using the horn and hitting on the roof and the boot. Then he began his struggle to escape.

Later he said, ” It was really a half penny which helped me. It was the only coin I had in my pocket and I used it to unscrew the back seat to get into the boot. While I worked on the screws I could feel the water collecting underneath me on the roof. I hit again and again trying to make someone hear, but no help came.

It took another ten minutes to unscrew the seat – and a further five minutes to clear the sweet samples from the boot. Then, he found a wrench to open the boot lock. Fifteen more minutes ebbed away. “It was the only chance I had. Finally it gave, but as soon as I moved the lid the water and mud gushed in. I pushed the lid down into the mud and went out.

His hands and arms cut and bruised, Mr. Johnson got to Beckett farm nearby where he was looked after by the farmer’s wife Lucy Bates. Huddled in a heavy coat, he said, “That thirty minutes seemed like hours.” “Only the tips of the car wheels were visible,” police said last night. The car had sunk into three feet of mud at the bottom of the dike.

Verilen seçeneklerden hangisinin en yakın anlam olduğunu bulun.

  1. boot
  2. a) back window
    b) space for luggage at the back of the car
    c) space for luggage at the front of the car
    d) engine compartment
  3. dike
  4. a) lake
    b) small farm road
    c) water channel by the road
    d) canal for ships
  5. samples
  6. a) boxes of paper for sweets
    b) catalogues
    c) examples of what he is selling
    d) rubbish put into the boot
  7. wrench
  8. a) a kind of tool
    b) a kind of sweet
    c) a bunch of keys
    d) a pack of coins
  9. ebbed away
  10. a) were left
    b) were all he had
    c) passed very slowly
    d) passed very quickly
  11. it gave
  12. a) it presented itself to him
    b) it came open
    c) it gave trouble
    d) he stopped trying
  13. gushed in
  14. a) poured
    b) came slowly
    c) made a loud noise
    d) felt cold
  15. Huddled
  16. a) Talking
    b) Interviewed
    c) Wrapped up warmly
    d) Confused and surprised
  17. tips
  18. a) outside parts
    b) rubber parts
    c) metal parts
    d) tops

ALIŞTIRMA 4

Koyu yazılı verilen sözcüğe en yakın anlamı taşıyan sözcüğü bulun. Sözlük kullanmayın !

  1. I could not convince my friend to go on a picnic instead of to a restaurant. He was adamant in his desire to eat a formal meal.
    a) uncertain
    b) determined
    c) reluctant
    d) responsive
    e) understanding
  2. “Give me specific suggestions when you criticize my work,” said the employee. “Vague comments do not help me improve.”
    a) Definite
    b) Special
    c) Indefinite
    d) Imperfect
    e) Sufficient
  3. Richard organized his staff with a rigid schedule of jobs and responsibilities which often occupied them twelve hours a day, seven days a week. Many people, unable to tolerate this regimentation, quit their jobs after the first week.
    a) discipline
    b) payment
    c) tolerance
    d) schedule
    e) responsibility
  4. By smiling foolishly and talking loudly, we are able to repress the rising feeling of fear so that it does not affect the way we behave.
    a) display
    b) show
    c) reduce
    d) escape
    e) keep
  5. After the scorpion affair the whole family tried in vain to get me to stop collecting animals and insects. They should have known that I wouldn’t stop collecting just because of one little scare.
    a) unclearly
    b) one by one
    c) actually
    d) reasonably
    e) unsuccessfully
  6. The murderer had developed a poison which could not be tasted or smelled when mixed with food. Because it was imperceptible, he was able to murder a number of people without being caught.
    a) easy to find
    b) hard to detect
    c) easy to add
    d) hard to prepare
    e) hard to toxicate
  7. Mr. Fleming was surprised to see me sitting behind his desk. He gave me a startled look, then smiled and said, “I didn’t know you were in town.”
    a) angry
    b) nervous
    c) confused
    d) nasty
    e) frightened
  8. Roses seem to thrive under certain conditions; the more sunlight and water they receive the more beautiful they are.
    a) colour
    b) fade
    c) die
    d) water
    e) grow
  9. Although he really didn’t want to open the mysterious drawer again, his curiosity compelled him to take one last look.
    a) frightened
    b) forced
    c) commanded
    d) prevented
    e) supported
  10. The banker was incredulous when the money did not fall out of the thief’s brief case; he couldn’t believe that it wasn’t there because he had seen him put the bills inside just before leaving the bank.
    a) delighted
    b) disappointed
    c) reluctant
    d) terrified
    e) suspicious

Uygun Anlamın Seçilmesi

ALIŞTIRMA 1

Aşağıdaki kısa metinlerde koyu yazılı verilen sözcüklerin ve yapıların Türkçe karşılığını bulun. Sözlük kullanabilirsiniz.

  1. Surveys show that not all of the reasons for becoming an airline hostess are based on sound thinking. One of the superficial reasons is advice by relatives, teachers, and friends; a second, the belief that the life of an airline hostess is filled with adventure.
  2. Dogs are still No. 1 when it comes to biting people in New York, but people are No. 2. The Health Department’s annual survey reported that dogs bit humans 9,809 times during 1985 while humans bit each other 1,591 times. That, at least, is how many bites were serious enough for doctors to report them to the city, said Martin McGinley, a spokesman. The report said that while dogs more reported bites than any other animal last year, the total still was down 8 per cent from 1984. Human bites were down only slightly, however, from a 1984 total of 1,593. Cats were third (879) bites, followed by wild rats (311) , squirrels (75) , and hamsters (57).
  3. There are several methods of cooking meats. (a) They may be roasted with dry heat and little or no water; (b) they may be broiled or barbecued by direct exposure to glowing coals, flames, or electric units; (c) they may be fried either with little fat or deep fat; and (d) they may be raised or baked with vegetables that have been partially cooked
  4. We think of the United States as a rich and plentiful nation. It is; but it isn’t self-sufficient. Our reliance on foreign sources is apparent every day in the year. Take sugar. Cane sugar ranks first in value among imported foodstuffs . Or take coffee. Coffee drinking couldn’t be an American habit if we cut off our imports from Brazil.
  5. On the first of August, 1952, the tuna ship Challenger was cutting into clear waters of the Pacific a few miles from San Benedicto, a small island some 300 miles from the Mexican mainland. Crewmen aboard the ship were surprised to see a thin pencil of smoke rising from the island. San Benedicto is a barren, three-mile stretch of land which has never been inhabited and, in fact, seldom visited.

ALIŞTIRMA 2

Aşağıdaki metni dikkatle okuyun ve hangi seçeneğin en iyi yanıt olduğunu bulun; verilen seçeneklerin tümü de sözlükte mevcut.

For centuries man believed the Earth to be the centre of Creation. The true picture is far more awe-inspiring.

We live on a small planet revolving round a star of only average size, which is itself revolving, with thousands of millions of other stars, in one galaxy among millions in a Universe that may well be boundless.

Scientific observation has so far probed only a fraction of it. Yet to travel to the frontiers of that observed fraction, even at 186,300 miles per second (the speed of light) would take 6,000 million years, about 20,000 times the total period that human life is estimated to have existed on Earth.

The different bodies and structures in the universe, all of which appear to be receding from us, range from single galaxies to mammoth clusters containing as many as 500 galaxies.

Although the cluster of galaxies to which our galaxy belongs is comparatively small (it has only 25 members), our galaxy itself, the Milky Way System, ranks among the larger of the known stellar systems. Counting its almost 100,000 million stars (of which the Sun with its family of planets is one) at the rate of one star a second would take about 2,500 years.

size well Yet bodies
a) beden a) kuyu a) Henüz a) bedenler
b) boyut b) pekalâ b) Nihayet b) cisimler
c) numara c) iyi, hoş c) Fakat c) birlikler
d) yapıştırıcı d) tamamiyle d) Hâlâ d) gruplar

 

rank rate second
a) sıralanmak a) oran a) öteki
b) sıralamak b) paha b) saniye
c) dahil olmak c) hız c) ikinci şey
d) -den üstün olmak d) derece d) ikinci kez

ALIŞTIRMA 3

Aynı alıştırmayı aşağıdaki metin üzerinde de yapın.

Strictly speaking, gender is a matter of sex and there are but two classes: however, for the sake of convenience grammar usually prefers to list four. A word which denotes a male is of masculine gender: boy, uncle, son. A word which denotes a female is of feminine gender: girl, aunt, wife. A word which denotes an object without sex is of neutral gender: pencil, book, car. Names which denote either to males or females are said to be of common gender: students, reader, artist.

Strictly matter but
a) Sıkı a) madde a) fakat
b) Şiddetli b) cevher b) -den başka
c) Kesin c) illet c) sadece
d) Katı d) konu d) ancak

 

 

KPDS, YDS, ÜDS

DENEME SINAVI – 1

1.-24. sorularda, verilen boşluğu en iyi tamamlayan seçeneği bulunuz.

 

1. Although the partners seem to be in full agreement on matters of management, there is actually a ….. difference of opinion among them.

 

A) smooth
B) superficial
C) versatile
D) vast
E) relentless

 

2. The journalists asked the Prime Minister so many questions that finally he felt it necessary to ….. the statement.

 

A) propose
B) refrain
C) clarify
D) undermine
E) exempt

 

3. Geological activity in this region has produced a landscape that is at once ….. and forbidding.

 

A) wasteful
B) cautious
C) discreet
D) susceptible
E) rugged

 

4. Owing to various advances in modern medicine, certain diseases that were seemingly incurable now ….. treatment.

 

A) consist of
B) yield to
C) interfere with
D) stem from
E) take after

 

5. His poetic output may not be large but, nevertheless, Ted Hughes is generally regarded as one of the ….. poets of our time.

 

A) excessive
B) prolific
C) extensive
D) futile
E) distinguished

 

6. Appeals for help for the earthquake victims have received ….. support from all segments of society.

 

A) relevant
B) absolute
C) ultimate
D) enormous
E) contemporary

 

7. Unfortunately, a great deal of medical equipment they have asked for is not readily ….. .

 

A) available
B) skilful
C) adequate
D) redundant
E) considerable

 

8. On the whole, his latest novel has received favourable reviews, but it has been ….. criticized in some quarters.

 

A) severely
B) principally
C) vitally
D) merely
E) obscurely

 

9. The ….. in the interest rates has caused considerable concern in economic circles.

 

A) loan
B) sale
C) lease
D) process
E) decline

 

10. He is full ….. good intentions, but none of them can be put ….. practice.

 

A) at / under
B) with / on
C) from / up
D) over / onto
E) of / into

 

11. When Mr. Green had nodded ….. approval, the chairman moved ….. to the next item on the agenda.

 

A) out/back
B) at/off
C) about/away
D) in/on
E) through/inside

 

12. I reckon he’ll be a great asset to the firm, ….. he really does have a good eye for business.

 

A) although
B) for
C) therefore
D) lest
E) thus

 

13. ….. the premiums for insuring the premises are high, we have no other choice but take out a policy.

 

A) Even though
B) In spite of
C) Unless
D) Since
E) Because

 

14. As far as I am concerned, he must be just about ….. notorious lawyer we’ve ever had to deal with.

 

A) so
B) more
C) most
D) such
E) the most

 

15. It’s ….. difficult to decide who is to blame in ….. cases as there are many factors involved.

 

A) rather/such
B) therefore/so
C) too/much
D) such/these
E) that/which

 

16. He said we were on no account ….. the meeting before he came.

 

A) to have started
B) start
C) having started
D) to start
E) to be started

 

17. I still don’t believe that the minister knew what was happening; I am sure ….. .

 

A) couldn’t have
B) can
C) shouldn’t have
D) hasn’t to
E) hadn’t

 

18. It ….. that restrictions regarding imports ….. before the end of the fiscal year.

 

A) had been expected / are lifting
B) expects / are lifting
C) was excepted / had lifted
D) has been expected / are lifted
E) is expected / will be lifted

 

19. A farmer is ….. in a major city, but, with his abilities, he is ….. in a small village.

 

A) nothing/something
B) someone/someone
C) no-one/nobody
D) somebody/nobody
E) nobody/somebody

 

20. A colleague of ….. has been nominated for the Nobel.

 

A) him
B) me
C) his
D) her
E) them

 

21. ….. this period less was known about the relationship ….. smoking and lung cancer.

 

A) At/between
B) In/over
C) For/from
D) To/by
E) On/to

 

22. Many countries in Africa are rich ….. in mineral resources to improve their balance of payments.

 

A) enough
B) rightly
C) often
D) too
E) well

 

23. In fact the spread of foot disease has caused ….. damage that we feared.

 

A) little
B) much
C) less
D) a great deal of
E) farther

 

24. An honours degree will be conferred upon the physicist ….. contributions to energy studies have proved most beneficial.

 

A) which
B) whose
C) who
D) that
E) whom

 

25.-32. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

 

25. ….. but also there will be fringe benefits.

 

A) The bank had employed some new staff
B) He could have excellent working conditions
C) Not only has the bank offered him a high salary
D) We were very impressed by his performance
E) They could have interviewed more people

 

26. ….. how they can expect to make any profit at all.

 

A) We were puzzled
B) They didn’t assume
C) I don’t see
D) It has already been
E) They had been denied

 

27. ….. that estimating future manpower requirements is definitely desirable.

 

A) From the ongoing discussion it is obvious
B) We were extremely concerned
C) The manager is wondering
D) It had been under discussion for a long time
E) The committee was asked

 

28. Isn’t that the man ….. ?

 

A) which is responsible for the design of the botanical gardens
B) that he lost his temper at the board meeting
C) who have just returned from a business conference in Cairo
D) if he knew how to negotiate such delicate matters
E) whose son has won a scholarship to pursue his graduate studies in the United States

 

29. Don’t you think it is significant ….. ?

 

A) in case so many people would have marched in protest
B) if the resolution had been passed
C) how quickly they had cancelled all the flights
D) whether they were re-elected
E) that 26 people have resigned since Mr Fairfax was appointed manager

 

30. They are waiting for their legal advisor ….. .

 

A) that he has recommended a similar policy
B) having called in to see them
C) if his influence has been sufficient
D) which of the proposals he favours
E) to suggest a more acceptable line of procedure

 

31. Everyone has been surprised ….. .

 

A) what an expensive project this has proved to be
B) if the meeting had been postponed until June
C) when they have heard the decision of the Judge
D) why he was criticizing the change in their policy
E) that the newly appointed director has so much to say

 

32. He plans to give a lecture on contemporary poetry ….. .

 

A) even if he had first studied literature
B) because it interested very few people
C) that he has published a lot on the subject
D) unless another subject is suggested
E) so as to have explained recent trends

 

33.-42. sorularda, verilen İngilizce cümlenin Türkçe dengini bulunuz.

 

33. As regards the high inflation in the country, no government has yet found an effective solution.

 

A) Hükümet, ülkedeki yüksek enflasyonu düşürmek için bir çözüm yolu bulamadı.
B) Ülkede yüksek enflasyon olduğu için hükümet henüz kesin bir çözüm bulmuş değil.
C) Ülkedeki yüksek enflasyonla ilgili olarak, henüz hiç bir hükümet etkili bir çözüm bulamadı.
D) Hiçbir hükümet, ülkedeki yüksek enflasyonu göz önüne alarak gerekli çözümleri öneremedi.
E) Ülkedeki yüksek enflasyon nedeniyle, hükümet henüz köklü bir çözüm bulamadı.

 

34. A colleague of ours, who has recently been appointed permanent representative to the Netherlands, has unfortunately developed lung cancer.

 

A) Hollanda’da temsilcimiz olarak yıllardan beri çalışmış bir meslekdaşımızda maalesef akciğer kanseri görüldü.
B) Hollanda’da ticari temsilcilik yapmakta olan bir arkadaşımızda ne yazık ki akciğer kanseri olduğu ortaya çıktı.
C) Maalesef, akciğer kanserine yakalanmış olan bir arkadaşımız, daimi temsilci olarak Hollanda’ya gönderildi.
D) Daimi temsilci olarak geçenlerde Hollanda’ya atanan bir meslekdaşımız, maalesef akciğer kanserine yakalanmış.
E) Baş temsilcimiz olarak geçenlerde Hollanda’ya yeniden atanan meslekdaşımıza maalesef akciğer kanseri teşhisi konmuş.

 

35. From the reading of her book, it is clear that Professor Jane Scott has a lot more to say on this subject.

 

A) Kitabını okuyunca, bu konu ile ilgili olarak Profesör Jane Scott’ın söyleyeceklerinin çok daha fazla olduğu anlaşılıyor.
B) Profesör Jane Scott’ın konu hakkında söylediklerinin çoğu, kitabı okununca anlaşılıyor.
C) Profesör Jane Scott’un kitabını okuyunca, bu konu ile ilgili olarak ne kadar çok şey söylediği anlaşılıyor.
D) Bu konu ile ilgili olarak Profesör Jane Scott’ın söylediklerinin pek çoğu kitabından okunabilir.
E) Bu konu ile ilgili kitabını okuyunca, Profesör Jane Scott’ın pek çok şey söylediği anlaşılıyor.

 

36. The advisory committee on housing has recommended that the low-income families should be given priority.

 

A) İskandan sorumlu karma kurul geliri yetersiz ailelere öncelikle yardım edilmesini önerdi.
B) İskan ile ilgili olarak, yönetim kurulu, düşük gelirli ailelerin öncelikle yerleştirilmesini önermiştir.
C) İskan ile ilgili danışma kurulu, düşük gelirli ailelere öncelik verilmesi tavsiyesinde bulunmuştur.
D) Gelir düzeyi düşük olan ailelerin öncelikle yerleştirilmesini iskan ile ilgili kurul karara bağladı.
E) Düşük gelirli ailelere öncelik verilmesi, iskan ile ilgili danışma kurulunda tartışma konusu olmuştur.

 

37. Whatever measures the Ministry may have taken against smuggling, it is essential that the public should also be enlightened about the matter.

 

A) Yolsuzluklara karşı hangi tedbirlerin alınması gerektiği hususunda Bakanlık kamuoyu oluşturmaya çalışıyor.
B) Silah kaçakçılığına karşı alınan tedbirlere ek olarak Bakanlık kamuoyunu da aydınlatmak için konu üzerinde duruyor.
C) Yolsuzlukları önlemek için bakanlığın aldığı bir dizi tedbire ek olarak konu hakkında kamuoyu da aydınlatılıyor.
D) Rüşvete karşı ne gibi tedbirler alınması gerektiği hususunda bakanlık kamuoyuna açıklamalar yapmayı uygun görüyor.
E) Kaçakçılığa karşı bakanlık hangi tedbirleri almış olursa olsun, konu hakkında kamuoyunun da aydınlatılması şart.

 

38. If he knew what the board had decided as regards his promotion, he would be terribly disappointed.

 

A) Naklen tayini hakkında kurulun nasıl bir karar verdiğini bilse, büyük üzüntü duyardı.
B) Tayini için kurulun verdiği kararı bilseydi derhal istifa ederdi.
C) Kendi durumu ile ilgili olarak kurulun kararının ne olduğunu bilmiş olsaydı, tayin edilmeyi kesinlikle istemezdi.
D) Terfisi ile ilgili olarak kurulun neye karar verdiğini bilse, tam bir düş kırıklığına uğrardı.
E) Başarısızlığı nedeniyle hakkında kurulun ne tür bir karar vereceğini bilseydi, son derece sinirlenirdi.

 

39. I firmly believe that we must put into effect some urgent plans in order to increase productivity.

 

A) Üretimi artıracak çeşitli planlar geliştirmemiz gerektiği görüşüne tamamen katılıyorum.
B) Verimliliği artırmak için bazı acil planları yürürlüğe koymamız gerektiğine kuvvetle inanıyorum.
C) Üretimi geliştirmek amacıyla yapılan planları uygulamaya koymak zorunda olduğumuz kanısındayım.
D) Verimliliğin arttırılması bakımından bazı önemli planlar geliştirmemiz gerektiği düşüncesindeyim.
E) Verimlilik düzeyini geliştirmemiz için bazı kapsamlı planlar üzerinde durmamız gerektiği inancındayım.

 

40. Turkey’s membership of the European Community will be of vital importance for the development of our international economic relations.

 

A) Türkiye’nin Avrupa Topluluğu’na üyeliği, uluslararası ekonomik ilişkilerimizin gelişmesi bakımından hayati bir önem taşıyacakır.
B) Uluslararası ekonomik ilişkilerimizin geliştirilmesi için Türkiye’nin Avrupa Topluluğu’na üye olması son derece önemli görülmektedir.
C) Türkiye’nin uluslararası ekonomik ilişkilerinin artması, Avrupa Topluluğu’na üyelik için büyük önem taşımaktadır.
D) Uluslararası ekonomik ilişkilerimizin gelişmesi sonucu Türkiye’nin Avrupa Topluluğu’na üye olması daha da çok önem kazanmıştır.
E) Türkiye’nin Avrupa Topluluğu’na üyeliğinden sonra uluslararası ekonomik ilişkilerimizin geliştirilmesi çok büyük önem taşıyacaktır.

 

41. Propose what they may, we are not going to accept their views on this issue.

 

A) Bu konuda ne gibi öneriler ileri sürecekleri hususunda herhangi bir görüşümüz bulunmamakta.
B) İstedikleri önerileri yapsınlar, bu sorunla ilgili görüşlerini kimseye kabul ettiremeyecekler.
C) Ne önerirlerse önersinler, bu konudaki görüşlerini kabul etmeyeceğiz.
D) Ne gibi öneriler getirecekleri belli değilse de onların bu konuya bakış açılarını kabul edemeyiz.
E) Her ne önerdilerse, bu konu ile ilgili olarak hiç birini kabul etmedik.

 

42. Owing to an unexpected delay in the delivery of the mail, his application did not reach us in time.

 

A) Postanın dağılmasındaki beklenmeyen gecikme nedeniyle, başvurusu bize zamanında ulaşmadı.
B) Mektupların dağıtılması gecikince, bize yaptığı başvuru saatinde ulaşamadı.
C) Postadaki beklenmeyen gecikme yüzünden başvurusunu zamanında bize gönderemedi.
D) Başvurusunun bize zamanında ulaşmamasının nedeni, postanın dağıtımında meydana gelen gecikmeydi.
E) Postanın hiç tahmin edilmeyen gecikmesi, onun başvurusunun bize çabuk ulaşamamasına yol açtı.

 

43.-52. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümlenin İngilizce dengini bulunuz.

 

43. Faiz oranlarının biraz düşmesine rağmen, müşterilerimizin sayısı artmaya devam ediyor.

 

A) Even though the number of clients is still going up the interest rates continue to fall slightly.
B) Since the interest rates are going down one cannot expect an increase in the number of clients.
C) Even though the interest rates have gone down slightly, the number of our clients continues to increase.
D) Unless the interest rates go up a little we cannot expect an increase in the number of our clients.
E) Despite a slight fall in the number of our clients we have managed to keep up the interest rates.

 

44. Kasa üzerinde onun parmak izlerini bulamadığımız sürece, onun masum olduğunu kabul etmek zorundayız.

 

A) If his fingerprints are not to be found on the safe we shall have to accept his innocence.
B) So long as we can’t find his fingerprints on the safe, we have to accept that he is innocent.
C) Should his fingerprints be found on the safe then we will be obliged to admit that he is guilty.
D) Unless his fingerprints are found on the safe he can never be accused of being guilty.
E) Of course he is not guilty, for no trace of his fingerprints has ever been found on the safe.

 

45. Onunla ne zaman karşılaşsam hep konut sorununu ortaya koyuyor.

 

A) The housing problem is so serious that he no longer mentions it at the meeting.
B) The housing problem is a topic he usually avoids when we meet.
C) Whenever the problem of housing comes up at our meetings, we take different sides.
D) Every time we meet a problem, it always seems to be related to housing.
E) Whenever I meet him he always brings up the problem of housing.

 

46. Bildiğim kadarıyla, valiler toplantısı süresiz olarak ertelendi.

 

A) It is not yet definite whether or not the governors’ meeting will be cancelled.
B) As far as I know the meeting of the governors has been postponed indefinitely.
C) I know the governors have been notified that their meeting will take place at a later date.
D) In my opinion a meeting of the governors should be called immediately.
E) I assume the governors have already been informed that the meeting is to be put off

 

47. Deprem bölgesinde bir salgını önlemek için derhal acil tedbirler alınmalıdır.

 

A) An epidemic has broken out in the earthquake area so we must take measures right away to prevent its spread.
B) Various measures to overcome the epidemic in the earthquake area have already been taken.
C) Urgent measures must be taken immediately to prevent an epidemic in the earthquake area.
D) The earthquake area has been hit by an epidemic in spite of the measures urgently taken.
E) Unless the epidemic following the earthquake in the area dies down, urgent measures will be called for.

 

48. Ülkemizin su kaynaklarından enerji ve sulama amacı ile tam olarak yararlanmak için birkaç uzun vadeli proje hazırlanıyor.

 

A) With the projects under preparation some of the country’s water resources will produce long-term benefits in the fields of energy production and irrigation.
B) The projects concerning the water resources of the country will in the long run be implemented for irrigation and energy.
C) Several of the long-term projects now under consideration are concerned with using the country’s water resources for energy and irrigation purposes.
D) Several long-term projects to make full-use of the country’s water resources for purposes of energy and irrigation are under preparation.
E) In the preparation of these long-term projects the country’s needs, such as energy and irrigation, should be given priority.

 

49. Bakanlığa girmene izin verilmeden önce kimlik kartını göstermeni isteyecekler.

 

A) They’ll ask you to show your identity card before you are allowed to enter the ministry.
B) You can only enter the ministry if you have an identity card with you.
C) You will be required to carry an identity card if you start work at the ministry.
D) Everyone is required to show you an identity card on entering the ministry.
E) You will have to wear an identity card if you are working at the ministry.

 

50. İki liderin zirve toplantısı, insanlığa büyük yarar sağlayacak bir antlaşmanın imzalanması ile son buldu.

 

A) Two of the leaders at the summit meeting have agreed to sign a treaty that will improve their relations.
B) Finally the two leaders agreed to a summit meeting which will be to the benefit of mankind.
C) The agreement signed by the two leaders at the summit meeting will certainly contribute to the prosperity of the people.
D) The summit meeting of the two leaders ended with the signing of an agreement that will be of great benefit to mankind.
E) At the end of the summit meeting two of the leaders decided to sign an agreement that would be beneficial to both nations.

 

51. Şişmanlığın başka bir nedeni, suyun vücut dokularında tutulmasıdır.

 

A) The retention of water in the body tissues, moreover, will cause overweight.
B) In cases of overweight, too much water is retained by body tissues.
C) Another cause of overweight is the retention of water in the body tissues.
D) Overweight also causes the body tissues to retain more water.
E) The heavier a person is the more water is retained in the body tissues.

 

52. Önceki banka müdürünün kişisel sorunları bile basında manşet olmuştu.

 

A) The bank manager was horrified that his personal problems made the headlines..
B) Previously, it was the bank manager’s personal problems that made the headlines in the press.
C) Indeed, that was before the bank manager’s personal problems made the news.
D) The former bank manager’s personal troubles even hit the headlines in the press.
E) Prior to this, no bank manager’s personal concerns have received such treatment in the press.

 

53.-58. sorularda, parçada boş bırakılan yere uygun düşen ifadeyi bulunuz.

 

53. In 1929 the stock market crashed and the Great Depression of the 1930’s began. …..; and almost immediately the nation’s confidence in its government and its political leaders vanished.

 

A) Economic theory has never really explained how it happened
B) There was to be terrible suffering in both Europe and America
C) The prosperity that had seemed so permanent ended abruptly
D) Steinbeck wrote The Grapes of Wrath during these years
E) The road to recovery was a long and slow one

 

54. With the Renaissance the arts ceased to be primarily religious. The heavens fell into the background and the earth came to the fore. ….. Fewer pictures were painted of the angels in heaven and more of the people in the world.

 

A) There was obviously a great deal of corruption in the church.
B) The Renaissance means the rebirth of classical learning.
C) Leonardo da Vinci, for instance, painted many pictures with religious themes.
D) Michael Angelo is a typical product of Renaissance times.
E) The trend was to build palaces rather than cathedrals.

 

55. During the middle ages, Venice flourished greatly as her trade expanded. ….. . At that time she not only controlled the main trade route between east and west, but she also built up a considerable empire on the mainland of Italy and down the Adriatic Coast, including parts of Greece. Apart from the Ottoman Empire there was no other power to challenge her.

 

A) Furthermore, the city was originally founded by refugees who had fled here from the attacks of Atilla and his armies on the mainland of North Italy
B) However. when new routes to the East were discovered, her power and wealth began to decline
C) On the other hand, it was ruled by a supreme magistrate, called the “Doge”, and by councillors elected from among the aristocracy
D) In fact, by the fifteenth century she was enjoying her golden age
E) Moreover, she came into fierce conflict with the other sea-trading power, Genoa

 

56. There are no less than 140 countries comprising the so-called “third world” known variously as “less developed” or “developing” or “underdeveloped” or “poor” countries. There is a great diversity among them, and yet they have a number of features in common. ….. . For instance, some of the oil-producing countries have achieved very high levels of income per capita while retaining many of the characteristics of less developed countries.

 

A) Their natural resources are so limited that economically they are mostly dependant on international aid.
B) Population explosion is a major problem many countries are unable to cope with.
C) In such countries there is a great demand for an educated and skilled work force.
D) Death rates have fallen sharply in response to improved health services.
E) Foremost among these is their poverty, but even poverty is not universal.

 

57. Bacteria are minute, single-celled organisms of variable shape and activity. Along with the viruses, they are classified as the lowest forms of plant life. Bacteria are everywhere – in soil, water, dust, and in air. ….. . Some turn decaying vegetable matter into manure; others, within the human or animal body, assist in the development of certain vitamins essential to health.

 

A) There are still many bacteria whose size and shape are not known yet
B) Food poisoning is also caused by various kinds of bacteria
C) A high-powered microscope is needed to detect bacteria in some substances
D) Under hygienic circumstances no bacterial activity takes place
E) There are thousands of different types and many perform useful functions

 

58. Vegetables eaten freshly cooked are safe. They may be contaminated after cooking or be subject to spore germination and outgrowth if cooled slowly and stored warm. Salad vegetables, lettuce, tomato, radishes, cucumber and watercress should be washed in water for not less than 30 seconds. ….. .

 

A) In some restaurants a great variety of salad is served
B) Some people are not fond of vegetables at all
C) Water pollution is a serious danger that threatens the world
D) This is especially important in countries where crops are sometimes flooded with water polluted with human and animal sewage
E) As a result of easy transportation and good packaging, tropical vegetables are distributed worldwide

 

59.-64. sorularda, anlam bakımından hangi cümlenin parçaya uymadığını bulunuz.

 

59. (I) The acts of a single man are as a rule unimportant nowadays. (II) But the acts of groups are more important than they used to be. (III) If one man refuses to work, that is his own affair. (IV) After all, everyone stops working when he retires. (V) But if there is a strike in a vital industry the whole community suffers. 

 

  A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

 

60. (I) Actually London dates back to Roman times. (II) Greater London, with its nine million population, includes the City and the County of London. (III) It also includes the outer suburbs and much land that looks more urban than rural. (IV) There are no definite boundaries, but it covers an area of some twenty miles radius from Oxford Circus. (V) It is surrounded by a “green belt” and here it is forbidden to build.

 

  A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

 

61. (I) A thick layer of snow on a steep slope is always liable to avalanche. (II) A lot of avalanches occur in the Alps. (III) A very small disturbance may set it in motion. (IV) The vibrations caused by a passing train are sufficient. (V) Once in motion it gains in speed and crushes in its path.

 

  A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

 

62. (I) At the end of 1974, the prospects of the country were far from rosy. (II) To start with, the rate of inflation was steadily going up. (III) It only dropped temporarily in July and August. (IV) So were the unemployment figures. (V) And the cold winter served to aggravate all the problems.

 

  A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

 

63. (I) Most children, from time to time, show aggressive tendencies. (II) This is entirely normal, and should be regarded as so. (III) In fact, children should be encouraged to express their aggression fully through creative activities and exploration. (IV) For this, a safe, suitable background must be provided. (V) Actually, more accidents occur indoors than they do outdoors.

 

  A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

 

64. (I) There are several reasons why conventional medicine distrusts the practitioners of alternative medicine. (II) Herbalists believe they can cure a wide range of conditions with plant substances alone. (III) These people like to look beyond the immediate symptoms to the body’s total state. (IV) They aim to restore health by helping the body to heal itself. (V) Their skill lies in knowing which plants are beneficial in which circumstances.

 

  A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

 

65.-70. sorularda, verilen duruma uygun düşen ifadeyi bulunuz.

 

65. You think someone has behaved in an objectionable way and you are determined to tell him so. You say:

 

A) I can’t imagine why you decided to do such a thing.
B) It really was very gracious of you to behave like that.
C) I didn’t expect you to do that!
D) You behaviour has disgusted me and I don’t think I shall ever forgive you.
E) You must agree it was rather an odd thing to say.

 

66. Your patient has diabetes and you want to impress upon him how important a starch-free diet is. You say:

 

A) So long as you eat a well-balanced diet you will be all right.
B) I am afraid you cannot be treated with medicines.
C) You must cut down on all starch foods and eat absolutely nothing with sugar in it.
D) Just eat normally and don’t try to lose weight.
E) If you stop eating bread, potatoes and spaghetti you will soon lose weight.

 

67. You are buying a new computer for use in the firm. Your main worry is that the modal you like might prove too complicated for the staff to work. You ask the salesman:

 

A) Roughly how long does it take the average person to use a computer of this type efficiently?
B) Can you briefly give me some idea of the advantages of this model over the cheap one?
C) Can you show me a model that is more efficient than the one you sold me last year?
D) This type is just what we need. Can you show me how to operate it?
E) This computer will really ease their weight-load; so they’ll be delighted, don’t you agree.

 

68. You are taking visitors to the laboratory to see how your experiment has been set up. It is vital that no one touches anything, so you say:

 

A) Concerning the experiment, let’s keep in touch.
B) I am certain no one has touched anything.
C) Don’t bother to touch anything.
D) It is essential that nobody touches anything related to the experiment.
E) If you want to touch anything, be sure it is safe.

 

69. The manager of the firm you work asked your opinion about one of the new employees. You want to give a non-committal answer. You say:

 

A) It’s really too early to say. I know nothing either for or against him.
B) He’s the best trainee we’ve had for several years.
C) Personally, I can’t stand the man.
D) I’ll keep an eye on him if you are interested.
E) If you are looking for a new assistant, he can’t do the job well.

 

70. Your daughter is going to Istanbul by bus. You want to hear that she has arrived safely, so you say:

 

A) You do know your aunt’s telephone number, don’t you?
B) Let me know when you’re coming back and I’ll meet you.
C) I expect your aunt will at the station to meet you.
D) Be sure to give us a ring when you get there.
E) Have a good trip! Enjoy your holiday!

 

71.-76. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş bırakılan kısmında söylenmiş olabilecek sözü bulunuz.

 

71. Andy:
I see they are still investigating the cause of the fire at the Chilton Hotel.
James:
…..
Andy:
Do you agree?
James:
Yes I do. But it will be difficult to prove in court.

 

A) If the wind hadn’t dropped they say the damage would have been even worse.
B) That’s very natural. Some people reckon it was started deliberately.
C) As far as concerned, it was obviously a question of gross carelessness.
D) The insurance companies involved are demanding a court enquiry.
E) I don’t think they ever will learn the real cause.

 

72. Ted:
Is something worrying you?
Sam:
Yes, Bob Shaw, who was in charge of work at the new dam, has been taken ill.
Ted:
…..
Sam:
Precisely. And I don’t know how I’m going to find one.

 

A) Has he been off work long?
B) How much are you prepared to pay?
C) So you need a replacement, I suppose.
D) Hard luck. He really was a capable man.
E) Well, if I can help, just let me know.

 

73. Mr. Wright:
I see The Times has yet another article on immigration. Have you read it?
Mrs. Wright:
No, but intend to do. They are obviously making an issue of it.
Mr. Wright:
…..
Mrs. Wright:
You may be right, but I hope it’s not as serious as that.

 

A) At the office everybody was talking against him.
B) And so they should. Have you any idea how many people are involved?
C) They should have done so many years ago.
D) Yes, that’s how it seem to me, too. It may lead to some resignation even.
E) And, about time, too. Did you get a copy of Newsweek for me?

 

74. Mrs. Glower:
Will you give up your job when the baby is born?
Mary:
…..
Mrs Glower:
Never mind. I’m sure your mother will be delighted to take care of it.

 

A) Yes, of course I will. I wouldn’t want anyone else to look after it.
B) Certainly not. I should hate staying at home with a baby.
C) I haven’t decided yet, but I shall have to do soon.
D) I don’t know. What do you advise?
E) No, I’d like to but I can’t afford to.

 

75. Secretary:
I’m afraid Dr John doesn’t see patients except by appointment.
Paul:
…..
Secretary:
Well, in that case sit down and I’ll let him know you’re here.

 

A) How much does he charge for a visit?
B) Can’t you give me an appointment?
C) But I’m not a patient. I’m his brother.
D) Surely, he is not too busy to see me.
E) Well, can you give me an appointment for later in the day?

 

76. Mr. Clapton: 
You are looking tired dear.
Mrs. Clapton:
…..
Mr. Clapton:
Why? What happened?
Mrs. Clapton:
I don’t know. Everything seemed to go wrong. But, let’s forget it.

 

A) I was going to suggest we had dinner outside.
B) Really, Well, I feel just fine.
C) So are you. It must be the weather.
D) Well, I’m tired. I’ve had a most tiring day.
E) My secretary was back today so we got a lot of work done.

 

77.-82. sorularda, verilen cümleye anlamca en yakın olan cümleyi bulunuz.

 

77. As I understand it, the advantages of the scheme and the disadvantages just about balance each other out.

 

A) I really cannot decide whether the advantages of the scheme outweigh the advantages, or whether it is the other way round.
B) It seems to me that the scheme has more advantages than disadvantages.
C) If you want my opinion, I would sat the scheme has fewer advantages and disadvantages.
D) In a scheme of this sort, one would expect there to be both advantages and disadvantages.
E) It is essential that the advantages and the disadvantages of the scheme are given equal attention.

 

78. These gardens have been well-designed, so they look attractive all the year around.

 

A) Good garden design would ensure that these gardens were lovely to look at all through the year.
B) The best-planned gardens are those which look attractive all the year round.
C) Only well-designed gardens like these appeal to the public all the year round.
D) Whatever the season, these gardens look attractive for much planning has gone into them.
E) If you tried, you could make these gardens beautiful even in the winter.

 

79. He’s only just arrived, so he still doesn’t know what’s happened.

 

A) It’s a long time since he came, so he doesn’t know what’s been happening.
B) He hasn’t been here long, so nobody thought the news would interest him.
C) As he only got here a minute or two ago, he hasn’t heard the news yet.
D) All that happened just before he arrived.
E) If he had arrived here a minute earlier he would have been given all the news.

 

80. Owing to the poor visibility it took us ten hours, instead of the usual eight, to get to Istanbul.

 

A) The lights of Istanbul were visible for two hours before we reached the city.
B) Even though we ran into a lot of fog on the way to Istanbul the journey didn’t take much longer than usual.
C) We waited two hours for the fog to lift before driving on to Istanbul.
D) The fog meant that we reached Istanbul two hours later than would be normal.
E) It takes between eight and ten hours to drive to Istanbul, depending on visibility.

 

81. The newspapers are putting the blame on his private secretary, but I think several other people are equally guilty.

 

A) The names of some of the guilty people were given to the newspapers by his private secretary.
B) Quite a lot of people are annoyed at the attitude of the newspapers towards his private secretary.
C) According to the newspapers, it is not only his private secretary who is to blame; several other people are involved.
D) Some of the people who are quite as guilty as his private secretary have managed to avoid getting their names in the newspapers.
E) It seems to me that several people are at fault, not just his private secretary as the newspapers are suggesting.

 

82. Much to my surprise, I found his lecture on the civilization of Mesopotamia extremely interesting.

 

A) I was fascinated by what he had to say in his lecture on the civilization of Mesopotamia though I hadn’t expected to be.
B) Contrary to expectations, his lecture on ancient Mesopotamia was the most fascinating of all.
C) It was at his lecture on the civilization of Mesopotamia that I realized how fascinating the subject is.
D) Surprisingly few people are interested in the lecture on the civilization of Mesopotamia.
E) I hadn’t expected him to lecture on the civilization of Mesopotamia, but he spoke remarkably well.

 

83.-85. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

As technological developments have altered production techniques, types of mechanical equipment and varieties of output, society has begun to recognize that economic progress involves not only changes in machinery but also in men – not only expenditures on equipment but also on people. Investment in people makes it possible to take advantage of technical progress as well as to continue that progress. Improvements in education expands and extends knowledge, leading to advances which raise productivity and improve health.

83. According to the author, investment in education …… .

 

A) has a direct impact on production techniques
B) will contribute positively to human progress
C) has little significance for economic progress
D) is far more important than investment in health
E) has led to certain specific technological changes

 

84. The passage is mainly concerned with …… .

 

A) the question of economic progress and productivity
B) the necessity of improvement in health services
C) long-term benefits of investment in education
D) the impact of economy in life expectancy
E) new education policies to meet technological needs

 

85. It is argued in the passage that ….. .

 

A) questions of increased output must be given priority
B) economic progress depends largely on technological developments
C) expenditures should be evenly distributed among the sectors
D) improvements in the health services are urgently required
E) society was slow to realize the need to invest in man

 

86.-88. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

Both as a profession and as a science, economics lost considerable prestige during the recession of 1974-75. The crisis that sized the western industrialized countries, including Japan, was of a character not to be found in economics textbooks: rate of inflation exceeding 10% a year coupled with declining production, and high levels of unemployment. Hitherto, peacetime inflation had been associated with high employment and overactive economy, while high rates of unemployment went with the recession or depression. The next combination was aptly called stagflation.

86. The term stagflation can be defined as ….. .

 

A) the combination of high inflation and economic recession.
B) high unemployment in spite of high levels of production.
C) a decrease in the rates of inflation.
D) inflation in an overactive economy.
E) high levels of peacetime inflation.

 

87. The economic crisis of the mid-1970’s ….. .

 

A) followed the same pattern as earlier economic crisis
B) had little effect on the industry of developed countries
C) caused people to lose faith in economics
D) caused the economy to be overactive
E) was characterized only by high inflation and low production

 

88. The main subject of the passage is ….. .

 

A) the growing popularity of economics as a science
B) the relationship between unemployment and recession
C) the industrial decline of Japan and some western countries
D) the unusual nature and the extensive effects of the economic crisis of the 1970’s
E) how to combat high inflation and unemployment

 

89.-91. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

“Political crime” differs from ordinary crime only in the motivation, real or claimed, of the criminal. A hold-up, a bank robbery, a burglary, drug running, kidnapping, or murder is no less a crime for being politically motivated. In this context, terrorism may be defined as “motivated violence for political ends”; this distinguishes terrorism both from vandalism and from crimes of violence in which no political motivation is discerned. Political crime is thus a wider term than terrorism, which is an extreme form of it. The relationship between the two is that between the whole and the part.

89. In this passage it is argued that ….. .

 

A) terrorism rarely stems from political considerations.
B) a bank robbery cannot be politically motivated.
C) vandalism and political crime are one and the same thing.
D) there is no relationship between political crime and terrorism.
E) a crime is still a crime even though it may be politically motivated.

 

90. The author maintains that a crime is political ….. .

 

A) so long as it is committed against politicians.
B) if it is related to vandalism.
C) if violence is involved.
D) only when the end is political.
E) when drug-running and kidnapping are excluded.

 

91. A suitable title for this passage could be ….. .

 

A) Types of Political Crime
B) Political Crime and Terrorism
C) Criminal Activities
D) Prevention of Political Crime
E) The Spread of Terrorism

 

92.-94. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

All of us would agree that we know a number of different things. If challenged to give a catalogue of what you know, you might say, for example, that you know the English and French languages, how to swim, how to drive a car, how to analyze a chemical substance, that you know a number different people, and so on. The list even in general terms like this would be a very long one, and it would not be possible, for practical purposes, to set out such a catalogue in detail. But one thing is obvious from the few examples I have given; the word “know” is commonly used in many different senses.

92. The main point of the passage is ….. .

 

A) that the frontiers of knowledge cannot be defined
B) to make people realize how little they know
C) to demonstrate how variable are the meaning of the word “know”
D) whether it is desirable to know everything
E) that knowledge can be acquired from different sources

 

93. It is shown in the passage that ….. .

 

A) the cataloguing of knowledge is deceptive
B) most people’s knowledge is one-sided
C) people have more theoretical than practical knowledge
D) theoretical knowledge is underestimated
E) people are confident they know a great many things

 

94. A suitable title for this passage could be ….. .

 

A) Practical knowledge
B) Catalogues of knowledge
C) Learning Foreign Languages
D) Defining the Word “Know”
E) Common Terminology

 

95.-97. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

The atom bomb, and still more the hydrogen bomb, have caused new fears, including new doubts as to the effects of science on human life. Some eminent authorities, including Einstein, have pointed out that there is a danger of extinction of all life on this planet. I do not myself think that this will happen in the next war, but I think it may happen in the next but one, if that is allowed to occur. If this expectation is correct, we have to choose, within the next fifty years or so, between two alternatives. Either we must allow the human race to exterminate itself, or we must forgo certain liberties which are very dear to us.

95. It is implied that ….. .

 

A) the scientist should ignore moral issues
B) Einstein seldom agreed with other scientists as regards the value of human life
C) science is not always beneficial to mankind
D) personal liberties are the things we should fight for
E) scientists will prevent any further war

 

96. The author believes that the only way to avoid war ….. .

 

A) cannot be found within the next half century
B) is to give up certain much loved liberties
C) is to submit everything to arbitration
D) is a voluntary lowering of economic standards
E) is by fairly facing the problem of all nations

 

97. A suitable title for this passage could be ….. .

 

A) What Choice to Make?
B) Another Nuclear War
C) Einstein and His Theories
D) The Extermination of Mankind
E) How to Safeguard Liberties

 

98.-100. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

There are several points to remember when buying food. First of all, larger shops sell goods at lower prices than smaller shops. As most people know, supermarkets often sell their own brands of many products. “Own brands” are, on average, cheaper than the brands of leading manufacturers. For example, on items such as peas, beans, soap and soap powder, own brands can be up to 15 percent cheaper. On some lines, such as washing-up liquid, the savings can be even greater. There is no reason to suppose that own brand ones inferior. They are commonly produced in the same place as the branded products. Often the difference is the packaging and the price.

98. The passage argues that ….. .

 

A) the prices of most branded products are completely fair
B) people should avoid the cheaply packaged “own brands”.
C) big stores charge more for basic food stuffs than is necessary
D) there is no real difference in quality between “own brands” and the branded products
E) customers should be protected against poor products

 

99. When buying food stuffs and cleaning materials in a supermarket, ….. .

 

A) one is advised to choose “own brands”
B) one should not look for the cheaper brands
C) we must not ignore the packaging
D) we must remember that goods may be of poor quality
E) it is advisable to buy the products major manufacturers

 

100. In this passage, the author is trying to show people ….. .

 

A) that they should always shop at the same supermarket
B) how to cut the weekly budget by at least 15 percent
C) what brands are produced by leading manufacturers
D) why it is wiser to prefer smaller shops
E) how to shop economically

 

YANITLAR

1. D

2. C

3. E

4. B

5. E

6. D

7. A

8. A

9. E

10. E

11. D

12. B

13. A

14. E

15. A

16. D

17. A

18. E

19. E

20. C

21. A

22. A

23. C

24. B

25. C

26. C

27. A

28. E

29. E

30. E

31. C

32. D

33. C

34. D

35. A

36. C

37. E

38. D

39. B

40. A

41. C

42. A

43. C

44. B

45. E

46. B

47. C

48. D

49. A

50. D

51. C

52. D

53. C

54. E

55. D

56. E

57. E

58. D

59. D

60. A

61. B

62. C

63. E

64. A

65. A

66. C

67. A

68. D

69. A

70. D

71. B

72. C

73. B

74. E

75. C

76. D

77. A

78. D

79. C

80. D

81. E

82. A

83. B

84. C

85. B

86. A

87. C

88. D

89. E

90. D

91. B

92. C

93. A

94. D

95. C

96. B

97. A

98. D

99. A

100. E

 

 

Sınavlar Hakkında Genel Bilgi

İngilizce KPDS, ÜDS ve YDS ile ayrıntılı bilgilere (içerik, düzenleniş tarihleri, başvuru, değerlendirme gibi) ÖSYM adresinden ulaşabilirsiniz.

Bu üç sınavın ortak nitelikleri şunlar:

  • Sorular beş seçeneklidir.
  • Seçeneklerde dilbilgisi açıdan yanlış hiçbir ifade bulunmaz; İngilizcenin sözcük oluşturma kurallarına uygun olmayan hiçbir sözcük kullanılmaz.
  • KPDS ve ÜDS’de yanlış yanıtın doğru yanıtı silmesi uygulaması yoktur.
  • Seçeneklerde HİÇBİRİ, YUKARIDAKİLERİN HEPSİ ya da ( – ) biçiminde bir ifade yer almaz.
  • Dilbilgisi açısından İngiliz İngilizcesi temel alınır.
  • Her üç sınavın soru tipleri ortaktır.

SÖZCÜK BİLGİSİ

Admittedly, the engineers’ report was relatively unimaginative, but on the whole _________.

  1. accurate
  2. irrelevant
  3. vacant
  4. deceptive
  5. wealthy

DİLBİLGİSİ

The new accountant we have recruited is not _________ efficient _________ the previous one.

  1. such / as
  2. so / that
  3. as / as
  4. either / or
  5. both / and

Ayrıntılı Dilbilgisi Notları

Dilbilgisi Sorularının İncelenmesi.

EKSİK TÜMCEYİ TAMAMLAMA

It is surprising _________

  1. so that his childhood was not spent very profitably
  2. that she had given in her resignation so suddenly
  3. where such accurate and detailed information had come from
  4. how much attention even the more serious newspapers will have given him
  5. how few people have ever seen an original Van Gogh painting

Eksik Tümceyi Tamamlama Sorularının İncelenmesi.

İNGİLİZCEDEN TÜRKÇEYE ÇEVİRİ

It is possible to draw some conclusions from the data presented

  1. Bir sonuca varabilmek için bazı verilere ihtiyaç var.
  2. Sunulan verilerden bazı sonuçlar çıkarmak mümkün.
  3. Sunulan verilerden herhangi bir sonuç çıkarmak uzak bir ihtimal.
  4. Verilerden elde edilen sonuçları yeniden değerlendirmek gerekir.
  5. Sonuçları, sunulan verilere göre değerlendirmek mümkün.

İngilizceden Türkçeye Çeviri Sorularının İncelenmesi.

TÜRKÇEDEN İNGİLİZCEYE ÇEVİRİ

Hükümet hayvancılığı desteklemediği takdirde, ciddi bir et sıkıntısının olması kaçınılmaz.

  1. Even if the government decides to subsidize cattle farming a meat shortage cannot be avoided.
  2. Unless the government subsidizes cattle farming, a serious meat shortage is inevitable.
  3. A shortage of meat will inevitably force the government to subsidize cattle farming.
  4. In spite of the government’s decision to subsidize cattle farming, meat is still in short supply.
  5. The cattle farming subsidies decided upon by the government have not overcome the meat shortage.

Türkçeden İngilizceye Çeviri Sorularının İncelenmesi.

PARAGRAF TAMAMLAMA

_________. In other words, all our power is based upon the control of natural sources, in the sense that the energy of fuel is never man-made. It already exists as in the wind and in rivers; it may be stored up as in coal or uranium.

  1. Man derives energy from many different sources.
  2. All our sources of power are “natural”.
  3. Energy is as indestructible as matter itself.
  4. Power can be defined as energy under control.
  5. In due course all energy returns whence it came.

Paragraf Tamamlama Sorularının İncelenmesi.

ANLAM BÜTÜNLÜĞÜNÜ BOZAN TÜMCE

(I). Before Galileo, it was thought that a lifeless body would not move of itself. (II). It was further believed that such a body, once in motion would gradually come to rest. (III). Experimental science was not even permitted during the Middle Ages. (IV). But Galileo and Newton proved that all the movements of the planets proceed according to the laws of physics. (V). And that once they are set in motion they will continue indefinitely.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

Anlam Bütünlüğünü Bozan Tümce Sorularının İncelenmesi.

VERİLEN DURUMA UYGUN DÜŞEN İFADE

You have kept a friend’s book for a long time and you finally return it rather apologetically. You say:

  1. I don’t think it’s very well written, but I did get some useful material out of it. Thanks.
  2. I enjoyed it so much; I actually read it twice!
  3. I thoroughly enjoyed it. Can you lend me another by the same author?
  4. Do you mind if I keep it for another week?
  5. Sorry, I kept this so long. I hope you haven’t been needing it?

Verilen Duruma Uygun Düşen İfade Sorularının İncelenmesi.

KONUŞMADA BOŞ BIRAKILAN YERİN TAMAMLANMASI

Peter: Have you read the feasibility report yet?

Mark: No. I didn’t even know it was ready.

Peter: _________ .

Mark: I didn’t expect it would be.

  1. Yes I managed to read it yesterday.
  2. Well it is. And it is not very encouraging.
  3. True. No one expected it this week.
  4. Read it. You’ve got a surprise coming.
  5. Yes, yesterday. I think you’ll be impressed with it.

Konuşmada Boş Bırakılan Yerin Tamamlanması Sorularının İncelenmesi.

YAKIN ANLAMLI TÜMCE

The manager is unwilling to say anything as he has not yet had a chance to consult his legal adviser.

  1. The manager doesn’t want there to be a law case so he is saying nothing.
  2. The manager’s lawyer has advised him to keep absolutely quiet.
  3. Until he is instructed in the legal aspects of the matter the manager is keeping quiet.
  4. The manager is referring all questions to his lawyer and answering none himself.
  5. In consultation with his lawyer the manager has decided to answer no more questions.

Yakın Anlamlı Tümce Sorularının İncelenmesi.

OKUMA

Secularization as it has developed since the Middle Ages had consisted in substituting for supernatural and theological explanations naturalistic and reasonable ones. This change is one of the most profound affecting mankind and forms the basis of modern democratic government and of our scientific-technological age. In a society based on the divine right of kings there could be no genuinely democratic government in the modern sense. Democracy is built on the idea that the individual has a right to judge political issues for himself.

1. According to the passage, with the rise of democracy, _________.

  1. supernatural ideas have given way to theological ones
  2. scientific and technological progress has been neglected
  3. secularization has lost its traditional meaning
  4. the individual has lost many of his former rights
  5. the traditional concept of the “divine right of kings” has vanished

2. It is argued that the process of secularization __________.

  1. has had no impact on the concept of monarchy
  2. goes back to pre-medieval times
  3. has led to systems of democratic government
  4. has no relevance to the exercise of individual rights
  5. has failed to overcome superstition and magic

3. In the development of modern society _________.

  1. medieval institutions have not been neglected
  2. democracy has been of little significance
  3. technological supremacy has been the ultimate aim
  4. the impact of secularisation has been of fundamental importance
  5. individual rights have been curtailed

Okuma Sorularının İncelenmesi

Okuma Alıştırmaları.

DENEME SINAVLARI 

Bu bölümde, KPDS’nin düzenine göre oluşturulmuş iki tane deneme sınavı yer almakta. Sınavları KPDS’de toplam olarak 3 saat süre verildiğini göz önünde bulundurarak ele alın. Bu bölümdeki üçüncü, “öylesine” deneme sınavı ise sürekli deneme sınavı çözmekten bıkan öğrencilerim için biraz da eğlenmek amacıyla hazırladığım bir çalışma. Ancak, dikkatli olun! Öğrencilerim bu sınavı en az diğerleri kadar zor buldular.

Sözcük Bilgisi

  • Soru tümcesini dikkatli bir şekilde okuyun.
  • Soru tümcesinde geçen ve anlamını bilmediğiniz sözcüklerle aşırı zaman harcamayın. Bazen bu sözcükler fazlaca bir önem taşımayabilir.
  • Yanıtı bildiğinizi düşünseniz bile tüm seçenekleri okuyun. Seçeneklerden biri, sizin düşündüğünüz sözcükten çok daha uygun olabilir.
  1. Soruların Analizi ve İpuçları: Sıfat, Ad ve Yüklem eklenmesi

(a) SIFAT

A few people enjoyed the exhibition, but the majority were clearly _______.

A) restrained
B) admirable
C) impartial
D) disappointed
E) relieved

(b) AD

The Kodak Company now faces stiff ______ both from abroad and from rival firms at home.

A) renovation
B) competition
C) investment
D) commerce
E) recession

(c) YÜKLEM

I believe that leaders must make an effort to stay open-minded and try to ______ another person’s point of view.

A) deplore
B) recover
C) forecast
D) insist
E) appreciate

Bağlam: Sözcük bilgisinin yanısıra bağlam çok büyük yardım sağlayabilmekte. Sözcüğün içinde geçtiği tümcenin tümünün incelenmesi, ipuçları sağlayacaktır. Bu ipuçları şu bilgileri verebilir:

  • Sözcüğün olumlu mu yoksa olumsuz mu olacağı.
The extensive ________ over the past years have caused widespread famine in central Asia.

A) precipitation
B) snow
C) droughts
D) wet seasons
E) winds

Bu soruda bağlamın çözülmesi, FAMINE sözcüğünün anlamını bilip bilmemekte yatmakta. Eğer bu sözcüğün anlamını bilmiyorsanız, doğru yanıtı bulma şansınız azalmakta. Bu durumda da, CENTRAL ASIA hiç değilse seçenekleri elemenize yardımcı olabilir. Orta Asya’nın coğrafya koşullarını göz önünde bulundurarak, en azından (D) ve belki (B) seçeneğini hemen eleyebilirsiniz.

FAMINE sözcüğünün anlamını biliyorsanız, bu durumda işiniz daha kolay. Sözcük kıtlık anlamını taşıdığına göre, buna neden olan şeyin de olumsuz anlam taşıması gerekir. Ekin söz konusu olduğunda (b), (c) ve (e) olumsuz sayılabilir. Bunlar içinde de (c) seçeneği, yani kuraklık uygun seçenek olmaktadır. (b) seçeneğindeki kar ya da (e) seçeneğindeki rüzgarlar uygun seçenek olamaz zira tümcede over the past years ifadesi kullanılarak bu olumsuz durumun yıllardır sürdüğü anlatılmaktadır.

Bu soruda, her zaman rastlanamayacak bir dilbilgisi desteği de yer almakta. Sorunun a ve b seçeneklerinde sayılamayan (=uncountable) ad kullanılmakta. Tümcenin yüklemi ise have, yani çoğul ad ile kullanılan bir yüklemdir. Bu iki seçenek derhal elenebilir.

  • Sözcüğün bir preposition‘a sahip olup olmadığı.
It is a pity that he _______ on his potentially harmful plans.

A) considers
B) insists
C) decides
D) thinks
E) succeeds

Tümcede boşluğa gelmesi gereken yüklem on ile kullanılmaktadır. Seçenekler içinde sadece (b) ve (c) on ile kullanılabilir. Anlam olarak da (b) en uygun seçenektir.

Sözcüğün yapısı: Yine bağlamdan yola çıkarak, boşluk için gereken sözcüğün olumlu bir anlamı mı yoksa olumsuz bir anlamı mı yansıtması gerektiğine karar verdikten sonra – var ise – sözcüklerdeki ön ve art takkıları inceleyin.

Sözcüğün yapısı ile ilgili diğer ipuçları: Bazı ad, sıfat ve yüklemlerin birlikte kullanıldıkları belirli preposition‘lar yukarıdaki örnek soruda olduğu gibi soru tümcesinin kendinde olabileceği gibi, seçeneklerde de olabilir. Buna göre belirli seçenekler ön plana çıkarılabilir ya da elenebilir. Bu ipucu ile ilgili açıklamalar aşağıdaki kısımda da karşınıza çıkmakta.

  1. Soruların Analizi ve İpuçları: Preposition, Pronoun, Phrasal Verb eklenmesi

(d) PREPOSITION

This article _____ Murat IV is extremely well written.

A) to
B) from
C) over
D) for
E) on

(e) PRONOUN

______ desk is on the right as you enter, ______ is on the left.

A) Ours/your
B) Hers/his
C) Her/mine
D) Their/my
E) Them/my

  • Sık kullanılan ad + preposition, sıfat + preposition ve yüklem + preposition yapıları ayrıntılı olarak bilmeniz gerekmekte.
  • Sık kullanılan phrasal verb yapıları ayrıntılı olarak bilmeniz gerekmekte.
  • Yukarıda (e) örneğinde olduğu gibi, iki boşluk verilmesi durumunda, eleme yapmanız kolaylaşmakta. Boşluklardan birine uygun düşen sözcüğü bilmeniz durumunda bu sözcüklerin bulunmadığı seçenekleri eleyebilirsiniz.
  1. Genel Notlar
  2. Sözcük çalışma ve dosyalama sistemi geliştirin.

Sınav öncesinde sözcük çalışmak ve dosyalamak için çeşitli sistemler önerilmekte. Dil öğrenenlerin bazıları bir yanında yabancı sözcük, diğer yanında da Türkçe anlamı yazılı olan kartlar oluşturmaktadır. Bazıları da yanlarında sürekli sözlük taşımayı tercih etmekte. Özellikle elektronik cep sözlüklerinin yaygınlaştığı günümüzde sürekli sözlük taşımak kolaylaşmakta ise de, sözcüklerin öğrenebilmesi için iyi bir sözcük dosyalama sisteminin aşağıdaki özellikleri taşıması gerekir.

  1. Sözcüğün türü (Part of speech)
  2. Eş anlam ve karşıt anlam (Synonym ve Antonym)
  3. Farklı anlamlar
  4. Örnek tümce(ler)
  5. Türkçe karşılık

Aşağıda verilen kart örneği bir model teşkil edebilir. Örnek olarak “date” sözcüğü alındı.

Sözcük

date

Türü

(1) noun; (2) noun; (3) noun; (4) verb; (5) verb; (6) verb

Eş anlam

(1) epoch, era, term. (3) appointment; rendezvous. (4) meet; go out with. (5) see; escort; (6) register; determine

Karşıt anlam
Anlam(lar)ı ve kullanımı

(1) tarih
(2) hurma
(3) buluşma; randevu TO HAVE A DATE WITH SOMEONE
(4) buluşmak; birisi ile çıkmak TO DATE WITH SOMEONE
(5) eşlik etmek ** Kullanımı çok az.
(6) tarihlemek; kaydetmek

Örnek(ler)

1. The date is September 8, 1995.
2. Dates are quite refreshing in hot weather.
3. I have a date with a beautiful girl.
4. He is dating with a beautiful girl.
5. KULLANIMI ÇOK AZ.
6. We found relics dating back to the first century B.C.

  1. Sık olarak karıştırılan yapılara dikkat edin.

İngilizcede bazı yapılar ve sözcükler sık olarak karıştırılmakta. Bunların örnekleri aşağıdaki alıştırmada verilmekte.

Alıştırma

Uygun seçeneği belirleyin.

  1. (Especially/Special) attention must be given to the questions at the end of each chapter.
  2. An explanation will (precede/proceed) each section of the test.
  3. Can you ________ (recommend, introduce) a book on gems?
  4. Dante’s (immoral/immortal) literary masterpieces are read in universities.
  5. Did somebody tell you to send the cable or did you at on your own ________ (initiative, initiation)?
  6. Eric’s courageous rescue of the drowning child was a (credulous/creditable) deed.
  7. Every time Maria travels with her children, she has (access/excess) baggage.
  8. Everything (accept/except) our swimwear is packed and ready to go.
  9. George was (among/between) those students selected for the debate.
  10. I ________ (hope, wish) Peter comes tomorrow.
  11. I ________ (hope, wish) Peter would come soon.
  12. In 1969 the astronauts who landed on the moon collected (samples/examples) of rocks and soil.
  13. Keith’s company headquarters were (formerly/formally) located in this city.
  14. Last week my uncle ________ (brought, took) us for a ride in his car.
  15. Maria was working very (hard/harly) on her thesis.
  16. Mary is very ________ (conscious, conscientious) worker, so you can rely on her.
  17. Mary likes to ________ (watch, look) the news on television.
  18. Mary’s insulting remark greatly (effected/affected) Peter, who is a very (sensible/sensitive) person.
  19. My brother works very ________ (hard, hardly) and usually comes home at night.
  20. Perry’s spare flashlight was (helpless/useless) at the night of the storm because the batteries were flat.
  21. Peter has joined the Army ________ (as, like) his brother.
  22. Peter should ________ (spend, pay) more time on planning his work.
  23. Please ________ (take, bring) this letter to the school office.
  24. The fire started ________ (during, while) we were asleep.
  25. The gaudy decorations in the hall (detracted/distracted) from the beauty of the celebration.
  26. The government will (persecute/prosecute) the guilty parties for polluting the waters.
  27. The United States is a melting pot of (emigrants/immigrants).
  28. There are many thorns in this path, so don’t walk along with ________ (naked, nude, bare) feet.
  29. There is no mistake. I ________ (ensure, assure) you that we have checked the invoice carefully.
  30. This drink tastes nice. I would ________ (very, much, very much) like to know how you made it.
  31. This ring ________ (is worth/worth) at least a thousand dollars.
  32. Two men ________ (stole, robbed) a lady and ________ (brought, took) her bag away, but they were caught by the police.
  33. Two men were arguing in the street. The noise soon ________ (attacked, attracted) a crowd of people.
  34. Two people retired in June, and six in July. That means that eight people have resigned ________ (altogether, totally) in the past two months.
  35. We must find out the ________ (cause, reason) for his absence from the meeting.
  36. What was the ________ (cause, reason) of the disaster?
  37. When Louise set the table, she set the silverware (beside/besides) the plates.
  38. When one of the players was ________ (injured, wounded), the manager ________ (replaced, substituted) him.
  39. Which dress shall I ________ (put on, wear) to the party?
  40. While doing the experiment, we asked the lab technician’s (advise/advice).
  41. You essay is very (imaginary/imaginative) and worthy of an “A” grade.
  42. You should not say things that make a highly (sensitive/sensible) person upset.
  1. “Sahte dostlar”a dikkat edin.

Türkçeye genelde Fransızcadan girdiği için İngilizce anlamdan farklı kullanılan ya da zaman içinde anlam değişikliğine uğramış, ya da birden çok farklı anlamı olan sözcüklere dikkat edin. Bunların en tipik olanlarına örnek vermek gerekirse:

İNGİLİZCE SÖZCÜK YAPILAN HATA OLMASI GEREKEN ANLAM
dramatic Türkçede “tiyatrovari” anlamı taşıyan “dramatik” sözcüğünün karşılığı olarak görülmekte. “theatretical” anlamının yanısıra “very” anlamı da var.
inexpensive Türkçedeki “ekonomi ile ilgili” anlamını taşıyan “ekonomik” sözcüğünün eşdeğer olarak görülmekte. “Tutumlu, pahalı olmayan” anlamlarını taşımakta.
reflection En bilinen anlamı olan “yansıma” dışındaki anlamları çok bilinmemekte. “Reflect” yüklemi “yansıtmak” dışında “düşünmek”, “reflection” adı da “düşünme/düşünce” anlamlarını taşımakta.
sympathetic “Sempatik” anlamı verilmekte İlk ve tek anlamı “anlayışlı”.
magazine “Dergi/Magazin” dışındaki anlamı çok bilinmemekte. “Silah sarjörü” anlamı da var.
date Tarih dışındaki anlamı çok bilinmemekte. Yüklem de olabilmesinin yanısıra, “hurma” anlamı da var.
  1. Sözcük Bilgisinin Geliştirilmesi

Longman Lexicon of Contemporary English (McArthur, 1991) başlıklı çalışmanın sözcük derleme listesine dayanarak, sözcüklerin birbirleri ile bağlantılı biçimde öğrenilebilmeleri için, çeşitli sözcük sınıfları saptadım.

Toplam olarak yaklaşık 4.000 sözcük ele alınmakta ise de, alıştırma ve açıklamalardaki sözcükler de katıldığında bu sayı daha da artmaktadır. Elbette, bütün bu sözcükleri öğrenmeniz ya da ezberlemeniz olanaksız; zaten amaç da alıştırmalar yolu ile pekiştirme sağlayarak olabildiğince fazla sayıda sözcüğün öğrenilmesine yardımcı olmak.

Sözcükler toplam 23 konu altında derlendi.

SÖZCÜK BİLGİSİ – ÖRNEK SORULAR

Aşağıda örnek olarak 16 sözcük sorusu verildi.

Yanıtlar bütün sorulardan sonra gelmekte.

Buradaki örnek sorulara geçmeden önce, sözcük bilgisi çalışmasını tamamlamanızı öneririm.

Sözcük çalışmasına geç.

 

1. The recent economic figures ….. that the country is slowly coming out of the crisis.

 

  A) commit
B) imply
C) incur
D) evolve
E) invoke

 

2. The assassination by terrorists of Signor Aldo Moro, five times prime Minister of Italy, in May 1978 was ….. by everyone as an act of barbarism.

 

  A) applauded
B) appealed
C) reiterated
D) condemned
E) restrained

 

3. When the rate of exchange began to rise again, he felt ….. to call a meeting of the financial staff.

 

  A) obliged
B) blamed
C) consumed
D) omitted
E) rewarded

 

4. The United States has long prided itself on being a melting pot of culturally ….. peoples.

 

  A) diverse
B) redundant
C) incoherent
D) entire
E) substantial

 

5. As a result of the continuing economic recession, a huge ….. in the budget seems inevitable.

 

  A) redundancy
B) improvement
C) profit
D) distinction
E) deficit

 

6. He devised an ….. scheme whereby the rate of unemployment could be brought down sharply.

 

  A) irrelevant
B) unstable
C) ingenious
D) untamed
E) illegible

 

7. I was greatly impressed by the way the judge conducted the trial, ….. when it came to summing up the case.

 

  A) particularly
B) completely
C) sufficiently
D) effectively
E) respectively

 

8. As soon as the leak in the boiler was noticed, one of the engineers was naturally ….. .

 

  A) taken after
B) run down
C) made out
D) sent for
E) turned up

 

9. At the board meeting, his suggestion was ….. as it seemed politically controversial.

 

  A) put out
B) fallen out
C) held in
D) burst into
E) cast aside

 

10. Locke, Hobbes and Rousseau were concerned in their writings with the question of a proper ….. between the public good and the right of individuals to exercise free will.

 

  A) balance
B) demonstration
C) responsibility
D) interest
E) solidarity

 

11. Questions of race, ethnicity, and religion have been a ….. source of conflict in American education.

 

  A) previous
B) perennial
C) vulnerable
D) naughty
E) casual

 

12. The ….. was not a happy one at the time, but looking back on it I suppose I’m glad it occurred.

 

  A) improvement
B) regression
C) encounter
D) intention
E) compromise

 

13. The contemporary world economy differs ….. from what the traditional economic theorists of the 1930s envisaged.

 

  A) primarily
B) likely
C) conversely
D) profoundly
E) intimately

 

14. In recent years ….. complex and persistent problems in economic and social fields have led people to wonder why once comfortable answers no longer seem adequate to today’s questions.

 

  A) generously
B) inadvertently
C) increasingly
D) ingeniously
E) leisurely

 

15. As far as we are concerned, the evidence put before the court was not ….. enough to convict the man.

 

  A) subsequent
B) conclusive
C) adamant
D) earnest
E) consecutive

 

16. Since the 1950s modern dance in Europe and America has ….. a vigorous process of creativity.

 

  A) cast
B) explored
C) constituted
D) relaxed
E) followed

YANITLAR

    1. The recent economic figures imply that the country is slowly coming out of the crisis.
      Zor bir soru. Ne sorunun kökü ne de seçenekler yanıt konusunda bir ipucu sağlamamakta. Sözcüklerin hemen hemen tümünün anlamını bilmeniz gerektiği için cevabınız yanlış ise fazla üzülmeyin. Yanıt B. imply = suggest; hint
    2. The assassination by terrorists of Signor Aldo Moro, five times prime Minister of Italy, in May 1978 was comdemned by everyone as an act of barbarism.
      Zor bir soru. Yine de soru kökü ne tür bir sözcük aranması konusunda bir parça ipucu vermekte. Assassination, terrorists, barbarism gibi sözcükler göstermekte ki boşluğa olumsuzluk taşıyan bir sözcük gelecek. Bu durumda beş seçenek içinde nispeten daha bilinen sözcükler olan appeal ve applauded sözcüklerinin elenebilmesi gerekir. Gerisi şansınıza kalmış. Yanıt D. condemn= lanetlemek
    3. When the rate of exchange began to rise again, he felt obliged to call a meeting of the financial staff.
      Yan tümcede olumsuz bir ortam verilmekte: the rate of exchange began to rise again. Bu durumda da bir “call a meeting of the financial staff” durumu söz konusu. Yani, soru kökü birbirine bağlı iki durum hakkında yeterli bilgi vermekte. Sorudaki en önemli ipucu ise boşluktan hemen sonra gelen to sözcüğü. Hemen arkasından bir eylem (call) gelmekte ve bu tümcenin zaten bir yüklemi (felt) bulunmakta. Bu kişi insanları toplantıya çağırmaya (kendisini) NE hissetti? Yanıt A. obliged (to alır) = zorunlu … 5. soru buna benzer bir soru.
    4. The United States has long prided itself on being a melting pot of culturally diverse peoples.
      Tümcenin yüklemi prided. ABD’nin gurur duyduğu şey, “culturally … peoples” için bir melting pot olması. Bu soruda önemli olan şey, bu halkların (insanlar değil. “Peoples halklar demektir) ne tür bir nitelik taşıdığı ve ABD’nin bundan gurur duyduğu. Gurur duyulacak şeyin olumlu yanı olması gerekir. Bu durumda da olumsuz anlam taşıyan sözcükler elenebilir. Örneğin, incoherent. Buna, ne olumlu ne de olumsuz bir anlam taşımayan entire sözcüğü de eklenebilir. Daha önce karşılaştığınızı umduğum (çok sık geçen bir sözcük) redundant sözcüğü de olumsuz anlam taşımakta. Yazı gelirse A, tura gelirse E. Yazı. diverse = different, various
    5. As a result of the continuing economic recession, a huge deficit in the budget seems inevitable.
      3. soruya benzeyen bir soru. Yine ekonominin durumu kötü. Bu durumda budget içinde büyük …. gerek. Budget sözcüğünün anlamını hatırlıyorsanız, cevabı bulmuş olmanız gerekir. Bilmiyor olsanız bile, bu kadar olumsuzlukla (economic recession, inevitable) dolu bir tümcede olsa olsa olumsuzluk istenir mantığı ile yola çıkabilir ve seçenekler içindeki tüm olumlu sözcükleri eleyebilirsiniz. Derhal elenmesi gereken iki seçenek B ve C. A seçeneğindeki sözcük 4. soruda B seçeneğinde kullanılan redundant sözcüğünün ad hali. 4. soruda bu sözcüğün de olumsuz olduğu söylenmekte. Geriye D ve E kalmakta. Yanıt E. deficit = açık (bütçe için kullanılmakta)
    6. He devised an ingenious scheme whereby the rate of unemployment could be brought down sharply.
      Tümcedeki whereby sözcüğü dilbilgisi açıklamalarında, relative clause başlığı altında geçmekte ve through which (= ki onun yoluyla, onun sayesinde) anlamını taşımakta. Ana tümcede sözü edilen scheme işsizlik oranını aşağı çekebilecek güçte olduğuna göre, olumlu nitelikler taşımalı. İlk bakışta seçeneklerin tümü de olumsuz öntakı taşıyor gibi. Ama tek tek inceler ve elemenizi ona göre yaparsanız, C seçeneğinin geriye kalması gerekir. Eğer bu türden öntakılar sizi yanıltmakta ise, dilbilgisi notları içinde Ön ve Arttakılar konusunu inceleyin. ingenious = clever, intelligent
    7. I was greatly impressed by the way the judge conducted the trial, especially when it came to summing up the case.
      Zor bir soru. Birinci tümce konuşan kişinin duygularını anlatmakta: impressed. Ardından da ek bilgi sağlanmakta. Aslında soru bu kadarcık bilgiden oluşsa, cevabı bulmak kolay olurdu. Ama ikinci tümcedeki when came to yapısı herşeyi karıştırmakta çünkü söz konusu olduğunda anlamını taşımakta. Yanıt A. particularly = especially
    8. As soon as the leak in the boiler was noticed, one of the engineers was naturally sent for .
      Fazla zor olmayan bir soru. Yan tümce olmasaydı bile, “one of the engineers was naturally … ” bölümünün tamamlanabilmesi gerekir. Tümcede yüklem was olduğuna ve tüm seçeneklerde de V3 kullanıldığına göre, edilgen (passive) bir yapı söz konusu. Yan tümcedeki sözcükleri bilmediğinizi düşünsek bile, “Birşey farkedilir farkedilmez, mühendislerden biri …”. Ve edilgen yüklem. Yanıt D.
      take after = birisine çekmek. (“Ben babama çekmişim” gibi)
      run down = ezmek, çiğnemek (araba vs. ile)
      make out = anlamak, ayırdına varmak (genelde görsel açıdan); çözüm getirmek
      turn up = çıkagelmek. En yakın çeldirici bu seçenek. Ama edilgen durumda anlamsız.
    9. At the board meeting, his suggestion was cast aside as it seemed politically controversial.
      Tümcede öncelikle çözümlemeniz gereken iki sözcük var. Birincisi as, ikincisi it. Aslında it sözcüğünü çözümlemek kolay, olsa olsa suggestion yerine kullanılıyordur. “At the board meeting, his suggestion was …” bölümü anlamlı bir tümce oluşturduğuna göre de, as sözcüğü iki tümceyi birbirine bağlamakta. Ya when ya da because anlamı taşıyabilir (dilbilgisi notlarında her iki kullanım da time clause ve reason clause içinde var). Bu iki anlamdan hangisini taşıyor olursa olsun, öneri politik açıdan controversial görülmüş. Contro/contra öntakısı Türkçeye de yerleşmeye başlamış bir olumsuzluk öntakısı. Bu da demektir ki öneri pek de beğenilmedi. Dikkat edin, beğenmedi değil beğenilmedi. Çünkü was sözcüğünden sonra seçeneklerde V3 verilmekte, yani edilgen (passive) yapı var. Ardından, seçenek ele(yeme)me aşaması. Verilen phrasal verb yapılardan en azından A ve D’yi biliyor olmanız gerekir. Gerisi şans işi. Yanıt E. cast aside = bir kenara bırakmak
    10. Locke, Hobbes and Rousseau were concerned in their writings with the question of a proper balance between the public good and the right of individuals to exercise free will.
      Kolay olması gereken bir soru. Tümcedeki between … and yapısına dikkat. “between public good and the right of individuals”. Tümcenin en sonundaki will sözcüğü elbette yardımcı yüklem değil bir noun. Anlamını biliyor olmasanız bile, en azından free sözcüğü ile olumlu birşeyler anlatılmak istendiğini düşünebilirsiniz. Public good ile the right of individuals arasındane olmalı? Yanıt A. Denge.
    11. Questions of race, ethnicity, and religion have been a perennial source of conflict in American education.
      Çok zor bir soru. Yanıt B. perennial = constant, continuous
    12. The compromise was not a happy one at the time, but looking back on it I suppose I’m glad it occurred.
      The … was not a happy one at the time. Üzücü olan neydi? A seçeneği kesinlikle olamaz. D seçeneği de saçma görünüyor. Belki C seçeneğini de elemiş olabilirsiniz. Yanıt E. compromise = finding a middle course, concession
    13. The contemporary world economy differs profoundly from what the traditional economic theorists of the 1930s envisaged.
      İki şey kıyaslanmakta. The contemporary world economy ve what the traditional economic theorists of the 1930s envisaged. Boşluktan sonraki what sözcüğü the thing which (Dilbilgisi açıklamalarında relative clause konusu) anlamını taşımakta. Yani bugünkü ekonomi ile 1930ların kuramcılarının söylediği?/tahmin ettiği? ekonomi arasında bir fark var. Ve bu fark ne ölçüde? En yakın çeldirici A, doğru yanıt ise D. profoundly = derin/büyük ölçüde.
    14. In recent years increasingly complex and persistent problems in economic and social fields haveled people to wonder why once comfortable answers no longer seem adequate to today’s questions.
      Olumsuzluklarla dolu bir tümce: “complex and persistent problems in economic and social fields”, “no longer seem adequate”. Seçenekteki sözcük de “complex and persistent problems in economic and social fields” bölümünü nitelendireceği için olumsuz anlam taşımalı. A ve E seçenekleri hemen elenebilir. D şıkkındaki ingeniously sözcüğü 6. soruda ingenious olarak seçeneklerde yer almakta ve olumlu anlam taşımakta. En yakın çeldirici B. Yanıt C. (B seçeneği olumsuz sözcük içermekte, ancak, inadvertently sözcüğü düşüncesizce anlamını taşır ve cansız bir nesneye uygun değildir.)
    15. As far as we are concerned, the evidence put before the court was not conclusive enough to convict the man.
      Bu soruda evidence sözcüğünün anlamını bilmiyorsanız doğru yanıtı bulmanız çok zor. Ayrıca, tümcedeki before sözcüğü önce değil önüne anlamını taşımakta. Yanıt B. conclusive = bitirici, nihai
    16. Since the 1950s modern dance in Europe and America has followed a vigorous process of creativity.
      Soru kökünü anlaması kolay, seçenekleri elemesi zor bir soru. En yakın çeldirici C. Doğru yanıt E.

Sözcük Çalışmaları

Sözcük bilginizi pekiştirmeniz ve geliştirmeniz için aşağıda sıralanan 23 konudaki sözcüklerin anlamları ve farklı formları üzerinde çalışma yapmanızı öneririm. Sözcüklerin yalnızca anlamları ile yetinmeyin, var ise diğer formlarını da (ad, sıfat vs. halleri) inceleyin.

Verilen alıştırmalarda genellikle başlıkta verilen sözcüklerle tümceleri ya da tanımları eşleştirmeniz istenmekte. Örneğin,

A3. deadly, fatal, lethal

1. Run! We are in ________ danger! YANIT DEADLY

2. There was a ________ accident last night.

3. People are not permitted to carry ______ weapons here.

ya da

B1. animal, being, creature, beast, species, breed, race

1. a four-footed animal YANIT BEAST

2. a group of plants or animals that are the same of a kind, which are alike in all important ways, and which can produce young of the same kind

3. a kind or class of animal or plant, usually developed by man

4. a living creature, especially a person or a personality

5. a living thing, especially an animal

6. a living thing, not a plant or a human

7. any of several kinds of people with different physical features

Bazı alıştırmalarda, tümceler sonunda verilen sözcüğün farklı bir formunu boşluk içinde kullanmanız gerekmekte. Örneğin:

A2. abolish, assassin, eliminate, kill, massacre, murder, slaughter

1. _______ of war means peace forever. ABOLISH YANIT ABOLISHMENT

2. Several American presidents have been ________ . ASSASSIN

3. His using drugs resulted in his ________ from the games. ELIMINATE

4. In order to get rid of this pain, you need to get a pain-________. KILL

5. They went through the land, burning and ________ . MASSACRE

6. She gave him a ________ look! She was very angry. MURDER

7. Many people are needlessly _______ each year in road accidents. SLAUGHTER

Çok az sayıda alıştırmada eşanlam ya da karşıt anlam bulmanız istenmekte. Örneğin:

G4. active, lazy, lively

1. ineffective, boring X _____ YANIT LIVELY

2. hardworking, industrious X _____

3. idle, indolent, inert X _____

Bazen de sözcüğün farklı bir formu doğrudan istenmekte. Örneğin:

F4. discover, track down, trace

1. Discover (v) à __________ (n) YANIT DISCOVERY, DISCOVERER

Az kullanılan bir alıştırma türünde, başlıkta verilen sözcüğün birlikte kullanıldığı sözcükler sorulmakta. Örneğin:

brain, brow, nostril, pupil, throat, tonsils, tooth, wink

1. We _________ our brains but couldn’t find the answer. YANIT RACKED

Diğer alıştırmalar kendi kendisini açıklayacak türden.

İşlenen Konular

  1. LIFE AND LIVING THINGS
  2. THE BODY: ITS FUNCTION
  3. THE BODY: ITS WELFARE
  4. PEOPLE AND FAMILY
  5. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
  6. LAW AND ORDER GENERALLY
  7. RELIGION AND BELIEFS
  8. BUILDINGS, HOUSES, THE HOME
  9. CLOTHES, BELONGINGS, AND PERSONAL CARE
  10. FOOD, DRINK, AND FARMING
  11. FEELINGS, EMOTIONS, ATTITUDES, AND SENSATIONS
  12. THOUGHT
  13. COMMUNICATING
  14. LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR
  15. SUBSTANCES, MATERIALS, OBJECTS, AND EQUIPMENT
  16. ARTS AND CRAFTS, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, INDUSTRY AND EDUCATION
  17. NUMBERS, MEASUREMENT, MONEY, AND COMMERCE
  18. ENTERTAINMENT, SPORTS, AND GAMES
  19. SPACE
  20. TIME
  21. MOVEMENT, LOCATION, TRAVEL, AND TRANSPORT
  22. GENERAL AND ABSTRACT TERMS
  23. DOING THINGS
  24. LIFE AND LIVING THINGS
  25. LIFE AND LIVING THINGS

A1

dead, death, decay, decompose, die, extinct, rot

  1. All the crops were _______ because of lack of rain.
  2. History teaches us that all nations _______ in time.
  3. The _______ flesh of the dead animals began to smell terribly.
  4. Most people consider Latin to be a _______ language.
  5. He was happy till the day of his _______ .
  6. Throw away this meat – it is _______ .
  7. Many kinds of animals are in danger of becoming _______ .

A2

abolish, assassin, eliminate, kill, massacre, murder, slaughter

  1. _______ of war means peace forever. ABOLISH
  2. Several American presidents have been ________ . ASSASSIN
  3. His using drugs resulted in his ________ from the games. ELIMINATE
  4. In order to get rid of this pain, you need to get a pain-________. KILL
  5. They went through the land, burning and ________ . MASSACRE
  6. She gave him a ________ look! She was very angry. MURDER
  7. Many people are needlessly _______ each year in road accidents. SLAUGHTER

A3

deadly, fatal, lethal

  1. Run! We are in ________ danger!
  2. There was a ________ accident last night.
  3. People are not permitted to carry ______ weapons here.

A4

bear, birth, female, hatch, offspring, pregnant, puberty, reproduce, seed

  1. The ________ of the child was an occasion of great joy in the family.
  2. The baby was ________ at 8 o’clock last morning.
  3. The ________ was sitting on eggs while the male bird brought food.
  4. They can ________ the sound of thunder in the theatre.
  5. She has been ________ for nearly nine months.
  6. He planted the ________ at the right time and got excellent vegetables.
  7. The ________ of the cat are called kittens.
  8. The sexual organs first become active at ________.
  9. Finally the eggs _________ and young chicks appeared.

A5

alive, animate, coexist, create, exist, life, live, survive

  1. They believe that the ________ of the universe was a coincidence.
  2. Currently, she is ________ in a student hostel.
  3. After the accident, only ten people ________.
  4. Although he is old, he is still very much ________.
  5. His excitement ________ all of us.
  6. Do fairies and genies really ________?
  7. There is no _______ on the moon.
  8. Did man ______ with dinosaurs?

A6

immortal, inherent, mortal

  1. It is an ________ part of human nature to avoid pain.
  2. All men are ________.
  3. The Greeks told stories about the ________ gods.
  4. LIVING CREATURES GENERALLY

B1

animal, being, creature, beast, species, breed, race

  1. a four-footed animal
  2. a group of plants or animals that are the same of a kind, which are alike in all important ways,
    and which can produce young of the same kind
  3. a kind or class of animal or plant, usually developed by man
  4. a living creature, especially a person or a personality
  5. a living thing, especially an animal
  6. a living thing, not a plant or a human
  7. any of several kinds of people with different physical features

B2

amphibian, insect, pest

  1. An ________ vehicle is useful on land and in the water. AMPHIBIAN
  2. I’ve found some cockroaches in the bathroom. We need some ________. INSECT
  3. Farmers spray ________ on their crops to get a good yield. PEST

B3

bacteria, bug, parasite, reptile, rodent

  1. She leads a ________ life, doing no work herself but helped by everyone else.
  2. Snakes and crocodiles are ________.
  3. Rabbits and rats are ________.
  4. ________ exist in water, soil, air, plants, and the bodies of animals and people.
  5. She’s got the flu ________.

B4

game, predator, prey, scavenger

  1. This town is full of ________ hotel-keepers charging very high prices.
  2. The lion seized its ________ and ate it.
  3. Jackals and vultures are ________.
  4. This is a very good ________ soup.

B5

bark, nest, pack, school, troop, web

  1. When we heard the bark of the ________ (dog / lion / jackal), we stopped.
  2. The ________ (bear / jackal / sparrow) was sitting in its nest.
  3. We keep a pack of ________ (dogs / birds / sheep)
  4. A school of ________ (deer / fish / pigeons) went past us.
  5. The troop of ________ (sparrows / dolphins / baboons) was a sight to see!
  6. The ________ (spider / scorpion / ant) sat in the centre of the web.
  7. ANIMALS AND INSECTS

C1

alligator, ant, ape, bee, beetle, cattle, cricket, eagle, mosquito, moth, mule, serpent, shark, snake, wasp, whale, worm

  1. a flying insect with yellow and black stripes across its body
  2. a large bird that lives by hunting and eating small animals
  3. a large fierce cold-blooded animal that lives on land and in lakes and rivers
  4. a long, thin reptile with no legs
  5. a small animal with a long thin body, no bones and no legs
  6. a small flying insect that bites people in order to suck their blood.
  7. a small insect that generally lives under the ground in large colonies
  8. a small jumping insect that produces sharp sounds by rubbing its winds together.
  9. a small flying insect that lives in large colonies and lives on pollens.
  10. a snake
  11. a very large animal that lives in the sea and looks like a huge fish
  12. a very large fish with sharp teeth
  13. an animal produced by a horse and a donkey
  14. an insect like a butterfly, which usually flies at night and eats woollen material
  15. an insect with a hard covering to its body
  16. any large kind of monkey without a tail
  17. cows and bulls

C2

antenna, antler, beak, claw, fur, horn, mouth, neck, nose, paw, shell, shoulder, skin, spine, tail, tame, toe, tooth, trunk, whiskers, wing

  1. All flying animals have a pair of ________.
  2. An insect uses its ________ to feel things.
  3. Animals like cows, giraffe, rhinoceros all have a single or a double ________.
  4. Birds have ________ instead of nails.
  5. Cats’ and dogs’ feet are generally called ________.
  6. Elephants take food into their mouth through their ________.
  7. Hippopotamus is a land animal with the largest ________.
  8. In animals, backbone is also called the ________
  9. In birds, the bony structure in the place of lips is called the ________.
  10. In cats and similar animals, the long moustache is called ________.
  11. In many fish, the ________ has evolved into scales.
  12. In the circus, they _________ lions so that they won’t attack people.
  13. In whales, the ________ is a single hole on top of the head.
  14. Many animals, such as deer, have ________ to protect themselves.
  15. Many fish don’t have ________ but the shark has.
  16. Many insects have a hard ________ which is hard to break.
  17. Most mammals are covered with a thick ________ .
  18. On the foot, the large “finger” is called the ________.
  19. The ________ of a giraffe is very long.
  20. The neck is connected to the body through ________.
  21. When they are happy, dogs wag their ________.
  22. KINDS AND PARTS OF PLANTS

D1

ivy, moss, shrub, straw, undergrowth, weed

  1. a low plant like a small tree with several woody stems instead of a trunk
  2. a plant that grows up walls and trees and has small, shiny leaves
  3. a very soft green plant which grows on damp soil, or on wood or stone
  4. a wild plant that grows in gardens or fields and is harmful for cultivated plants
  5. bushes and plants growing together under the trees in a forest or jungle.
  6. dried, yellowish stalks of crops such as wheat or barley.

D2

bloom, blossom

A plant or tree that is in ________ has flowers on it. On the other hand, ________ is the flowers that appear just before the fruit.

D3

bud, core, ear, grain, juice, leaf, needle, root, sap, shoot, stem, stone, thorn

  1. Apples have ________ in them.
  2. Goats are dangerous for a forest because they love eating _____ of trees.
  3. He gave the beggar some ________ of rice.
  4. He got a ________ in his finger when he touched the plant.
  5. He gave me two ________ of corn to show the pests in them.
  6. His aggressiveness ________ from over-working.
  7. In autumn, the ________ fall from most trees.
  8. It is difficult to understand how the _______ reaches from roots up to the leaves.
  9. Many fruits, such as cherries and peaches, have a single ________ in them.
  10. The branch he broke from the tree was full of flower ________.
  11. The ground was covered with pine ________.
  12. This year, oranges are very ________.
  13. When I was digging the ground, the ________ of the tree were a bit damaged.

 

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. There is a campaign against those hunters who mercilessly slaughter baby seals.
A) net B) capture c) kill D) skin
  1. Allowing fields to lie fallow is one way of restoring fertility.
A) unplanted b) ploughed c) watered d) seeded
  1. One of the oldest forms of folk art is handicraft, the creation of objects by hands.
A) invention B) activity C) hobby D) elevation
  1. The laws of nature determine that some animals nurture their young from birth while
    others will leave offspring to survive on their own.
A) convalesce B) shelter C) nourish D) predispose
  1. The laws of nature determine that some animals nurture their young from birth while
    others will leave offspring to survive on their own.
A) body B) baby C) food D) partner
  1. The laws of nature determine that some animals nurture their young from birth while
    others will leave offspring to survive on their own.
A) hold up B) feed C) go extinct D) disappear
  1. Copyright laws are intended to prohibit the systematic reproduction of published works
    for the purpose of avoiding their purchase.
A) revision B) duplication C) preparation D) design
  1. No one can survive for very long without water.
A) reproduce B) prosper C) transcend D) exist
  1. Magnolia is a family of trees and shrubs that are native to North America and Asia.
A) flowers B) leaves C) trunks D) bushes
  1. Many pesticides are available for insects like termites and cockroaches.
A) poisons B) deterrents C) sprays
  1. THE BODY: ITS FUNCTION
  2. THE BODY GENERALLY

A1

build, limb, muscle, nerve

  1. He’s extremely ________. He must have spent plenty of time for exercise. BUILD
  2. The female athlete tends to be longer-________. LIMB
  3. Great ________ effort is needed to accomplish the task. MUSCLE
  4. He eventually had a ________ breakdown. NERVE

A2

corpse, remains, tissue

  1. A ________ lay uncovered in the hospital table.
  2. On his face was a scar ________ left by a wound.
  3. We visited some Roman ________.

A3

meat, flesh

________ is the soft material that covers the bones of human beings and animals. However, ________ is from animals – apart from fish and birds – that is eaten.

  1. THE BODY

B1

ankle, elbow, heel, jaw, joint, rib, skull, wrist

  1. a part of the body where two bones meet and are able to move together
  2. the back part of foot, just below the ankle
  3. the bony part of the head which encloses the brain
  4. the curved bones that go from the backbone to the chest
  5. the joint where the foot joins the leg
  6. the lower part of the face below the mouth
  7. the part of the body between the hand and the arm which bends when the hand moves
  8. the part in middle the arm where the arm bends

B2

mouth, stomach, thigh, tongue, waist

  1. I hadn’t heard what he said, so he ________ the word once again.
  2. I didn’t intend to say it; it was a slip of the ________.
  3. We are quite unable to ________ this silly idea.
  4. She decided to narrow the ________ of her skirt.
  5. I walked the last six kilometres in water up to my ________.
  6. THE HEAD AND FACE

brain, brow, nostril, pupil, throat, tonsils, tooth, wink

  1. We ________ our brains but couldn’t find the answer.
  2. He sat there ________ his brows and snorting.
  3. As I was smoking secretly, my dad caught me with ________ in my nostrils.
  4. The optician ________ the pupil before he prescribed the cleansing fluid.
  5. Before he started speaking, he ________ his throat noisily.
  6. Doctor had to _______ his tonsils because tonsillitis was about to develop.
  7. I love dessert; I really have a ________ tooth.
  8. I feel so tired – I haven’t ________ a wink.
  9. THE TRUNK, ARMS, AND LEGS

D1

lap, nail, palm, sole, thumb

  1. After the match, I had blisters developing on the _____ of my feet.
  2. Her youngest child was asleep in her _____.
  3. Please stop biting your _____!
  4. Some people claim that they can read your future through your _____.
  5. The new-born baby was sucking her _____.

D2

abdomen, artery, heart, vein, womb

  1. a particular style or mood
  2. the organ in the chest that pomps the blood around the body
  3. the part inside a woman’s body where a baby grows before it is born
  4. the part of the body below the chest where the stomach and intestines are
  5. the tubes in the body that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body

D3

bleed, breath, exhale, inhale

  1. Has the _____ stopped or do you need some extra bandage? BLEED
  2. They followed the game with _____ interest. BREATH
  3. The old man’s _____ was too weak to put the candle out. EXHALE
  4. _____ of smoke is actually harmful for the lungs. INHALE
  5. THE SKIN, THE COMPLEXION, AND THE HAIR

E1

bald, beard, dandruff, moustache, pore, whiskers, wrinkle

  1. hair on a man’s face, especially on the sides of his face
  2. lines in someone’s skin, especially on the face, which form with age
  3. small white pieces of dead skin that are in hair or falls from it
  4. someone who has little or no hair
  5. the hair that grows on a man’s upper lip
  6. the hair that grows on the chin and cheeks
  7. the small holes in the skin

E2

auburn, blond, sunburnt, suntan, tanned

  1. brown
  2. darker than usual
  3. light
  4. pinkish
  5. reddish

E3

fair, light, pale

  1. She has got _____ blue eyes.
  2. Unprotected _____ skin gets suntanned very quickly.
  3. You look awfully _____. Are you all right?
  4. FLUIDS AND WASTE PRODUCTS OF THE BODY

excrement, perspire, spit, sweat, tear

  1. Animals _____ sweat through the skin and faeces from the anus. EXCREMENT
  2. His face was wet with _____. PERSPIRE
  3. He is the _____ image of his uncle. SPIT
  4. Was that _____ walk along the beach necessary? SWEAT
  5. His _____ family came to pay their last respects. TEAR
  6. BODILY STATES AND ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES

G1

daze, dream, hibernate, lose, nap, relax, rest, sleep, wake, yawn

  1. She looked very _____ by the news. DAZE
  2. A _____ look came into her eyes. DREAM
  3. ________ is vital in many animals life. HIBERNATE
  4. He is suffering from a sudden _____ of weight. LOSE
  5. When I last saw grandpa, he was _____. NAP
  6. The authorities recommend a general _____ in child discipline. RELAX
  7. I spent a _____ night because of the nightmares. REST
  8. She suddenly started to feel very _____. SLEEP
  9. I spent most of my _____ hours in the library. WAKE
  10. They drew back from the _____ chasm. YAWN

G2

calm, restless, strain, temperate, tense, unease

  1. effort, anxiety
  2. embarrassment, confusion
  3. moderate, calm, mild
  4. nervous, uneasy, unsettled
  5. peaceful, relaxed, quiet
  6. strained, tight, nervous

G3

feeble, weak

  1. “They seemed all right to me,” I explained _____ FEEBLE
  2. Acid _____ the structure of pearls. WEAK

G4

active, lazy, lively

  1. ineffective, boring X _____
  2. hardworking, industrious X _____
  3. idle, indolent, inert X _____

G5

drowsy, exhaust, fatigue, tire, weary, worn-out

  1. feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness
  2. make someone use a lot of energy, with the result that one needs to rest
  3. make someone very tired
  4. tired and without enthusiasm
  5. too old, damaged or thin from use
  6. too sleepy and exhausted

G6

asleep, awake, aware, conscious, nightmare, strength, trance

  1. I can hear his snore; I think he is _____ asleep.
  2. When I went into his room, he was already _____ awake.
  3. Are you aware _____ the dangers of smoking?
  4. When they hit him, he _____ consciousness.
  5. When they caught him with the money, he fell into a nightmarish _____.
  6. By June, the tourists were arriving _____ strength.
  7. He was _____ a deep trance.

G7

obesity, overweight, robust, slender, slight, slim, stout, thickset

  1. delicate; unimportant
  2. nearly fat
  3. plump, thick, heavy
  4. slim, fragile
  5. stoutness, fleshiness, fatness
  6. thin, slender
  7. vigorous, hard, strong
  8. well-built

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. Peter was an agile and athletic youth.
A) awkward B) active C) ponderous D) inept
  1. Even though he was obese, Oliver Hardy gained fame as a comedian.
A) dying B) crazy C) unhappy D) fat
  1. Racoons are examples of animals that hibernate several months of the year.
A) sleep B) fast C) lose hair D) store food
  1. If severe haemorrhaging is not stopped, death can result in minutes.
A) coughing B) trembling C) paralysis D) bleeding
  1. Because of the moon’s weak gravity, it has little or no atmosphere.
A) potent B) feeble C) negative D) harmless
  1. The African continent is a vast, latent source of mineral wealth and hydroelectric
    power.
A) conductive B) powerful C) incomplete D) potential
  1. Corpulent people are constantly trying new diets.
A) Slim B) Fat C) Unfit D) Lazy
  1. At the end of the race, his stamina gave out, so he lost the race.
A) place B) stand C) vigour D) memory
  1. The lungs are the chief organs of respiration in human beings and other animals.
A) oxygen B) creation C) breathing D) activity
  1. Tom’s doctor said he was obese and had to take immediate measures to correct the
    problem.
A) anaemic B) tired C) corpulent D) petulant
  1. THE BODY: ITS WELFARE
  2. BODILY CONDITIONS RELATING TO HEALTH, SICKNESS, AND DISABILITY

 A1

ailing, sick, sound, unfit, unhealthy

  1. Cancer is an _____ that is hard to cure. AILING
  2. Luckily, his _____ was not very serious. SICK
  3. These days I fell depressed. Everything seems _____. SOUND
  4. These days, I feel as _____ as a fiddle. UNFIT
  5. Which is more important to you: _____ or money? UNHEALTHY

A2

health, welfare, well-being

  1. fitness + being well
  2. health + comfort + prosperity
  3. health + happiness

A3

cripple, disable, disease, handicap, illness

  1. Those who survived the accident will be _____ for life. CRIPPLE
  2. He was unable to work because of a _____ caused by an accident. DISABLE
  3. We’ve had to cut down that _____ old tree. DISEASE
  4. The government should help the mentally-_____. HANDICAP
  5. He was _____ at ease with people whom he didn’t understand. ILLNESS

A4

choke, cough, gasp, hiccup, sigh, sneeze, snore, strangle, suffocate

  1. a short quick breath that is taken in through the mouth, especially when one is surprised or in pain
  2. be unable to breathe because of something in the windpipe or strong emotion
  3. die because there is no air to breathe
  4. force air out of the throat with a sudden, harsh noise
  5. kill someone by squeezing the throat
  6. let out a deep breath, as a way of expressing feelings
  7. repeated little choking sounds in the throat
  8. take in breath and then blow it down the nose noisily
  9. when asleep, making a loud sound each time one breathes

A5

vomit

vomit (v) = _____ up (v) = _____ up (v)

A6

faint, hurt, injure, swell, wound

  1. A mosquito bit her and her whole arm became larger than normal. = _____
  2. After the war, he still had the traces of his injuries due to being shot. = _____
  3. His cuts and bruises in the accident were terrible. = _____
  4. When he saw blood, he lost consciousness. = _____
  5. When she left him, she slightly damaged his feelings. = _____

A7

attack, fit, trouble

  1. He said his left arm hurt, and soon he had a _____ attack.
  2. He had to stop speaking due to a ______ fit.
  3. She has _____ trouble, probably ulcer.

A8

agony, pain, sick, suffer

  1. We could hear the prisoner’s _____ moans. AGONY
  2. The picture had been cleaned with _____ care. PAIN
  3. I’ve been suffering from _____ ever since I left that plane! SICK
  4. The final decision might cause great hardship and _____. SUFFER

A9

ache, acute, dull, piercing, sore, sting

  1. a dull steady pain
  2. a sharp organ used as a weapon by some animals, often poisonous
  3. not sharp or clearly felt
  4. painful when touched or used, especially on the throat
  5. situation, feeling, or illness which is severe or intense
  6. very sharp

A10

blister, scar, scratch

If you walk too much with uncomfortable shoes, you will have _____s on your feet. If you _____ it, a watery substance will flow and it will hurt. On the other hand, a _____ is a mark left on the skin after a damage or injury.

A11

beat, bite, blow, break, bruise, fracture, stab

  1. Once again, he is beating around the _____ (bush/topic/branch)
  2. During polar expeditions, _____bite (snow/ice/hail) can be a real problem.
  3. Peter blew _____ (off/on/out) the candles and went to sleep.
  4. His words _____ (opened/hurt/scratched) an old bruise.
  5. My son and her girlfriend broke _____ (out/off/in) last weekend.
  6. He had to fight the final round of the boxing match with a fractured _____ (nose/palm/brain).
  7. I trusted him and he stabbed me in the _____ (top/back/foot).

A12

blind, deaf, mute

  1. The terrorists _____ the hostage so that he wouldn’t see any faces. BLIND
  2. We heard a _____ sound. Then, there was a long silence. DEAF
  3. I prefer _____ colours for the curtains. MUTE

A13

infirm, senile

– Which is a more serious problem: (a) being infirm or (b) being senile?

A14

contaminate, immune, infect, outbreak, pestilence, pollute

(v) contaminate

(v) immune

(v) infect

(v)

(v)

(v) pollute

(n)

(n)

(n)

(n) outbreak

(n) pestilence

(n)

(adj)

(adj)

(adj)

(adj)

(adj)

(adj)

  1. DISEASES AND AILMENTS

B1

acne, anaemia, asthma, backache, constipation, contagious, epidemic, fever, paralysis, pneumonia, rabies

  1. a chest disease which makes breathing difficult
  2. a dull pain in the back
  3. a lot of spots on the face and neck
  4. a medical condition which makes people unable to defecate
  5. a serious disease which causes people and animals to go mad and die
  6. a serious illness which affects the lungs and makes it difficult for one to breathe
  7. an occurrence of a disease which affects many people and which spreads quickly
  8. being infectious
  9. having too few red cells in the blood
  10. high temperature due to an illness
  11. the loss of feeling in the body or in part of it, and the inability to move

B2

allergic, hysteria, indigestion, insomnia, itch, phobia

  1. I have an _____ to plastic substances. ALLERGIC
  2. Stress can lead to irrational and _____ behaviour. HYSTERIA
  3. This food is really hard to _____. INDIGESTION
  4. As we get older, we all become _____. INSOMNIA
  5. My skin became rather dry and _____. ITCH
  6. He is apparently ______; he is scared of almost everything. PHOBIA

B3

antidote, intoxicated, poison, venom

  1. drunk with alcohol
  2. poison of a snake or a spider
  3. remedy
  4. substance that kills people when swallowed or absorbed
  5. MEDICINE AND GENERAL MEDICAL CARE

C1

attend, neglect, nurse, take care of, tend

  1. I have a very _____ nurse. ATTEND
  2. You have to prove that you are not ____. NEGLECT
  3. We _____ him devotedly when he was in hospital. NURSE
  4. Are you being __________ here? TAKE CARE OF
  5. She cradled the baby _____. TEND

C2

heal, soothe, treat

  1. damage X _____
  2. discomfort X _____
  3. neglect X _____

C3

alleviate, lessen

– Which of the two is a more technical word: (a) alleviate or (b) lessen?

C4

cure, diagnose, recover

When someone becomes ill, which is the possible correct order?

  1. A) cure > diagnose > recover
  2. B) diagnose > cure > recover
  3. C) recover > diagnose > cure
  4. D) diagnose > recover > cure

C5

patient, physician

– A _____ is a person who treats _____ in a hospital or in a place like that.

C6

casualty, veteran, victim

  1. Following the earthquake, the number of _____ is still uncertain.
  2. The traffic conditions being as it is, we are sure to be a _____ in an accident.
  3. William fought in the Gulf War; he is a _____.

C7

bandage, convalescence, dose, invalid, remedy

  1. compress, tie
  2. cripple, sickly person
  3. measure, portion
  4. recovery, healing
  5. treatment, cure

C8

anatomy, medicine, physiology, surgery

  1. the science and practice of treating and understanding disease and bodily disorders
  2. the science and practice of treating injuries and diseases by operations on the body
  3. the science of how the bodies of living things and their parts work
  4. the science or study of the bodies and body parts of people and animals

C9

drug, ointment, pill, sedative

  1. Such things as aspirin are _____ drugs.
  2. When a person spoils something, we call him/her a _____ in the ointment.
  3. If you suffer from insomnia, you can take _____ pills.
  4. Sedative (adj) à __________ (v)

C10

anaesthetic, operate, sanitary, vaccinate

  1. a substance that stops you feeling pain
  2. cut open a patient’s body to remove, replace, or repair a diseased part of it
  3. give an injection to prevent one from getting a disease
  4. keeping things clean and hygienic

C11

inject, needle, syringe

– Doctors _____ medicine through a ______ or a _______.

C12

abort, premature, symptom, therapy, ward, wheelchair

  1. He is twenty but looks sixty; he is suffering from _____ ageing.
  2. He was so weak that we needed a _____ to take him home from hospital.
  3. In the States, the anti-_____ act is unlikely to pass.
  4. My aunt is in the immunology department, _____ number 15.
  5. The patient has all the _____ of cholera.
  6. The prisoners are rejecting any sort of _____ treatment.

 

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. Your fitness obviously depends upon the amount of food, exercise, and rest you get.
A) readiness B) eligibility C) health D) preparation
  1. Because children are inoculated against measles, there are currently no cases in the
    country.
A) treated B) injected C) isolated D) subjected
  1. When the refrigerator broke down during the heat wave, all our meat was tainted.
A) warmed B) contaminated C) humid D) frozen
  1. The terrorists maimed twenty hostages during the shooting.
A) shot B) massacred C) wounded D) killed
  1. A nation which is in the throes of revolution will not welcome outside interference.
A) wars B) fights C) agonies D) enmities
  1. Toxic waste disposal is a major problem.
A) Poisinous B) Superfluous C) Metallic D) Liquid
  1. Vitamin C has a therapeutic effect in the treatment.
A) thrifty B) medicinal C) deficient D) utilitarian
  1. If you eat wholesome food instead of junk food, you will feel a lot better.
A) whole B) energy C) fresh D) nutritious
  1. Alchemists seek a panacea for the world’s ills.
A) gold B) chemical C) change D) remedy
  1. Frequent minor ailments kept her home from work.
A) irritations B) young children C) sicknesses D) falls
  1. PEOPLE AND FAMILY
  2. PEOPLE

A1

female, human, individual, male

  1. fellow, man
  2. feminine
  3. mortal, manlike
  4. person, single

A2

adolescence, infant, orphan, teenage, twin

  1. His _____ was not a happy one for him.
  2. I have eight adult and five _____ students.
  3. My sister and I are identical _____.
  4. They found a newborn _____ in the street.
  5. When her parents died, she became an _____ at the age of twelve.

A3

maternal, parent, paternal

  1. fatherly, patrimonial, patriarchal
  2. genitor, forebear, source
  3. motherly, protective, sympathetic

A4

adopt, nurture, raise

– Study the difference in meaning.

adopt, adapt

nurture, nursing

raise, arise, rise

A5

adult, elder, kin, relative

  1. She is unlikely to survive into _____. ADULT
  2. You should show respect towards your _____ ELDER
  3. Ties of ____ means a lot in our family. KIN
  4. I was a distant _____ of my husband. RELATIVE

A6

aunt, nephew, niece

  1. the daughter of one’s sister or brother
  2. the sister of one’s mother or father
  3. the son of one’s sister or brother

A7

ancestor, descendant, generation, hereditary, stock, tribe

  1. age group, rank
  2. family, kindred, clan
  3. forefather, predecessor
  4. inherent, inborn, congenital
  5. lineage, ancestry
  6. successor, heir
  7. COURTING, SEX, AND MARRIAGE

B1

court, date, seduce

  1. He was seeking the hand of Pamela, who was a beautiful widow.
  2. Many people believe that she is very tempting.
  3. She is going out with a handsome boy from university.

B2

caress, embrace, hug, kiss

  1. She _____ the cat in her lap quietly.
  2. She gave him a goodnight _____.
  3. This course _____ various elements, including speaking and translation.
  4. When he _____ me, I felt all my bones scream with fear!

B3

adultery, affair, bawdy, prostitute, rape

  1. illicit love affair
  2. molest, assault, violate
  3. obscene, coarse, vulgar
  4. relationship, liaison
  5. whore, call girl

B4

divorce, honeymoon, marriage, matrimony, polygamy, wed

  1. Do you take this man as your _____ husband?
  2. Following their last argument, Tom and Mary are going on _____.
  3. In legal circles, another name for marriage is _____.
  4. In many cultures, engagement is a step to _____.
  5. In Turkey, _____ is legally forbidden.
  6. We are planning to spend our _____ in a seaside hotel.

B5

bachelor, bridegroom, spouse, widow

  1. companion, marriage partner
  2. dowager, matron, dame
  3. husband, married man
  4. unmarried, single
  5. FRIENDSHIP AND ENMITY

C1

acquaintance, fellow, mate

  1. In order to support his _____ workers, my father is wearing a dark ribbon today.
  2. My ______ with politics is very little.
  3. My room_____ is very untidy.

C2

aloof, antagonism, enemy, hostile, opponent, unfriendly

  1. adverse, antagonistic, unfriendly
  2. competitor, rival
  3. distant, remote, indifferent
  4. enmity, hostility
  5. foe, rival, opponent
  6. hostile, conflicting

C3

accomplice, ally, associate, companion, company, neighbour, partner

  1. business colleague
  2. friend or visitor
  3. people who live near a person
  4. someone one spends time with or travels with
  5. someone who helps a person to commit a crime
  6. someone who helps and supports a person when other people are opposing
  7. the person who one is married to or is having a romantic or sexual relationship with

C4

affability, amiable, amicable, close, intimate

  1. familiar, close
  2. harmonious, sympathetic
  3. near, adjacent
  4. pleasant, friendly
  5. pleasantness, kindness

C5

argue, dispute, quarrel, row

  1. He is quite _____ when it comes to his own interest. QUARREL
  2. It is an _____ fact that whales should be strictly protected. DISPUTE
  3. Many teenage boys are _____. ROW
  4. What is the chairman’s _____ about the reasons for the budget deficit? ARGUE

C6

alone, lonely, solitary, solitude

  1. I’m not _____ here because I have my pet animals for company.
  2. She sat all _____ in the park.
  3. We saw a _____ figure in the middle of the road.
  4. When I’m studying, I prefer _____ .
  5. DEATH AND BURIAL

D1

bereaved, grief, mourn

  1. He is trying to plan his future after the _____. BEREAVED
  2. She was _____ for the dead pet cat. GRIEF
  3. I went out into the garden to join the _____. MOURN

D2

burial, coffin, embalm, funeral, grave, monument, obituary, tomb, wreath

_____ (1) ceremonies vary from country to country. Ancient Egyptians first _____ (2) the dead body and then placed it in a _____ (3) . Today, the _____ (4) has become an industry in some countries. First, expensive ______ (5) appear in newspapers. _____ (6) are made of best quality wood, and sometimes of metal. During the ceremony people send _____ (7) . If the deceased person is rich or an important figure, a _____ (8) is built above the _____ (9) .

D3

deceased, late, mortal

  1. The _____ president of the company was a real menace.
  2. They will share the property of the _____.
  3. We are all _____; one day we’ll all die.

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. The deceased left you all her diamonds.
A) missing person B) dead person C) wealthy person D) relative
  1. A funeral is a melancoly event.
A) meaningful B) medical C) expensive D) sorrowful
  1. The funeral director gave the death notice to the local newspaper.
A) obituary B) funeral C) burial D) biography
  1. In tropical countries the interment takes place within the twenty-four hours of a death.
A) intermittent B) burial C) mourning period D) interruption
  1. He’s such an affable person that people eometimes take advantage of him.
A) accessible B) good-natured C) wealthy D) weak
  1. It would be griveous to her to live without her maid.
A) pleasant B) grateful C) painful D) tearful
  1. Peter and Jo made an amicable divorce settlement by dividing their property equally.
A) avaricious B) friendly C) flimsy D) terrible
  1. Constant wrangles over money disturbed the harmony of their marriage.
A) discussions B) problems C) bills D) arguments
  1. The royal nuptials captured the attention of the whole world.
A) attendance B) wedding C) baptism D) event
  1. When the former movie star was killed in a car crash, her obituary appeared worldwide.
A) picture B) death notice C) agent D) beauty

 

  1. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
  2. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION IN GROUPS AND PLACES

A1

civilization, populate, society

  1. Europeans treated Indians as savages to be _____. CIVILIZATION
  2. What is the _____ of Ankara? POPULATE
  3. I hardly have any _____ life due to my master’s studies. SOCIETY

A2

district, land, nation, precinct, province, quarter, region, slum, state, suburb

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

A) area

A) dike

A) community

A) district

A) area

A) mass

A) district

A) ghetto

A) nation

A) slum

B) precinct

B) solid earth

B) country

B) state

B) capital

B) lodge

B) sector

B) shanty town

B) federation

B) hamlet

C) slum

C) property

C) suburb

C) territory

C) district

C) division

C) town

C) suburb

C) area

C) outlying district

¹district

¹land

¹nation 

¹precinct

¹province

¹quarter

¹region

¹slum

¹state

¹suburb

A3

capital, citizen, city, rural, town, urban

  1. metropolitan
  2. locale, neighbourhood, district
  3. metropolis, municipality
  4. resident, inhabitant, native
  5. rustic, pastoral, agricultural
  6. urban area, metropolis

A4

pair, union

  1. We paired the students _____ according to their abilities.
  2. British flag is called the Union _____.

A5

bunch, crowd, mob

  1. cluster, batch, bundle
  2. people, group (derogatory)
  3. people, masses, populace

A6

alien, foreign, local, municipal, stranger

  1. Living in an apartment block, he feels _____ towards the green. ALIEN
  2. It is true that _____ bring extra vivacity to a city’s life. FOREIGN
  3. With the help of this new drug, pain is completely _____. LOCAL
  4. The _____ of Greater London is knee-deep in trouble. MUNICIPAL
  5. He looked at me _____, as if I were a monster. STRANGER

A7

popular, public, royal

  1. communal, civic
  2. favourite, prevalent
  3. imperial, majestic
  4. GOVERNMENT

B1

colonize, kingdom, republic

  1. Because England is a monarchy, it is ruled by a _____ or a queen. KINGDOM
  2. European _______ in Africa was long lasting. COLONY
  3. In the last elections, ______ Party was defeated. REPUBLIC

B2

autonomous, independence

  1. Several African countries gained _____ after the War. AUTONOMOUS
  2. Is Australia an _____ country? INDEPENDENCE

B3

autocracy, sovereignty, tyranny

  1. despotism, absolute monarchy
  2. supremacy, power
  3. totalitarian government, dictatorship

B4

authority, crown, dynasty

  1. command, strength, power
  2. family, series of rulers
  3. majesty, throne-holder

B5

administer, govern, reign, rule, run

  1. The committee is discussing _____ matters. ADMINISTER
  2. He is the _____ of a small town. GOVERN
  3. In England, the _____ monarch is centuries old. REIGN
  4. The ____ of the country was a real lunatic. RULE
  5. I’m not any more interested in the _____ of the company. RUN

B6

ambassador, mayor, minister

  1. governor of a city
  2. member of the cabinet; religious figure
  3. representative abroad, emissary, delegate

B7

assembly, congress, convention

  1. The leaders ____ in Paris for a meeting. ASSEMBLY
  2. The groups _____ around the pavilion. CONGRESS
  3. Peter _____ a small meeting to discuss the problems. CONVENTION
  4. POLITICS AND ELECTIONS

C1

centre, patriot, policy

  1. core, focus
  2. loyalist, nationalist, chauvinist
  3. method, line, course

C2

ballot, elect, nominate, vote

  1. a box into which vote papers are put
  2. choice in an election or at a meeting where decisions are taken
  3. choose a person as representative by giving votes
  4. suggest a person as a candidate for a position

C3

represent, stand

  1. He is the _____ of a big company. REPRESENT
  2. In e = mc2, what does e stand _____ ?

C4

campaign, candidate, electorate, majority

  1. A _____ of the candidates are unaware of the work condition.
  2. During his political _____, he stressed the importance of peace.
  3. I believe that of all the five _____, Mr Miller is the best one.
  4. Very few of the _____ failed to vote in the last election.
  5. POLITICAL TENSION AND TROUBLE

D1

demonstrate, oppose, protest, reform, riot

  1. Don’t drive to the city center. There is a _____ there. DEMONSTRATE
  2. The _____ party leader was arrested illegally a year ago. OPPOSE
  3. The _____ damaged several cars before they were overpowered. PROTEST
  4. What we need is a _____ movement. REFORM
  5. The police have subdued the _____ who had blocked the campus road. RIOT

D2

oppress, repress, suppress

  1. to rule by holding back from (natural feelings, actions, etc.)
  2. to rule in a very hard way, by allowing very little freedom
  3. to rule in a very hard way, by taking away the right to act

D3

defeat, overthrow

  1. Their team was so strong that they _____ us with a not uncertain score.
  2. We have just heard that the King has been _____.

D4

betray, rebel, resist, revolt

  1. His _____ is unforgettable. BETRAY
  2. During the campaign, he was very _____. REBEL
  3. The army did not face strong _____. RESIST
  4. South America is famous for sudden and bloody _____. REVOLT

D5

anarchism, crusade, mutiny, subversion, uprising

  1. disturbance, hubbub
  2. overthrow, sabotage, defeat
  3. rebellion, overthrow, mutiny
  4. religious war campaign, battle
  5. upheaval, uprising

D6

conspiracy, plot, spy, traitor

  1. Conspiracy is done by a c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ r.
  2. A plot is planned by a p _ _ _ _ _ r
  3. A spy’s main job is e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ e.
  4. A traitor is accused of t _ _ _ _ _ n
  5. SOCIAL CLASSIFICATION AND SITUATIONS

E1

aristocracy, inferior, knight, noble, rank, repute, superior

  1. Everybody admires his _____ features. ARISTOCRACY
  2. Don’t take him serious; it is his ______ complex. INFERIOR
  3. A man with _____ has the title “Sir”. KNIGHT
  4. A _____ would like to see you, Your Highness. NOBLE
  5. The General has risen from the _____. RANK
  6. He has gained world-wide _____. REPUTE
  7. Neither part could attain ______ at the end of the game. SUPERIOR

E2

evict, slave

– While a(n) _____ is a captive, a(n) _____ is a person who has been expelled from a place.

E3

attendant, maid, servant, servitude

  1. attendant; disciple
  2. female servant (X matron)
  3. servant, aid, orderly
  4. slavery, confinement, subjection

E4

emancipate, free, liberate, release

  1. Emancipate means to set free by legal means; to give more freedom to. Noun form is _____
  2. Free means to let out of bondage, slavery, etc.. Noun form is _____
  3. Liberate means to make free from some kind of bondage, tyranny, etc.. Noun form is _____
  4. Release means to free or set free. Noun form is _____

E5

conventional, orthodox

  1. generally accepted thought, etc.
  2. living according to accepted ways, following the usual ways

E6

courtesy, polite, rude, snob, sophisticated

  1. attention, civility, politeness
  2. civilized, courteous, well-mannered
  3. complicated, complex; refined; worldly; deceptive
  4. elitist, upstart, snot, pretender
  5. impolite, discourteous

E7

coarse, nomad, peasant, savage, vulgar

  1. _____ = coarse, crude, common; X aesthetic, artistic, decent
  2. _____ = rough; X fine, smooth
  3. _____ = rustic; X urban; sophisticated
  4. _____ = uncultivated; inhuman; animal; X gentle; human, humane
  5. _____ = wandering, vagrant; X settled

E8

casual, dignity, formal, haphazard, informal, pompous

  1. arrogant, boastful
  2. casual, relaxed, unofficial
  3. casual, irregular, erratic
  4. ceremonial, fixed, academic
  5. easy-going, careless; accidental, haphazard
  6. nobility, honour, self-respect, distinction

 

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. The Romans subdued the Celts during the reign of Julius Caesar.
A) surrendered B) attacked C) befriended D) vanguished
  1. Nearly half of the town’s inhabitants are descendants of indigenous civilizations.
A) native B) backward C) hard-working D) poor
  1. A multitude of people attended the fund-raising presentation in the mall.
A) small number B) select group C) huge crowd D) large herd
  1. The powerful ruler suppressed a rebellion and punished the instigators.
A) initiated B) supported C) quashed D) reinstated
  1. The flowers on the table were a manifestation of the child’s love for his mother.
A) a demonstration B) an infestation C) a combination D) a satisfaction
  1. His company empowered him to negotiate the contract.
A) helped B) forbade C) authorized D) ordered
  1. Crimes against property have risen in the USA and other urbanized countries.
A) rich B) large C) multicultural D) metropolitan
  1. The peach tree is native to Florida.
A) indigenous B) transported C) allocated D) imported
  1. The Arctic tern breeds in the Arctic regions of North America.
A) aspects B) areas C) islands D) marshes
  1. Light can be amplified and focused in a single direction by using a laser.
A) concentrated B) adjusted C) clarified D) scattered
  1. LAW AND ORDER GENERALLY
  2. LAW AND ORDER

A1

allow, commit, construct, enact, enforce, legalize, legislate, maintain, permit

  1. It appears that they have made no _____ for the child’s age. ALLOW
  2. I have various ______ to fulfil. COMMIT
  3. We need ______ ideas to guide us through this chaos. CONSTRUCT
  4. The _____ of the Education Law was a great success. ENACT
  5. The _____ power of the new law is open to debate. ENFORCE
  6. Criminals are people who do _____ things. LEGALIZE
  7. We can name three powers: jurisdiction, execution and _____. LEGISLATE
  8. They are doing this for the _____ of law and order. MAINTAIN
  9. You have no _____ to study these files. PERMIT

A2

act, constitution, jurisdiction, law, ordinance

  1. body of laws, amendment
  2. enactment, law, decree
  3. law, verdict, decree
  4. legislature, enactment, the courts, equity
  5. sphere of duty, administration

A3

annul, chaos, custom, injustice, justice, legitimate, martial law, official, order, precedent, principle

  1. a general belief that one has about the way one should behave, which influences the behaviour
  2. a state of disorder and confusion
  3. a traditional activity or festivity
  4. an action or official decision than can be referred to in order to justify a similar action or decision
  5. approved by the government or someone else in authority
  6. fairness in a way that people are treated
  7. government by special laws by the army
  8. reasonable and acceptable; allowed or justified by law
  9. the situation of everything being in the correct place and being done at the correct time
  10. to declare that something is legally invalid
  11. unfairness and lack of justice in a situation

A4

embargo, illegal, illegitimate, taboo, unlawful

  1. forbidden, banned, restricted
  2. penalty, sanction, injunction
  3. unlawful, criminal, illegal
  4. unlawful, illegitimate
  5. wrong, faulty, unfair, illegal, illegitimate

A5

compulsory, mandatory, obligatory, voluntary

compulsory = mandatory = obligatory = inescapable, requisite, compelled

– _____ (compulsory/mandatory/obligatory) school education.

voluntary = intentional, considered

– He went in to _____ (voluntary/intentional) exile.

A6

license, repeal, revoke, sanction, warrant

  1. authorization, permission; penalty, sentence
  2. freedom, permission
  3. justification, sanction, authorization
  4. repeal, cancel
  5. revoke, invalidate, cancel

A7

ban, censor, deny, forbid, outlaw, prohibit, refuse

(v) ban

(v) censor

(v) deny

(v) forbid

(v)

(v) prohibit

(v) refuse

(n)

(n)

(n)

(n)

(n) outlaw

(n)

(n)

(adj)

(adj)

(adj)

(adj)

(adj)

(adj)

(adj)

  1. COURTS OF LAW AND LEGAL WORK

B1

advocate, attorney, judge, lawyer, solicitor

  1. counsel, attorney, adviser, advocate
  2. lawyer, counsel, adviser
  3. legal adviser
  4. magistrate, justice
  5. supporter, defender, attorney

B2

charge, prosecute, sue

  1. The police are going to charge him _____ murder.
  2. He was prosecuted _____ stealing.
  3. He sued them _____ wrongful arrest.

B3

accusation, case, proceedings

  1. He has taken legal _____ against her and is suing for divorce.
  2. She made several _____ against me.
  3. This is a _____ of murder.

B4

alibi, appeal, defend, plead, testimony, try, verdict, witness

First, a person is _____ in the court. A lawyer _____ this person. This lawyer _____ the case to the court. During the trial, _____ tell what they know about the situation. Thus, a _____ is formed. The accused person may present _____ to the court to prove that s/he was not involved in the crime. Finally, the _____ is announced. If the lawyer is not satisfied with it, he/she may _____ to a higher court.

B5

evidence, guilt, innocent, liable, responsible

  1. It is _____ that he is guilty. EVIDENCE
  2. Is he _____ or innocent? GUILT
  3. He says _____ is a vague concept. INNOCENT
  4. We have had to undertake heavy _____. LIABLE
  5. What he did was utterly irrational and ______. RESPONSIBLE

B6

acquit, clear, discharge, entitle, punish, sentence

  1. A day after the verdict, he was acquitted _____ prison.
  2. The lawyer cleared him _____ the charge of murder.
  3. I was discharged _____ the army at the end of the war.
  4. The lawyer is fully entitled _____ defend the woman.
  5. His father punished him _____ stealing.
  6. He was sentenced _____ life imprisonment.

B7

heir, inherit, legacy, mortgage, will

  1. debt, lease
  2. decision, bequeath, choice
  3. donation, grant, gift
  4. inheritor, beneficiary
  5. take possession of
  6. THE POLICE, SECURITY SERVICES, CRIME, AND CRIMINALS

C1

arrest, caution, constable, guard, patrol, protect

  1. administrative officer
  2. capture, apprehend
  3. care, warning, alert
  4. guard, shelter, shield, defend
  5. look-out, sentinel
  6. protector, guardian, ward

C2

petty, wrongdoing

  1. A petty crime is a m_____ crime.
  2. A wrongdoing is a bad behaviour which is legally w______

C3

crime, shop-lifting, theft

  1. The _____ escaped from prison by climbing down a drain pipe. CRIME
  2. There are store detectives to catch _______. SHOP-LIFTING
  3. Three _____ sneaked in through the open window. THEFT

C4

bandit, burglar, pirate, thief, villain

(v)

(v)

(v)

(v)

(v)

(n) bandit

(n) burglar

(n) pirate

(n) thief

(n) villain

(adj)

(adj)

(adj)

(adj)

(adj)

C5

arson, assault, black-market, fraud, hold-up, perjury

  1. a physical attack on a person
  2. a situation in which someone is threatened with a weapon to make him give money
  3. a system of buying and selling goods which is not legal
  4. lying in the court while giving evidence
  5. the crime of deliberately setting fire to a building
  6. the crime of gaining money by deceit or trickery

C6

hijack, kidnap

– Recently, a passenger plane has been _____ (hijacked/kidnapped).

C7

blackmail, embezzle, rob, smuggle, steal, swindle

  1. Someone who blackmails a person is a _____.
  2. If you embezzle money from your office, this is called _____.
  3. When someone robs a bank, this is a bank _____.
  4. Someone who smuggles goods is a _____.
  5. Someone who steals something is a _____.
  6. Someone who swindles a person is a _____.

C8

cheat, deceit, deceive

  1. Marriages in which _____ is a commonplace are bound to end.
  2. They try to _____ themselves that everything is all right.
  3. When I play cards, I always _____.

C9

abduct, loot, murder

  1. kidnap, capture, snatch
  2. kill, assassinate, slay
  3. rob, steal, plunder

C10

homicide, suicide

– _____ is murder while _____ is self-murder.

  1. PRISON AND PUNISHMENT

D1

cell, dungeon, gaol, jail, prison

gaol = jail = prison

  1. A cell is a _____ (yard/room) in a prison.
  2. A dungeon is generally _____ (in a tower/in the basement/in the attic).

D2

banish, captive, convict, detain, deter, execute, imprison, persecute, remit, whip

  1. He is preparing to protest his _____. BANISH
  2. During his _____, he learnt their language. CAPTIVE
  3. A person who has left prison is called an _____. CONVICT
  4. His _____ was politically motivated. DETAIN
  5. Severe punishment is thought to be a _____. DETER
  6. In the past, _____ used to be performed in public places. EXECUTE
  7. He was sentenced to life _____. IMPRISON
  8. The _____ of minorities will be discussed at the meeting PERSECUTE
  9. Due to his efforts, he gained a _____ of five years off his sentence. REMIT
  10. Today, _____ is still used as a way of punishment in some countries. WHIP

D3

confine, custody, detention

  1. Under captivity, he was confined _____ bread and water only.
  2. He is being held _____ custody.
  3. Everyone of them has been placed _____ detention until further notice.

D4

fine, penalty

  1. Fine (n) à __________ (v)
  2. Death penalty is also called c_____ p_____.

D5

amnesty, exile

  1. banishment, displacement
  2. freedom, liberation

D6

gallows, scaffold

– For hanging people, _____ is used. For beheading and other types of execution, _____ is used.

  1. WARFARE, DEFENCE, AND THE ARMY

E1

battle, combat, conflict, field, fight, war, warfare

When a _____ between countries grows too much, they may declare _____. When they get engaged in a _____, the two sides _____ with each other. During war, there may be several phases called _____ or _____. Both sides aim to gain supremacy over the other by defeating the other in the battle _____.

E2

assimilate, besiege, conquer, invade, overcome, siege, trespass

  1. After the war, the powerful side tried to _____ minority ethnic groups by using force.
  2. During the war, the capital city was under _____ for nearly two years, but they did not give in.
  3. Iraq _____ Kuwait but was forced to withdraw within a few weeks.
  4. Istanbul was _____ after a long war campaign in 1453.
  5. Ottoman armies _____ Vienna twice in history, but both campaigns were fruitless.
  6. If you don’t want your land used as a path, you should put “No ______ ing” signs about.
  7. Unfortunately, he was _____ by a terrible illness.

E3

ambush, attack, raid, storm

  1. During the air _____, we took shelter in the underground.
  2. The infantry _____ with all its might, but could not break the enemy defence.
  3. The police _____ the building and caught the robbers.
  4. While the soldiers were going to their base, they found themselves in a wisely-prepared _____.

E4

annex, confront, face, reinforce, relieve, repel, repulse, retreat

  1. to drive back or off
  2. to drive back, repel
  3. to face or face up to
  4. to go back because unable to move forward
  5. to go, turn, or look towards or to stand looking at (someone or something that is a danger)
  6. to send extra troops to
  7. to stop the siege
  8. to take control over or seize (especially land)

E5

capture, seize

  1. A captured person is a _____.
  2. If workers seize control in a factory, this is a _____ of power.

E6

desert, lose, surrender, yield

  1. abide, continue X ______. Noun form is _____.
  2. achieve, acquire X ______. Noun form is _____.
  3. advance, forward X ______.
  4. clash, disallow, hinder X ______. Noun form is _____.

E7

armistice, casualty, cease-fire, conquest, peace, treaty, victory

  1. calmness, agreement, reconciliation
  2. conquering, victory, triumph
  3. fatality, dead and injured
  4. pact, contract
  5. stop the fight
  6. triumph, achievement, conquest
  7. truce, finding a middle course
  8. THE ARMED FORCES

F1

army, military, navy, regiment

  1. The defeated troops were _____ by the victorious side. ARMY
  2. With his aggressive behaviour, he is very _____. MILITARY
  3. _____ forces need the support of air forces. NAVY
  4. He was unable to tolerate heavy _____ and quit. REGIMENT

F2

admiral, commission, irregular, soldier, warrior

  1. a person who has military experience, inclinations, interests, etc.
  2. a person, usually in a uniform, trained to fight, especially for his country, on land
  3. a soldier or armed person who fights in a war or campaign only part of the time or for short times
  4. a very senior officer who commands a navy or a fleet of ships
  5. the authority to act as an officer of the higher level in the army, navy, or air force

F3

arm, disarm, enlist, enrol, gather, recruit

  1. to choose and bring together, or order to come together
  2. to enter (a branch of) the armed forces
  3. to give weapons to
  4. to persuade, get, etc. to join the army
  5. to take weapons away from
  6. to write a person’s name on a list

F4

ammunition, armament, armour, artillery, cavalry, rampant, troop

  1. Soldiers stood in the _____, waiting for the enemy attack.
  2. The general lost several _____ in the most fierce battle of the war.
  3. They used heavy _____ against civilians.
  4. Today, _____ troops are generally used in ceremonies only.
  5. We had to retreat because we had run out of _____, not even a single bullet.
  6. We have necessary _____ for a war: tanks, planes, guns, ships, everything.
  7. We rocket bounced on the thick _____ of the tank.

 

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. I tried hard not to succumb to sleep.
A) scoff B) save C) yield D) try
  1. The police hunted through the forest for the escaped felon.
A) criminal B) fellow C) fugitive D) hunter
  1. They refused to cede their rights to the land and declared war.
A) see B) legalize C) plant D) yield
  1. The colonists protested against inequitable taxes.
A) uneven B) unjust C) unpublished D) unlikely
  1. The captain of the militia mustered his troops under a large tree.
A) trained B) gathered C) nursed D) mumbled
  1. By the time peace was negotiated, the affairs of the nation were in a chaotic state.
A) confused B) exotic C) disputable D) obscure
  1. He took a militant stand against the opposition and won the point.
A) mild B) aggressive C) positive D) awkward
  1. The regime favoured unification of the country.
A) leader B) government C) regiment D) register
  1. The beaver dam obstructed the flow of the river.
A) observed B) endangered C) assisted D) blocked off
  1. The family conducted an illicit whisky business during Prohibition.
A) secret B) boundless C) ill-fated D) illegal
  1. RELIGION AND BELIEFS
  2. RELIGION

A1

Christian, idol, Jew, religion, sect, theological

  1. Jesus _____ had apostles to spread his teachings. CHRISTIAN
  2. You shouldn’t _____ your favourite singer. IDOL
  3. There are about twelve million _____ people around the world. JEW
  4. He is not interested in _____ matters. RELIGION
  5. The group is known to be _____ and fanatical. SECT
  6. She studied _____ at university. THEOLOGICAL

A2

angel, apparition, archangel, fiend, ghost, haunt, soul, spirit

  1. Angel (n) à __________ (adj)
  2. Apparition is synonymous to soul or spirit. Is it countable or uncountable?
  3. What is the difference between an angel and an archangel?
  4. What is the main difference between an angel and a fiend?
  5. The word ghost is used to describe pale face in the expression _____.
  6. If ghosts haunt a house, this place is now called a _____ house.
  7. The word soul is used in the expression to keep _____ and soul together.
  8. The word spirit is used in the expression _____-spirited to mean very lively.

A3

heaven, hell, paradise

  1. Good _____! What have you done to your hair!
  2. This place is a _____ on earth! I can live here all my life!
  3. Where the _____ have you been!

A4

adherent, apostle, atheist, martyr, pilgrim, prophet, saint

  1. a follower of a great man/woman, especially one who is sent to spread his/her teachings
  2. a person of a holy and admired way of life, especially one given this title by the Roman Catholic
    Church after death
  3. a person who denies the existence of God or any gods.
  4. a person who favours and supports a particular idea, opinion, or political party
  5. a person who is killed or caused suffer greatly, especially for his/her religious duties
  6. a person who travels to a sacred place, special shrine
  7. a person who believes that he is directed by God to make known and explain or to lead or teach a new religion
  8. PEOPLE

archbishop, bishop, clergy, pope, priest

  1. a bishop of the highest rank
  2. a clergyman of high rank, especially in Christian churches.
  3. a member of the Christian clergy in the Catholic, Anglican, or Orthodox churches.
  4. the head of the Roman Catholic Church
  5. the officially appointed leaders of the religious activities of a particular church or temple
  6. PLACES

aisle, altar, church, mosque, sanctuary

  1. In the church, the bridegroom walked slowly down the _____ .
  2. The minaret of the _____ was badly damaged in a thunderstorm.
  3. Those who had illegally entered the country took _____ in a church.
  4. While Christian people pray at _____, Jews do so in synagogue.
  5. While the priest was giving his sermon at the _____, several children were giggling.
  6. BELIEF

D1

believe, bless, convert, meditate, ordain, pray, preach, revere, sacrifice, worship

  1. He has very strange _____. BELIEVE
  2. They asked the Pope’s _____. BLESS
  3. She is a recent _____ to the idea of a global unity. CONVERT
  4. He interrupted my _____. MEDITATE
  5. His _____ was at the church grounds. ORDAIN
  6. He said his _____ and left quickly. PRAY
  7. Because they strongly disagreed with the _____, they booed him. PREACH
  8. We all regard him with _____ REVERE
  9. She _____ her own life to save her children. SACRIFICE
  10. May I present the _____ Mayor of Brighton. WORSHIP

D2

baptism, ceremony, fast, ritual, sermon

  1. a Christian religious ceremony in which a person is touched or covered with water to make
    him/her pure and to show that he/she has been accepted to the Church
  2. a special formal, solemn action organized to mark an important social or religious event
  3. one or more ceremonies or customary acts which are often repeated in the same form
  4. religious talk given as part of a Christian church service
  5. to eat little or no food, especially for religious reasons

D3

divine, holy, sacred

  1. Divine (adj) à __________ (n)
  2. Holy (adj) à __________ (n)
  3. Sacred (adj) à __________ (v)

D4

pagan, profane, secular

  1. a person who is not part of a major religion
  2. not sacred, worldly
  3. of or concerning the ways of the world, not the spiritual values of religion

D5

redeem, repent, sin

  1. recover, liberate; X ignore, neglect
  2. regret, mourn
  3. transgress, err, misbehave

D6

incarnation, reincarnation

While Hinduism holds the belief of _____, Christianity holds that Jesus Christ is the _____ of God.

D7

ecclesiastic, patriarch

  1. a clergyman
  2. any of the several chief bishops of the Eastern Churches
  3. SUPERNATURAL

legend, magic, myth, spell, supernature, superstition, witch

  1. Here is the _____ film star, Tom Cruise! LEGEND
  2. He is said to have _____ powers. MAGIC
  3. Unicorn is a _____ beast. MYTH
  4. As soon as he saw her, he was spell-_____. SPELL
  5. Ghosts and apparitions are all _____ occurrences. SUPERNATURE
  6. Are you _____? SUPERSTITION
  7. She had a _____ smile. WITCH

 

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. The Freemasons are one of the oldest fraternities in the world.
A) universities B) sociologists C) exhibitions D) brotherhoods
  1. By the end of the First World War, the name of Mustafa Kemal was legendary.
A) imaginary B) novel C) gratifying D) famous
  1. There is common superstition that red sky means snow in the morning.
A) attitude B) speculation C) belief D) approach
  1. The daring rescue operation was truly a creditable deed.
A) hard to believe B) praiseworthy C) unusual D) risky
  1. Superstition may easily lead you astray.
A) Irrational belief B) Succession C) Logic D) Misdirection
  1. BUILDINGS, HOUSES, THE HOME
  2. ARCHITECTURE AND KINDS OF HOUSES AND BUILDINGS

A1

architect, build, erect

  1. He is studying _____. ARCHITECT
  2. The whole _____ collapsed during the night. BUILD
  3. The _____ of the new monument took several years. ERECT

A2

cottage, greenhouse, hut, tent

  1. a shelter of skins or cloth
  2. a small building for plants
  3. a small building, often made of wood
  4. a small house, especially in the country

A3

apartment, flat, house, palace

  1. She lives in an apartment _____.
  2. I live with a friend; my flat_____ is a student.
  3. He greeted the house_____ with a nod of the head.
  4. She lives is a palace_____ mansion.

A4

castle, citadel, fortress, tower, turret

A _____ is generally built in a high place. When it is built around a city, it is called _____. The high and strong walls of such a place are generally called _____ or bailey. There are also high and round _____ with a conical roof to watch the enemy. If there is no roof, this building is called a _____.

  1. PARTS OF HOUSES

B1

attic, basement, chimney, roof

  1. a hollow passage often rising above the roof which allows smoke and gases to pass
  2. a room or area immediately below the roof
  3. the lowest level of a building
  4. the top covering of a building

B2

fence, railing

  1. a sort of fence with rail-like wooden or iron rods
  2. a sort of wood or metal wall usually to put up to divide two pieces of land

B3

dome, balcony

  1. He looked up at the blue dome of the s _ _ .
  2. A balcony is usually enclosed with a metal or wooden r_ _ _ _ _ _.

B4

entry, door, gate

  1. Which of the following has a more general meaning: entry, door, gate?
  2. Which of the following does not have to have a frame: door or gate?

B5

partition, tile

  1. a thin piece of baked clay used for covering floor, walls, floors, etc.
  2. a thin wall inside a house

B6

indoors, outdoor

  1. What is difference between indoor and indoors?
  2. What is difference between outdoor and outdoors?

B7

arcade, arch, beam, column, pillar

  1. a covered passage, especially one with a roof supported by arches or with a row of shops on one
    or both sides
    2. a curved top on two supports, for example under a bridge or a church roof or above a door or
    window
    3. a large long heavy piece of wood, especially used as a part of the structure of a building
    4. a tall solid upright stone post used in a building as a support or decoration or standing alone as
    a monument
    5. something tall, narrow and upright

B8

flight, floor, level, storey

  1. a floor or level in a building
  2. a position of height in a city, building, etc.
  3. a set of stairs
  4. the part of a room, house etc. on which one walks

B9

ladder, stairs, step

  1. a number of fixed steps one above the other, on which one can go up or down a building, from
    one level to another
  2. an apparatus made especially two long pieces of wood, metal or rope, joined together by many
    short pieces up which one climbs
  3. each section of stairs

B10

alcove, chamber, knob, poker, recess

  1. a metal rod used to poke a fire in order to make it burn better
  2. a room
  3. a round handle or control button
  4. a small space in the form of a small room added to another room for a bed, chair, books, etc.
  5. a space in the wall of a room for shelves, cupboards, etc.

B11

lavatory, restroom, sink, towel

In the word list, lavatory is synonymous to _____. A sink is in the kitchen; when it is in the bathroom, it is called a _____. The sort of towel that is sold in small boxes and used for cleaning is used _____ towel.

B12

pipe, plumber, sewage, sewer, tank, tap

  1. The verb form of the word pipe is _____.
  2. The verb form of the word plumber is _____.
  3. The system which drains sewage is called sewage _____ system.
  4. A sewer system is called a _____ system.
  5. A committee of experienced people is called a _____ tank.
  6. In the sentence His phone is being tapped, the verb tap means _____.
  7. AREAS AROUND AND NEAR HOUSES

estate, patio

  1. He is a _____ estate agent.
  2. A structure similar to patio is a t_____.
  3. RESIDENCE

D1

accommodate, dwell, inhabit, reside, settle

  1. The committee is providing _____ for the participants. ACCOMMODATE
  2. They discovered an ancient _____ in the middle of the island. DWELL
  3. The _____ of the island protested against the traffic system. INHABIT
  4. The _____ held a demonstration is the area. RESIDE
  5. They are setting up a new _____ near the city. SETTLE

D2

landlady/lord, occupant, pioneer, tenant

  1. colonist, immigrant, pilgrim
  2. paying passenger, passenger
  3. property owner, owner
  4. resident

D3

premises, refuge, shelter

  1. a building considered a piece of property
  2. a building or roofed enclosure that gives cover or protection
  3. a place that provides protection or shelter from danger
  4. FURNITURE AND HOUSEHOLD FITTINGS

E1

adorn, decorate, embellish, enchantment, furnish, ornament, renovation

  1. We watched the gaudy _____ with disgust. ADORN
  2. He works as a _____. DECORATE
  3. It was an artictic _____. EMBELLISH
  4. He was _____ by the idea. ENCHANTMENT
  5. Whenever he visits us, he breaks a piece of _____. FURNISH
  6. The picture was in a beautiful _____ frame. ORNAMENT
  7. The old house is being _____. RENOVATION

E2

armchair, bench, sofa, stool, throne

  1. a comfortable chair with supports for the arms
  2. a comfortable seat with raised arms and a back, wide enough for usually two or three people
  3. a long, usually wooded seat for two or more people, especially one used outdoors
  4. a seat without a supporting part for the back or arms
  5. the ceremonial seat of a king, queen, bishop, etc.

E3

blanket, lamp, mirror, pillow, wardrobe

  1. He always keeps a gun under his _____.
  2. He looked at himself in the _____ and combed his hair.
  3. No industry can develop under the soft _____ of state protection.
  4. The bed room was too narrow to fix the _____ in.
  5. When he was drunk, he climbed up a street _____.

E4

canopy, curtain, rug, upholstery

  1. a covering, often held up by poles and usually made of cloth or sometimes wood over a bed,
    doorway, large chair, etc.
  2. a large piece of cloth, especially when hung form above, over a window inside room a usually
    smaller or thicker carpet
  3. the materials used to fit chairs and other pieces of furniture with softer parts, such as springs,
    cloth, leather, etc.

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. Queen Victoria’s palatial country home draws many visitors.
A) palatine B) paltry C) palace-like D) partial
  1. All of the tenants in the building complained about the lack of hot water.
A) old people B) landlords C) superintendents D) occupants
  1. Many lawsuits are resolved through settlement prior to court due to the effort and
    expense involved in trial.
A) debate B) amelioration C) dismissal D) compromise
  1. About one-third of Canada’s people inhabit the province of Ontario.
A) inherit B) reside in C) depart from D) are born in
  1. The old hotel has recently been renovated.
A) repainted B) refurbished C) refurnished
  1. CLOTHES, BELONGINGS, AND PERSONAL CARE
  2. CLOTHES AND PERSONAL BLONGINGS

A1

attire, garment, outfit

  1. Attire (n) à __________ (v)
  2. The word garment is similar to c_____ing.
  3. Outfit (n) à __________ (v)

A2

fold, take off, undo, wear

  1. bend back, crease
  2. put on, get into
  3. remove
  4. untie

A3

bare, nude

  1. He was walking bare_____; he’d left his shoes on the beach.
  2. In some countries, _____ is severely punished. NUDE

A4

gloves, pair, pants, trousers

– A pair of:
[ + ] pants [ + ] trousers [ + ] gloves [ ? ] _____ [ ? ] _____ [ ? ] _____ [ ? ] _____

A5

helmet, veil

– Soldiers, the police and motorbike riders wear _____. In wedding ceremonies, girls wear a _____ over their face.

A6

buckle, button, zip

  1. a fastener of two rows of metal or plastic teeth used on clothes or bags
  2. a piece of metal or plastic attached to one end of a belt or strap, which is used to fasten it
  3. a small hard object sewn on to shirts or other pieces of clothing

A7

belt, scarf

While a _____ is wrapped around the neck, a _____ is wrapped around the waist.

A8

purse, wallet

Women usually carry _____ while _____ is for men.

A9

heel, overalls, sleeve

  1. _____ is a part of a shoe.
  2. Before you start a hard task, you roll your _____.
  3. Workers wear _____.

A10

crease, tailor

  1. What is the difference between a crease and a wrinkle?
  2. Which of the following is synonymous to tailor (v): adopt or adapt?

A11

accessory, jewellery

  1. aide
  2. badge, brooch
  3. CLEANING AND PERSONAL CARE

B1

shave, bathe, comb

  1. Men generally use shaving-_____ and razor to shave.
  2. In order to keep your hair dry, you can wear a bathing-_____.
  3. Comb (n) à __________ (v)

B2

cleanse, rinse, scrub, wash, wipe

  1. After she had drunk water, she _____ the glass in water and left on the table.
  2. Don’t forget to _____ your hands before you sit for the lunch!
  3. The floor was so dirty that I had to _____ it with a thick brush all afternoon.
  4. The nurse _____ the wound thoroughly before stitching.
  5. When he’d completed the sculpture, he _____ his forehead with satisfaction.

B3

brush, freshen, polish

  1. How often do you _____ your teeth?
  2. This perfume will _____ the stagnant air in the room.
  3. When we _____ the table, we could see our own reflection on it.

B4

mark, pollute, stain

  1. blot, mark, blemish
  2. dirty, contaminate
  3. imprint, stamp

B5

neat, orderly, smart, tidy

  1. Neat X c_____less.
  2. Orderly X c_____ed.
  3. Smart X s_____y.
  4. Tidy X m_____y.

B6

dirt, sordid, spotless

  1. This room is f_____ dirty.
  2. Sordid = dirty, sq_ _ _ _d.
  3. The room was spotlessly c_____.

B7

filth, mess, muck, mud

  1. Filth (n) à __________ (adj)
  2. Mess (n) à __________ (adj)
  3. Muck (n) à __________ (v)
  4. Mud (n) à __________ (adj)

B8

laundry, massage, wig

  1. artificial hair
  2. dry-cleaning
  3. rubbing the body
  4. BELONGING AND OWNING, GETTING AND GIVING

C1

belong to, keep, own, possess

  1. During the Great Fire of London, people threw their ______ into the Thames. BELONG TO
  2. We need to ensure the _____ of the system. KEEP
  3. Who is the _____ of this car? OWN
  4. He is in _____ of several flats. POSSESS

C2

property, proprietor

  1. owner, possessor, landlord
  2. possession, land, estate

C3

acquire, derive, deserve, earn, gain, obtain, receive

  1. Acquire (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Derive (v) à __________ (n)
  3. Deserve (v) à __________ (adj)
  4. Earn (v) à __________ (n)
  5. Gain (v) à __________ (n)
  6. Obtain (v) à __________ (adj)
  7. Receive (v) à __________ (n)

C4

choose, pick, pluck, select

  1. You have several _____ in this situation. CHOOSE
  2. _____ of apples is a cumbersome job. PICK
  3. He is not afraid of anything; he is quite _____. PLUCK
  4. He bought a _____ of modern paintings. SELECT

C5

lift, take

  1. elevate, raise
  2. acquire, obtain, seize

C6

recover, regain, replace, restore, retrieve, return

  1. He _____ (regained/recovered) consciousness.
  2. I _____ (went/returned) back and _____ (regained/retrained) her bag from the station.
  3. The math teacher left the school and we need a _____ (replacement/restoration).

C7

instead, substitute

  1. They gave me a low grade instead _____ a high one.
  2. Artificial blood will substitute _____ human blood in emergency cases.

C8

abandon, dispense with, forlorn, remove, (get) rid of

  1. Abandon = quit, desert. Its adjective form is _____.
  2. Dispense with X keep back, retain. Its adjective form is _____.
  3. Forlorn = miserable; neglected. What is a forlorn hope?
  4. Remove X conserve, deposit, install. Its adjective form is _____.
  5. Get rid of X stay attached. Check the use of the verb rid.

C9

surrender, yield

  1. They _____ the city to the enemy.
  2. They _____ up the city to the enemy.

C10

maintain, retain, storage, upkeep, withhold

  1. The noun form of the verb maintain is _____.
  2. The adjective form of the verb retain is _____.
  3. The verb form of the noun storage is _____.
  4. The noun form of the verb upkeep is _____.
  5. The verb withhold is the opposite of d_____s.

C11

capture, catch, clutch, grab, grasp, grip, hold, snatch, trap

  1. Capture and catch are the opposites of l_____, r_____.
  2. In the car, there are three pedals: accelerator, brake, and _____ (clutch/grab/grasp/grip).
  3. The hold of a ship is the _____ (cargo/storage) of it.
  4. The verb snatch means to grab. The noun form means _________.
  5. Traps which are hidden and are triggered through a secret mechanism are called a _____ trap.

C12

administer, devote to, donate, offer, prescribe, volunteer

  1. I have _____ duties in the office. ADMINISTER
  2. He looked at the baby with great _____. DEVOTE
  3. We need _____ of baby clothes. DONATE
  4. His _____ was hard to reject. OFFER
  5. This rule is ________; you must obey it. PRESCRIBE
  6. He attended the search party _____. VOLUNTEER

C13

hand, provide, supply

  1. You should hand _____ your thesis by the end of the month.
  2. We provide people _____ essential information.
  3. We are supplying workforce _____ the construction of the new dam.

C14

award, prize, reward

Oscar _____, Nobel _____, money _____

C15

contribution, gift, souvenir

  1. The verb form of the noun contribution is _____.
  2. A synonymous word for the noun gift is _____.
  3. Compare souvenir and sovereign.

C16

allocate, distribute, share

  1. The noun form of the verb allocate is _____.
    2. The noun form of the verb distribute is _____.
    3. The noun form of the verb share is _____.

C17

phase, range, scope

  1. extent, magnitude, scope
  2. reach, limits, extent
  3. step, level

C18

choice, facility, serve

  1. The verb form of the noun choice is _____.
  2. The verb form of the noun facility is _____.
  3. The noun form of the verb serve is _____

 

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. A credit card allows the user to receive credit at the time of the purchase.
A) donate B) arbitrate C) reject D) obtain
  1. Taking some kinds of medicine will cause your body to retain fluids.
A) sustain B) inject C) lose D) keep
  1. The technique of putting colourful designs on fabric is called batik.
A) metal B) plactic C) cloth D) rubber
  1. The smallest blood vessels in the body are not visible to the naked eye.
A) unaided B) trained C) undressed D) damaged
  1. The French explorer Sieur de La Salle laid claim to territory in the New World,
    designating it Louisiana after the French monarch King Louis XIV.
A) labelling B) transferring C) asquiring D) unifying
  1. Tom insisted on a fair share of the partnership’s profits.
A) spare B) division C) merit D) help
  1. Manufacturers are donating computers to schools.
A) giving B) going C) dedicating D) deducting
  1. Mr. Peters went down to receive his visitors.
A) get B) welcome C) say good-bye to D) sign for
  1. My understanding of basic mathematics puts advanced physics beyond my scope.
A) range B) telescope C) view D) hollow
  1. After the riot, the prison officials rescinded the prisoners’ privileges.
A) relegated B) removed C) added to D) changed
  1. FOOD, DRINK, AND FARMING
  2. FOOD GENERALLY

A1

absorb, consume, digest, feed, nourish

  1. Her father admires her growing _____ in the study of chemistry. ABSORB
  2. We need to defend _____ rights. CONSUME
  3. My _____ has always been poor. DIGEST
  4. Actually, I’m _____ up with studying for tests. FEED
  5. She’s recovered sufficiently to take some _____. NOURISH

A2

maintenance, provisions, sustenance

  1. Maintenance means enough to support life. The origin of the word is _____.
  2. Provisions are substances provided as food. The origin of the word is _____.
  3. Sustenance is food and drink essential for life. The origin of the word is _____.

A3

indigestion, malnutrition, nutrition

  1. having sufficient amount of food
  2. inability or difficulty of absorbing food
  3. lack of enough food to sustain life

A4

bite, chew, lick, munch, nibble, sip, suck, swallow

  1. People consider biting _____ as a bad habit.
  2. Children love chewing _____.
  3. When we expect something nice to happen, we lick our _____.
  4. The horse was munching ____ at my straw hat!
  5. In Turkey, after a wedding people are given _____ to nibble.
  6. In order to taste the wine, he _____ a sip of it.
  7. Small babies generally suck their _____.
  8. He understood his mistake and swallowed his _____.

A5

fast, starve

  1. I love having butter and jam for my _____. FAST
  2. In many regions of the world, _____ is a serious problem. STARVE

A6

famine, famished, hunger, ravenous, thirst

  1. Famine is synonymous to a) hunger b) thirst
  2. Famished is antonymous to a) hungry b) full
  3. Hunger is synonymous to a) appetite b) aversion
  4. Ravenous is synonymous to a) starved b) satisfied
  5. Thirst is synonymous to a) abhorrence b) drought

A7

banquet, beverage, dish, feast, meal, ration, refreshment, supper

  1. Banquet and feast are synonymous. Other related words are: _ _ _ (v) and d _ _ _ ht (v)
  2. What is the difference between meal and dish?
  3. What is the verb form of ration?
  4. What is the difference between beverage and refreshment?
  5. Supper is another name for a) breakfast, b) lunch, c) dinner.
  6. FOOD

bacon, juice, meat, oil, pork, sauce, slice

  1. Bacon and pork are _____ meat.
  2. Adjective form of the noun juice is _____.
  3. What is the difference between meat and flesh?
  4. What is the difference between oil and fat?
  5. What is the difference between sauce and dressing?
  6. What is the verb form for the noun slice?
  7. DRINKS

C1

ferment, sweet

  1. _____ takes place under a certain degree of heat. FERMENT
  2. This cake has been artificially _____. SWEET

C2

propose, toast

  1. He _____ to drink for the honour of the young couple.
  2. Let’s drink a _____ to the young couple.

C3

alcohol, ale, draught, intoxicate, spirits

  1. What is the difference between alcohol and spirits?
  2. What is the difference between ale and beer?
  3. What is the difference between draught and drought?
  4. What is the adjective form for the verb intoxicate?

C4

drunk, sober

  1. Other words for drunk are drunken and in_____.
  2. Sober is the opposite of drunk. Also it means s_____s.
  3. CIGARETTES AND DRUGS

D1

addict, drug

  1. He’s addicted _____ cocaine.
  2. Taking pills when there is no need is called drug _____.

D2

ash, ashtray, tar, tobacco

  1. As this is a non-smokers’ room, you cannot find _____ around.
  2. Cigar has lower amounts of _____ than cigarette.
  3. He dropped his cigarette _____ on the carpet.
  4. Turkey is a major _____ producing country.
  5. THE PREPARATION AND QUALITY OF FOOD

E1

bake, fry, roast, scramble

  1. I need some _____ powder. BAKE
  2. I like chicken _____. FRY
  3. We had _____ potatoes for lunch. ROAST
  4. Don’t worry about the dinner; we’ll have _____ eggs. SCRAMBLE

E2

chop, freeze, peel, preserve, shred, spread, stuff, whip

  1. Do not forget to _____ your mayonnaise before you make potato salad.
  2. During the repair works, our deep-_____ ran on its battery.
  3. He cut a few carrots into tiny _____ before he added them to the salad.
  4. I asked the butcher to _____ the chicken into six pieces.
  5. I generally boil potatoes without _____ the skin.
  6. She _____ a thin layer of dough on the pie.
  7. We _____ the chicken with herbs and vegetables before we put it in the oven.
  8. We had strawberry _____ for breakfast.

E3

edible, raw, stale

  1. What is the difference between edible and eatable?
  2. What is the difference between raw and crude?
  3. What is the difference between stale and rough?

E4

delicious, spicy, tasteless, tawdry

  1. flat, dull
  2. savoury, hot
  3. superficial
  4. tasty, delicate

E5

ingredient, recipe

– What is the difference between ingredient and recipe?

  1. PLACES AND PEOPLE ASSOCIATED WITH FOOD AND DRINK

F1

agriculture, agronomy

  1. the art or practice of farming, especially of growing crops
  2. the scientific study of soil and growing of crops

F2

brewery, crops, estate, field, grain, harvest, orchard, patch, yield

  1. cropping, gathering
  2. garden for fruit trees
  3. harvest, graze
  4. land, province
  5. making beer
  6. product
  7. realty, property
  8. seed of cereal
  9. small area for growing vegetables

F3

arid, barren

– What is the difference between arid and barren?

F4

arable, cultivate, fertile, fruitful, productive

  1. Arable _____ (land/soil)
  2. The land is suitable for _____ CULTIVATE
  3. This soil is completely useless; it is _____. FERTILE
  4. He gained nothing; his efforts were _____. FRUITFUL
  5. He gained nothing; his efforts were _____. PRODUCTIVE

F5

grow, plough, sow

  1. dig, till
  2. scatter, seed
  3. sprout; cultivate

F6

barn, dairy, graze, manure, pasture

  1. feed on grass
  2. festilizer
  3. field, meadow
  4. place for milk products
  5. stable, livery, shelter

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. In the middle of the desert, they found a refreshing spring.
A) hot B) dry C) sandy D) cooling
  1. Having fasted for five days, the woman was starving.
A) famished B) prudent C) circumspect D) heedless
  1. In some countries, fish is eaten raw.
A) marinated B) fresh C) rotten D) uncooked
  1. If the crops are not irrigated soon, the harvest will be sparse.
A) watered B) ploughed C) fertilized D) planted
  1. The Titanic lies buried in its aqueous tomb.
A) watery B) subterranean C) glorious D) unknown
  1. William Shakespeare was a prolific writer.
A) productive B) famous C) esteemed D) celebrated
  1. Great art is characterized by its ability to invigorate the senses with its power.
A) absorb B) control C) refresh D) expand
  1. Chinese cuisine specializes in rice dishes.
A) delicacies B) cooking C) chefs D) gourmet
  1. According to Carl Sagan, the Earth is a tiny and fragile world that needs to be
    cherished.
A) explored B) valued C) unified D) developed
  1. Great art is characterized by its ability to invigorate the senses with its power.
A) absorb B) control C) refresh D) expand
  1. FEELINGS, EMOTIONS, ATTITUDES, AND SENSATIONS
  2. FEELING AND BEHAVIOUR GENERALLY

A1

experience, impulse, instinct, sentimental

  1. encountering; knowledge
  2. impelling force, inspiration
  3. inborn sense or feeling
  4. romantic, emotional

A2

enjoy, feel, lust, sense

  1. His personal _____ is more important than anything else. ENJOY
  2. Insects have two or more _____ to sense the environment. FEEL
  3. He was expelled from the group due to his _____ behaviour. LUST
  4. He didn’t even have a look at the patient; he was quite _____. SENSE

A3

mood, morale, temper

  1. The adjective form of the word mood is _____.
  2. What is the difference between moral and morale?
  3. Compare temper, temperate, temperament and temperature.

A4

attitude, emotion, sensation

  1. feeling, consciousness
  2. feeling, sense; agitation
  3. manner, temperament

A5

care, desire, despair, fancy, hope, long, urge, want, will, wish

  1. Would you care ____ a drink?
  2. Our team is _____ for a real success. DESIRE
  3. She was _____ great despair.
  4. He is looking for a pirate costume for a fancy _____ party.
  5. This is a _____ case; it is impossible to rescue our money. HOPE
  6. I’m longing _____ a long holiday.
  7. His demand to be given a pay rise was very _____. URGE
  8. We are _____ want of currency at present.
  9. Giving up smoking requires _____. WILL
  10. Peace on earth? This is only _____ thinking. WISH

A6

lack, miss, need, request, require, resign

  1. The noun form for the verb lack is _____.
  2. The adjective form for the verb miss is _____.
  3. The adjective form for the verb need is _____.
  4. The noun form for the verb request is _____.
  5. The noun form for the verb require is _____.
  6. When resign means surrender, its noun form is _____

A7

desperate, optimism, pessimism

  1. cynicism, melancholy
  2. frantic; hopeless
  3. hopefulness, confidence

A8

bear, endure, stand, suffer, tolerate

  1. When things became _____, he left the country. BEAR
  2. Finally, our _____ gave in when we heard the defeat. ENDURE
  3. I really _____ stand him. He is so thoughtless!
  4. They killed the horse to end its _____. SUFFER
  5. My father is so _____ that he will accept anything. TOLERATE

A9

conform, misbehave, obedience, patronize

  1. He is a real _____; he is a man for all seasons. CONFORM
  2. Due to his _____, he failed and had to repeat a whole semester. MISBEHAVE
  3. When you are in the army, you are expected to be _____. OBEDIENCE
  4. My roommate is so _____ that I’m thinking of moving to another flat. PATRONIZE

A10

act, behave, treat

  1. I have no obligation to explain my _____. ACT
  2. His _____ was quite provoking. BEHAVE
  3. Her _____ of the matter was so skilful that I was astounded. TREAT

A11

impartial, neutral, objective, prejudice, subjective

  1. When you act as a go-between, ______ is very important. IMPARTIAL
  2. They are trying to _____ those chemical weapons in Iraq. NEUTRAL
  3. I’m afraid he treats his students’ papers with strict _____. OBJECTIVE
  4. A _____ idea is often a cause for dispute. PREJUDICE
  5. He lost his _____ when he realized that our cause was reasonable. SUBJECTIVE
  6. LIKING AND NOT LIKING

B1

appeal, attract, captivate, charm, concern, fascinate, fond, glamour, tempt

  1. His ideas are generally quite _____. APPEAL
  2. What an _____ girl she is! ATTRACT
  3. The tribe leader is being held _____ in the town jail. CAPTIVATE
  4. A holiday in the middle of winter is simply a _____ idea. CHARM
  5. I’m very _____ about the future of our town. CONCERN
  6. A fair is often a _____ for children. FASCINATE
  7. My _____ of her grew when I saw her help the poor. FOND
  8. The holiday was_______! GLAMOUR
  9. He couldn’t resist _____ and went our to play football. TEMPT

B2

affection, attachment, passion

  1. My mother is very _____ towards us. AFFECTION
  2. He carefully _____ his CV to the application letter. ATTACHMENT
  3. He sings his songs with _____ love. PASSION

B3

adore, favour, interest, prefer, suit

  1. admire, love, be fond of
  2. agree with, adapt
  3. appeal, fascinate
  4. favour, choose
  5. prefer

B4

abhor, alienate, detest, disgust, dislike, hate, loathe, repel

1. abhor X

2. alienate X

3. detest X

4. dislike =

5. disgust X

6. hate X

7. loathe X

8. repel X

a) detest

a) connect

a) hate

a) delight

a) nauseate

a) abhor

a) detest

a) attract

b) disgust

b) divide

b) loathe

b) condemn

b) esteem

b) scorn

b) appreciate

b) offend

c) adore

c) disunite

c) admire

c) disrelish

c) repel

c) adorn

c) despise

c) revolt

B5

ghastly, revolting, ugly, unsightly

– ghastly @ revolting @ unsightly @ ugly X appe_____ ; X att_____

B6

beautiful, elegance, enticing, good-looking, graceful, lovely, picturesque, popular, pretty, striking

  1. The verb form of the word beautiful is _____.
  2. The adjective form of the word elegance is _____.
  3. The noun form of the word enticing is _____.
  4. The term good-looking is synonymous to p_____ or h_____.
  5. The noun form of the word graceful is _____.
  6. The word lovely is synonymous to c_____.
  7. The word picturesque is synonymous to st_____.
  8. The noun form of the word popular is _____.
  9. The word pretty is synonymous to b_____ or g_____.
  10. The verb form of the word striking is _____.
  11. GOOD AND EVIL

C1

excellent, magnificent, pleasant, splendid, superb, superior, supreme, terrific, wonderful

  1. The verb form of the word excellent is ex________.
  2. The noun form of the word magnificent is ma________.
  3. The noun form of the word pleasant is pl________.
  4. The noun form of the word splendid is sp________.
  5. The word superb is synonymous to be________.
  6. The word superior is antonymous to in_______.
  7. The noun form of the word supreme is su________.
  8. The word terrific is synonymous to su_______.
  9. The word wonderful is synonymous to ma__________.

C2

average, decent, fair

  1. Each room can hold a large group of students, _____ between 150 to 200. AVERAGE
  2. The _____ of his study shocked all of us. DECENT
  3. In all _____, I can tell that we will find a way out. FAIR

C3

honour, noble, virtue, worthy

  1. It is an _____ deed to be awarded the Nobel Prize. HONOUR
  2. Until the second half of the 20th century, _____ was very important. NOBLE
  3. He was very _____ when he tried to persuade his son. VIRTUE
  4. Is it _____ a try? WORTHY

C4

depravity, dreadful, evil, formidable, horrible, mischief, nasty, naughty, obscene, selfish, sinister, terrible, wicked, wrong

  1. The verb form of the word depravity is _____ and its preposition is _____.
  2. The verb form of the word dreadful is _____.
  3. A person who does evil is an _____.
  4. The word formidable is antonymous to ple______.
  5. The verb form of the word horrible is _____.
  6. The adjective form of the word mischief is _____.
  7. The noun form of the word nasty is _____. .
  8. The noun form of the word naughty is _____.
  9. The noun form of the word obscene is _____.
  10. The noun form of the word selfish is _____.
  11. The adjective form of the word sinister is sinister-_____.
  12. The verb form of the word terrible is _____.
  13. The noun form of the word wicked is _____.
  14. An adjective form of the word wrong is _____.

C5

conscience, conscientious, duty, moral

  1. devoted; careful
  2. good, upright, conscientious
  3. mind; being
  4. obligation, liability
  5. HAPPINESS AND SADNESS

D1

delight, delighted, glad, happy, joy, merry, pleasure, well-being

  1. Delight = pl________.
  2. Delighted = pl_______.
  3. Glad = con_________.
  4. Happy X de________.
  5. Joy = de_________.
  6. Merry = jo_______.
  7. Pleasure = en_________.
  8. Well-being = he______.

D2

please, rejoice, satisfy

  1. The adjective form of the word please is _________.
  2. The word rejoice is synonymous to ce_________.
  3. The noun form of the word satisfy is ___________.

D3

grateful, gratitude, thankful

Grateful = thankful

Gratitude = gr_______ness

D4

miserable, touching

  1. The noun form of the word miserable is ________.
  2. The word touching is synonymous to sen_________.

D5

depressed, sad, unhappy, wistful

  1. The noun form of the word depressed is _________.
  2. The noun form of the word sad is _______.
  3. The noun form of the word unhappy is _______.
  4. The noun form of the word wistful is _______.

D6

grief, mourn, pity, regret, remorseful, sorrow

  1. The adjective form of the word grief is __________.
  2. The word mourn is synonymous to la______.
  3. The adjective form of the word pity is _______.
  4. The adjective form of the word regret is _______.
  5. The word remorseful is synonymous to re________.
  6. The noun form of the word sorrow is _______.

D7

agitate, bewilder, concerned, confuse, depress, nervous, worry

  1. Before a test, it is normal to feel a bit _____.
  2. Don’t you ______ about the expenses. I’ll pay for everything.
  3. His answer was so complex that it _____ my mind.
  4. The heavy and never-ending rain _______ us all.
  5. The sudden death of our boss ________ all the staff.
  6. These days, parents are rather ________ about their children’s TV watching habit.
  7. The strange decision of the committee _______ all the staff.

D8

bother, calamity, distress, disturb, upset

  1. The verbbother is synonymous to d_______.
  2. The noun calamity is synonmous to adv_______.
  3. The verb distress is synonymous to b_______.
  4. The verb disturb is synonymous to u_______.
  5. The verb upset is synonymous to ag_______.

D9

anguish, anxiety

  1. The word anguish is synonymous to di_______.
  2. The noun form of the word anxiety is ________.

D10

nuisance, trouble

  1. The word nuisance is synonymous to an________.
  2. The adjective form of the word trouble is ________.
  3. ANGER, VIOLENCE, STRESS, CALM AND QUIETNESS

E1

annoy, displease, irritate, peevish, provoke, tease

  1. The noun form of the word annoy is _________.
  2. The noun form of the word displease is _________.
  3. The noun form of the word irritate is _________.
  4. The adjective peevish is synonymous to cr_____.
  5. The noun form of the word provoke is _________.
  6. The adjective form of the word tease is _________.

E2

anger, cross, furious, infuriate, mad, rage

  1. The adjective form of the word anger is _________.
  2. The word cross is synonymous to comp________.
  3. The noun form of the word furious is _________.
  4. The noun form of the word infuriate is _________.
  5. The noun form of the word mad is _________.
  6. The adjective form of the word rage is _________.

E3

argue, quarrel, row

  1. What is your _________ about this topic? ARGUE
  2. She is quite _________. QUARREL
  3. The word row is synonymous to f_______.

E4

disagree, dispute

  1. The noun form of the word disagree is _________.
  2. The adjective form of the word dispute is _________.

E5

aggression, cruel, fierce, murderous, violence, wild

  1. The adjective form of the word aggression is _________.
  2. The noun form of the word cruel is _________.
  3. The adjective form of the word fierce is _________.
  4. The word murderous is synonymous to de________.
  5. The adjective form of the word violence is _________.
  6. The noun form of the word wild is _________.
  7. FEAR AND COURAGE

F1

afraid, alarm, dread, fear, fright, horrify, panic, petrify, scare, terrify, terrorize

  1. The noun form of the word afraid is _________.
  2. The adjective form of the word alarm is _________.
  3. The adjective form of the word dread is _________.
  4. The adjective form of the word fear is _________.
  5. The verb form of the word fright is _________.
  6. The noun form of the word horrify is _________.
  7. The adjective form of the word panic is _________.
  8. The adjective form of the word petrify is _________.
  9. The adjective form of the word scare is _________.
  10. The noun form of the word terrify is _________.
  11. The adjective form of the word terrorize is _________.

F2

embarrassed, ashamed, reticent, shy, timid

  1. The noun form of the word embarrassed is _________.
  2. The noun form of the word ashamed is _________.
  3. The word reticent is synonymous to res_______.
  4. The noun form of the word shy is _________.
  5. The word timid is synonymous to co_______.

F3

appall, shock

Appall = shock. Their adjective forms end in – ___.

F4

bold, brave, courage, coward, daring, nerve, reckless

  1. The noun form of the word bold is _________.
  2. The noun form of the word brave is _________.
  3. The adjective form of the word courage is _________.
  4. The adjective form of the word coward is _________.
  5. The verb form of the word daring is _________.
  6. The adjective form of the word nerve is _________.
  7. The noun form of the word reckless is _________.

F5

boast, hero, risk, venture

  1. After his great success, he was very _____. BOAST
  2. She is a real ______. HERO
  3. What you did was quite _____. RISK
  4. He wouldn’t ________ far from his mother’s door. VENTURE

F6

firm, obstinate, rude, stubborn

  1. The Government should _______ firm against the terrorists’ demands.
  2. He is as obstinate as a _______.
  3. This was all because of his rude_____.
  4. He is as stubborn as a _______.
  5. ADMIRATION, PRIDE, CONTEMPT, AND ABUSE

G1

admire, appreciate, esteem, glorify, respect

  1. I have great _____ for him. ADMIRE
  2. I have great ______ towards them. APPRECIATE
  3. He is a highly ______ person. ESTEEM
  4. He returned home with great _____. GLORIFY
  5. He is a _____ businessman. RESPECT

G2

arrogance, haughty, humble, impressive, pride, promising, splendour

  1. If you have arrogance, you are a_______. .
  2. If you are haughty, you are ar______.
  3. If you are humble, you are not bo_______.
  4. If something is impressive, you are i________ by it.
  5. If you have pride in something, you are p_______ of it.
  6. If something or someone is promising, it/he/she can expect a good f______.
  7. If something is full of splendour, it is sp______.

G3

condemn, contempt, humiliate, insult, offend

  1. The word condemn is synonymous to den______.
  2. The word contempt is synonymous to sc______.
  3. The word humiliate is synonymous to deg______.
  4. The word insult is synonymous to off______.
  5. The word offend is synonymous to irr______.

G4

disappoint, disgrace, insolent, shame

  1. The noun form of the word disappoint is _________.
  2. The adjective form of the word disgrace is _________.
  3. The noun form of the word insolent is _________.
  4. The adjective form of the word shame is _________.
  5. KINDNESS AND UNKINDNESS

H1

beneficial, benevolent, considerate, generous, helpful, kind, tender

  1. We need to _______ from the situation. BENEFICIAL
  2. In some religions, several gods are believed to have _______ BENEVOLENT
  3. He gave great ________ onto the matter before he made up his mind. CONSIDERATE
  4. What he really lacks is _______! GENEROUS
  5. I have nothing to do in this situation! I’m _______. HELPFUL
  6. He showed great _______. KIND
  7. I have a feeling of great ________ for you. TENDER

H2

human, humane

  1. kind, civilized
  2. mortal

H3

charity, consideration, console, humanity, sympathize

  1. The adjective form of the word charity is _________.
  2. The adjective form of the word consideration is _________.
  3. The noun form of the word console is _________.
  4. The verb form of the word humanity is _________.
  5. The adjective form of the word sympathize is _________.

H4

aggrieved, malice, ruthless, sour, spiteful, vicious

  1. The word aggrieved stems from the noun g_____.
  2. The word malice is synonymous to h_______.
  3. The word ruthless is synonymous to me_____less.
  4. The word sour is synonymous to cr_______.
  5. The word spiteful is synonymous to bad-t_______.
  6. The word vicious is synonymous to co____pt and mal____ous.

H5

greed, miser

  1. lust, passion
  2. tightwad, cheapstake

H6

avenge, envious, jealous, merciless, resent, revenge, sullen, vengeance

  1. The word avenge is synonymous to _________ in the word list.
  2. The word envious is similar in meaning to ________ in the word list.
  3. The word jealous is synonymous to gr_______.
  4. The word merciless is synonymous to r______less
  5. The word resent is synonymous to di______.
  6. The word revenge is synonymous to vin_______.
  7. The word sullen is synonymous to mo______.
  8. The word vengeance is synonymous to _______ in the word list.
  9. HONESTY, LOYALTY, TRICKERY, AND DECEIT

I1

candid, confident, frank, genuine, gullible, honest, sincere, trustworthy, truthful

  1. The word candid is synonymous to ge______.
  2. The noun form of the word confident is _________.
  3. The noun form of the word frank is _________.
  4. The word genuine is synonymous to aut_________.
  5. The word gullible is synonymous to cre____us.
  6. The noun form of the word honest is _________.
  7. The noun form of the word sincere is _________.
  8. The word trustworthy is synonymous to de_______able.
  9. The noun form of the word truthful is _________.

I2

blunt, confidential, explicit, implicit, overt

  1. If someone is blunt, this person is uncivil or d_____.
  2. If something is confidential, it is s_______.
  3. If something is explicit, it is cl______.
  4. If something is implicit, it is im_____ed.
  5. If something is overt, it is straight________.

I3

cunning, innocent, naive, sly

  1. The word cunning is synonymous to _______ in the word list.
  2. The word innocent is synonymous to _______ in the word list.

I4

allegiance, constant, faith, loyal

  1. The word allegiance is synonymous to the word s______t.
  2. The noun form of the word constant is _________.
  3. The adjective form of the word faith is _________.
  4. The noun form of the word loyal is _________.

I5

betray, depend, rely on/upon, treacherous, trust

  1. We’ll never forgive his _______. BETRAY
  2. Is he really ________? Can we trust him? DEPEND
  3. She proved to be very _______. RELY
  4. He is famous for his _______. TREACHEROUS
  5. She proved to be very _________. TRUST

I6

deceit, fool, liar, mislead, pretend

  1. The adjective form of the word deceit is _________.
  2. The verb form of the word fool is _________.
  3. The word liar stems from the word _____.
  4. The adjective form of the word mislead is _________.
  5. The noun form of the word pretend is _________.

I7

disloyal, treacherous

  1. The word disloyal is synonymous to fa____less.
  2. The word treacherous is synonymous to unre________.

I8

conspiracy, plot, secret, subterfuge, stuck, stranded, trap, trick

  1. The verb form of the word conspiracy is _________.
  2. The word plot is synonymous to pl______.
  3. The noun form of the word secret is _________.
  4. The word subterfuge is synonymous to ma_________.
  5. The word stuck is the past participle form of the verb _____.
  6. The word stranded is synonmous to aba_______ed.
  7. The adjective form of the word trap is _________.
  8. Another word for the word trick is tr_______.

I9

conceal, disguise, hide

  1. The word conceal is synonymous to ________ in the word list.
  2. The word disguise is synonymous to ca________.

I10

expose, reveal, uncover

  1. The word expose is synonymous to dis______.
  2. The word reveal is synonymous to s________.
  3. The word uncover is synonymous to ________ in the word list.
  4. RELAXATION, EXCITEMENT, INTEREST, AND SURPRISE

J1

calm, comfort, ease, patience, peace, placid, quiet, serene, tranquillity

  1. The noun form of the word calm is _________.
  2. The opposite form of the word comfort is _________.
  3. The adjective form of the word ease is _________.
  4. The opposite form of the word patience is _________.
  5. The adjective form of the word peace is _________.
  6. The word placid is synonymous to tr_______il.
  7. The verb form of the word quiet is _________.
  8. The noun form of the word serene is _________.
  9. The adjective form of the word tranquillity is _________.

J2

excite, exhilarate, inspire, relax, stimulate, thrill

  1. The noun form of the word excite is _________.
  2. The noun form of the word exhilarate is _________.
  3. The noun form of the word incpire is _________.
  4. The noun form of the word relax is _________.
  5. The noun form of the word stimulate is _________.
  6. The noun form of the word thrill is _________.

J3

ardent, ardour, enthusiasm, zeal

  1. The word ardent is synonymous to ea______.
  2. The word ardour is synonymous to ________ is the word list.
  3. The opposite of the word enthusiasm is in_________.
  4. The word zeal is synonymous to ________ in the word list.

J4

avid, desirous, eager, keen

  1. The word avid is synonymous to _______ in the word list.
  2. The word desirous is synonymous to a______ous.
  3. The word eager is synonymous to en________.
  4. The word keen is synonymous to en________.

J5

curiosity, frenzy, frustrate, hysteria, nosy, sensitive, stress, tense

  1. If you have curiosity, you are _______.
  2. If you have frenzy, you are _______.
  3. If something frustrates you, you are _______.
  4. If you are in hysteria, you are _________.
  5. If you are nosy, you are cu_______.
  6. If you are sensitive, you have ________.
  7. If you are full of stress, you are ________.
  8. If you are tense, you are _______ up.

J6

apathy, boredom, monotonous, tedious

  1. The word apathy is synonymous to listlessness and in________. –
  2. The word boredom is synonymous to ________ in the word list.
  3. The word monotonous is synonymous to _______ in the word list.
  4. The word tedious is synonymous to bu_____some.

J7

amaze, astonish, astound, enigma, perplex, startle, surprise, taken aback

amaze/astonish/astound/puzzle/startle/surprise (n/v)

amaze/astonish/astound/perplex/puzzle/startle/surprise + -ing/-ed (adj)

– The term taken aback is synonymous to _________.

J8

marvel, wonder

  1. The adjective form of the word marvel is ________.
  2. The adjective form of the word wonder is ________.

J9

enigma, miracle, mystery

  1. The adjective form of the word enigma is ________.
  2. The adjective form of the word miracle is ________.
  3. The adjective form of the word mystery is ________.
  4. ACTIONS OF THE FACE RELATED TO FEELINGS

K1

blush, chuckle, giggle, grin, laugh, smile

  1. When you blush, your face becomes _______ in colour.
  2. When you chuckle, you are either su______ or dis_______.
  3. When you giggle, you l____ quickly.
  4. When you grin, you smile to show your t_____h to people.
  5. The noun form of the word laugh is _______.
  6. When you smile, you don’t open your m______.

K2

frown, groan, moan, mock, ridicule, scowl, snarl, sneer

  1. The word frown is synonymous to gri______.
  2. The word groan is synonymous to _______ in the word list.
  3. The word moan is synonymous to la_______.
  4. The word mock is synonymous to ________ in the word list.
  5. The word ridicule is synonymous to s______ in the word list.
  6. The word scowl is synonymous to fr______.
  7. The word snarl is synonymous to ________ in the word list.
  8. The word sneer is synonymous to cr_________.

K3

cry, weep

– To weep is to cry ______ly.

  1. SENSES AND SENSATIONS

L1

contact, tangible, tap, touch

  1. The word contact is synonymous to _______ in the word list.
  2. The word tangible is synonymous to ______able.
  3. When you tap someone on the shoulder, you use the tip of your _______.
  4. The word touch is synonymous to _______ in the word list.

L2

audible, auditory, sensory

  1. If something is audible, you can _____ it.
  2. The word auditory to synonymous to _______ in the word list.
  3. The word sensory is synonymous to f______.

L3

eye, face, gape, notice, observe

  1. When you eye something, you ______ at it.
  2. When you face something, you en________ it.
  3. When you gape, you look with your ______ open.
  4. When you notice something, you become _______ of it.
  5. When you observe something, you de______ it.

L4

scan, sightsee, spot, watch, witness

  1. The word scan is synonymous to sc_______.
  2. The noun form of the word sightsee is ________.
  3. The word spot is synonymous to de_______.
  4. The word watch is synonymous to ob_______.
  5. If you see something as a witness, you are an ____witness.

L5

gaze, glance, glimpse, peer, stare

  1. look for a long time
  2. look steadily for a long time
  3. look very hard, usually because it is very difficult to see
  4. look very quickly and look away immediately
  5. see very briefly and not clearly

L6

sight, vision, visual

  1. The verb form of the word sight is ______.
  2. The word vision is synonymous to ______ in the word list.
  3. The verb form of the word visual is ______.

L7

apparent, clear, obvious, prominent, visible

  1. The verb form of the word apparent is _______.
  2. The verb form of the word clear is _______.
  3. The word obvious is synonymous to _______ in the word list.
  4. The word prominent is synonymous to ma_____.
  5. The opposite of the word visible is ________.

L8

alert, cautious

  1. The word alert is synonymous to aw____.
  2. The noun form of the word cautious is ________.

L9

dense, opaque, transparent

  1. The noun form of the word dense is _______.
  2. The word opaque is synonymous to _____-transparent.
  3. The noun form of the word transparent is ________.

L10

hear, noise, overhear, sound, voice

  1. If you have problem with your hearing, you are _____ of hearing.
  2. The adjective form of the word noise is _______.
  3. When you overhear something, you hear it by _____.
  4. The verb form of the word sound is _______.
  5. The verb form of the word voice is _______.

L11

aloud, loud, silence

  1. What is difference between aloud and loud?
  2. The verb form of the word silence is _______.

L12

pop, rattle, ring, roar, toll

  1. a sharp sound of a balloon bursting or a cork being pulled out of a bottle
  2. a very loud noise
  3. ring slowly and repeatedly
  4. the sound made by a bell
  5. to make a series of short, regular knocking sounds because it is being shaken or it is hitting
    against something hard

L13

fragrance, odour, scent, smell, stink

  1. a pleasant smell
  2. a strong smell
  3. a sweet, pleasant smell
  4. smell extremely unpleasant
  5. the effect that something has on the nose as a sense

L14

acrid, delicious, flavour, savour, taste

  1. The word acrid is synonymous to bi_____.
  2. The word delicious is synonymous to ta_____.
  3. The word flavour is synonymous to _______ in the word list.
  4. The word savour is synonymous to _______ in the word list.
  5. The word taste is synonymous to ta_____.

L15

bitter, sweet

  1. acrid, piercing
  2. sugary, pleasant

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. Ammonia is a chemical with a penetrating odour.
A) smell B) flavour C) sting D) burn
  1. When frost appears on a window, it often has a delicate and curious pattern.
A) special B) strange C) fine D) cute
  1. The actress had to raise her voice in order to be audible in the balcony.
A) musical B) dramatic C) heard D) appreciated
  1. Dictators do not tolerate opposition of any kind.
A) understand B) permit C) justify D) execute
  1. She was overcome by chagrin at the check-out counter when she discovered she had
    left her wallet at home.
A) anger B) poverty C) challenge D) embarrassment
  1. Apathy toward his studies prevented his graduation.
A) Indirection B) Indifference C) Indecision D) Indication
  1. Although he knew she had work to do, he tried to entice her to go the beach.
A) trace B) enervate C) tempt D) thrice
  1. We supported the chairman’s budget plan ardently.
A) expertly B) zealously C) ardously D) entirely
  1. She left explicit instructions regarding her burial.
A) vague B) exciting C) irregular D) clear
  1. He was careful not to incur too many bills for us to pay.
A) inquire B) pay C) acquire D) change
  1. THOUGHT
  2. THINKING, JUDGING AND REMEMBERING

A1

intellect, mentality, mind, thought

  1. What I need is _____ discussions. INTELLECT
  2. She has _____ disability. MENTALITY
  3. She is very absent-_____; she keeps forgetting things. MIND
  4. You are so _____! Thank you! THOUGHT

A2

contemplate, reason, solve, think, work out

  1. She peered down at him in deep _____. CONTEMPLATE
  2. The points he makes are _____ and logical. REASON
  3. What is the _____ to this problem? SOLVE
  4. High _____ and high anger cannot be together. THINK
  5. Is the solution really _____? WORK OUT

A3

deliberate, meditate

  1. After long _____, he decided to accept the offer. DELIBERATE
  2. We caught him in deep _____. MEDITATE

A4

ponder, reflect, speculate

  1. We’ve had to accomplish a _____ task. PONDER
  2. This is to be given thorough _____. REFLECT
  3. His _____ did not become real. SPECULATE

A5

consideration, deliberation

  1. He is _____ to be the real director of the firm. CONSIDERATION
  2. I’m sure it was a _____ action; he can’t have made it accidentally. DELIBERATION

A6

abstract, coherent, philosophy, rational

  1. _____ like love, hatred and greed are difficult to explain to a foreign language learner.
    ABSTRACT
  2. If you add this sentence, the paragraph will lose its _____. COHERENT
  3. He loves making long, _____ speeches. PHILOSOPHY
  4. What you say is utterly _____ and unacceptable. RATIONAL

A7

conceive, imagine, reckon, regard

  1. We tried every _____ way to convince him. CONCEIVE
  2. Because he lacks _____, he can never be a writer. IMAGINE
  3. If you give it a bit of ____, you will see my point. RECKON
  4. He _____ our warnings and went out to swim in the dangerous lake. REGARD

A8

fancy, suppose

  1. He has _____ ideas. FANCY
  2. Mine is simply a _____. SUPPOSE

A9

assume, guess

  1. The _____ that there will be global warming is a real nightmare. ASSUME
  2. What do I have in my hand? Make a _____! GUESS

A10

concept, idea

– What is the difference between idea and concept?

A11

impression, insight, intuition

  1. feeling, anticipation
  2. idea, concept, perception
  3. understanding, recognition, perception

A12

aspect, notion, opinion, theory, viewpoint

  1. appearance; attitude
  2. belief, assumption; address
  3. hypothesis, philosophy
  4. opinion, conception; whim
  5. perspective, angle

A13

conclude, deduce, induce, infer

  1. In _____, we decided to check the order again. CONCLUDE
  2. His ____ was misleading and wrong. DEDUCE
  3. Here, we use _____ method of teaching. INDUCE
  4. You can make _____ from what he said. INFER

A14

analyse, arbitrate, criticize, review

  1. After a thorough _____, we realized that an integral circuit was broken. ANALYSE
  2. He _____ accepted the offer. ARBITRATE
  3. I don’t want to hear this _____ of him. CRITICIZE
  4. A _____ of my latest novel appeared in a small magazine. REVIEW

A15

assess, evaluate, interpret, judge

  1. Testing is an _____ technique. ASSESS
  2. This needs to be given a bit of _____. EVALUATE
  3. He made a big mistake and _____ the dog’s behaviour. INTERPRET
  4. His _____ is generally correct. JUDGE

A16

ascribe, attribute

Ascribe is synonymous to attribute. The noun form of the verb attribute is synonymous to p_ _ _ _ _ _y and c_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ic.

A17

accept, believe, credible, credit

  1. Such a small error is _____. ACCEPT
  2. His nasty behaviour was _____! BELIEVE
  3. It is _____ how fast she can run! CREDIBLE
  4. He is a _____ member of our club. CREDIT

A18

anticipate, expect

  1. Anticipate is synonymous to fore_ _ _ _ and fore_ _ _.
  2. Expect is synonymous to anticipate, h_ _ _ for, co_ _ _ _ _ _ _te.

A19

basis, incentive, inspire, intention, mean, motivate

  1. His argument did not have a sound _______. BASIS
  2. The word incentive is synonymous to ob_ _ _ _ _ve.
  3. The noun form of the word inspire is _________.
  4. I believe that her behaviour was not accidental; it was completely _______. INTENTION
  5. This word does not look correct; it is totally _______. MEAN
  6. Because he didn’t have essential _______, he lost the match. MOTIVATE

A20

forget, recall, recollect, remember, remind

  1. If you forget things again and again, you are forget_ _ _.
  2. Recall is the opposite of _ _ _ _ _ _.
  3. Your memories are your recollect_ _ _s.
  4. The noun form of the verb remember is rememb_ _ _ _.
  5. A piece of note that reminds you of something is a remind_ _.

A21

omit, overlook

  1. exclude, leave out
  2. ignore, neglect; forgive

A22

oblivion

– The word oblivion is synonymous to for_ _ _ _ _ _ness.

A23

celebrity, fame, famous, notorious, renown

  1. celebrity, reputation
  2. fame, reputation
  3. infamous
  4. notable, renown
  5. prominent, eminent, famed

A24

distinguished, outstanding

The opposite of distinguished is c_ _ _ _n, and the opposite of outstanding is c_ _ _ _ _p_ _ _e.

A25

notable, noteworthy, well-known

  1. If something is notable, it is also note_ _ _ _ _y.
  2. The word noteworthy is opposite in meaning to _ _significant.
  3. Well-known is synonymous to famous, famed, pro_ _ _ _ _t.
  4. KNOWING AND LEARNING

B1

acclaim, comprehend, dawn on, memorize, perceive, realize, recognize

  1. Acclaim (n) = re_ _ _ _ _ _ion
  2. Comprehend (v) à compre_ _ _ _ _ _ _ (n)
  3. “It suddenly dawned on him that he’d made a mistake” means “He suddenly ______ that he’d
    made a mistake.”
  4. Memorize (v) à memor_ _ _ _ _ (n)
  5. Perceive (v) à perce_ _ _ _ _ (n)
  6. Realize (v) à realiz_ _ _ _ _ (n)
  7. Recognize (v) à recog_ _ _ _ _ _ (n)

B2

educate, instruct, teach, train

  1. He is highly-____________. EDUCATE
  2. He is very well ____________. INSTRUCT
  3. He attended language _________ courses and received a certificate. TEACH
  4. He is attending teacher __________ courses. TRAIN

B3

consciousness, knowledge

– The opposite of the word consciousness is

? un  
? dis consciousness
? in  

 B4

aware, civilized, learned, training

  1. He suddenly attacked the man and caught him _________. AWARE
  2. Western _________ owes a lot to ancient Egypt. CIVILIZED
  3. Language _________ can be a cumbersome process. LEARNED
  4. We need _________ people; qualification is essential in our firm. TRAINING

B5

apt, clever, ingenious, shrewd, smart, subtle

  1. 1. Apt means in_ _ _ _ed, app_ _ _ _ _ _te or com_ _ _ _nt.
  2. Clever means intelligent, s_ _ _t, b_ _ _ _t, gi_ _ed.
  3. What is the difference between ingenious and genius?
  4. When it bears a negative meaning, shrewd is synonymous to s_ _, tr_ _ _y.
  5. Smart is the opposite of s_ _ _ _d.
  6. The noun form of the word subtle is _______.

B6

bright, brilliant

  1. Bright (adj) à _________ (n)
  2. Brilliant (adj) à _________ (n)

B7

cautious, judicious, prudent

  1. A cautious person acts with ca_ _ _ _ _.
  2. A judicious person is prudent, pr_____al and s___ible.
  3. A prudent person has pru_ _ _ _ _.

B8

discreet, genius, tactful, wise

  1. Discreet is synonymous to pru_ _ _ _.
  2. A genius is ta_ _ _ _ed.
  3. Tactful is synonymous to att___ive.
  4. A wise person has wis_ _ _.

B9

clear, intelligible

  1. Clear (adj) à _________ (n)
  2. Intelligible means s_ _e, rea_ _ _ _ble, und_ _ _ _ _ _ _able.

B10

able, capable, gifted, proficient

  1. Able (adj) à _________ (n)
  2. Capable (adj) à _________ (n)
  3. Gifted is synonymous to ta_ _ _ _ed.
  4. Proficient (adj) à _________ (n)

B11

ability, aptitude, competence, merit, skill

  1. Ability X ___ability
  2. Aptitude = fa_ _ _ _y, talent
  3. Competence (n) à _________ (adj)
  4. Merit is synonymous to w_ _ _h, v_ _ _e.
  5. Skill (n) à _________ (adj)

B12

facility, resource

  1. Facility generally means ma_ _ _ _ery, tool, eq_ _ _ _ent.
  2. What is the difference between source and resource?

B13

absent-minded, absurd, awkward, clumsy, dumb, ignorant, retarded, silly, slow, stupid

  1. Absent-minded = for_ _ _ _ _ _
  2. Absurd (adj) à _________ (n)
  3. Clumsy (adj) à _________ (n)
  4. Dumb (adj) à _________ (n)
  5. Ignorant (adj) à _________ (n)
  6. Retarded = back_ _ _ _
  7. Silly (adj) à _________ (n)
  8. A person can be slow _________ (on / in) learning.
  9. Stupid (adj) à _________ (n)

B14

crazy, insane, lunacy, mad, morbidity, normality, sane, unbalanced

  1. __________ can sometimes be irritating. CRAZY
  2. __________ is difficult to cure. INSANE
  3. This is complete __________! MAD
  4. He is quite _________. MORBIDITY
  5. He is very strange and ________. NORMALITY
  6. He has not regained his ________ after the incident. SANE
  7. The word unbalanced is similar in meaning to mad_ _ _ _ _.

 

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. Vincent Van Gogh is renowned for his post-impressionist painting.
A) regarded B) applauded C) accomplished D) famous
  1. William Faulkner, a brilliant American novelist, was awarded the 1949 Nobel Prize in
    literature.
A) intelligent B) starry C) captive D) well-known
  1. The central part of Turkey is noted for its production of wheat.
A) applauded for B) informed of C) known for D) described by
  1. A domineering husband, he is the stereotype of a male chauvinist.
A) musician B) opposite C) fixed concemption D) disagreeable type
  1. I am not ingenious enough to invent a video game.
A) studious B) clever C) glorious D) indigenous
  1. Einstein was a brilliant mathematician.
A) shining B) very intelligent C) famous D) foreign
  1. The teacher was amazed by the students’ versatility in handling the computer.
A) verse B) enthusiasm C) variety of skills D) version
  1. She was graceful and never moved awkwardly.
A) smoothly B) clumsily C) merrily D) gracefully
  1. I think your decision to buy the house was judicious.
A) wise B) extravagant C) careful D) joyful
  1. A good teacher must establish rapport with his or her students.
A) report B) acquaintance C) understanding D) conversation
  1. COMMUNICATING
  2. COMMUNICATING, MAINLY BY SPEAKING AND TALKING

A1

confer, converse, name, pronounce, recite, tell

  1. Confer = di_ _ _ _s
  2. Converse (v) à ___________ (n)
  3. He worked for an intelligence service, _______ Mossad. NAME
  4. Pronounce (v) à ___________ (adj)
  5. Recite = na_ _ _ _e
  6. A piece of story that you tell can be named as a t_ _ _.

A2

interfere, interrupt

– What is the difference between interfere and interrupt?

A3

chat, interview, talk

  1. If a person talks too much, this person is called a chat_ _ _box. CHAT
  2. Interview = con_ _ _ _e with
  3. If a person talks too much, this person is __________. TALK

A4

advise, communicate, contact, inform, notify, address, lecture

  1. Which is the verb: advise or advice?
  2. Telephone is a means of ____________. COMMUNICATE
  3. Contact (v) à ___________ (n)
  4. We need more ___________ here. INFORM
  5. We haven’t yet received the _________. NOTIFY
  6. Address (v) à ___________ (n)
  7. The _________ forgot what he was going to tell in the middle of the seminar. LECTURE

A5

eloquent, speech, utterance

  1. He talked with such ________ that we were astounded. ELOQUENT
  2. He didn’t know what to say; he was _________. SPEECH
  3. She didn’t ________ a single word throughout the boat trip. UTTERANCE

A6

mumble, mutter, whisper

  1. What is the difference between mumble and mutter?
  2. Whisper (v) à ___________ (n)

A7

comment, express, phrase, remark, statement, word

  1. Comment (v) à ___________ (n)
  2. These books give some useful _________s to use when speaking. EXPRESS
  3. “Look forward to” is a ________ verb. PHRASE
  4. He made a ________ speech! REMARK
  5. His speech was nicely ______. WORD

A8

affirm, aside, assert, attest, declare, state

  1. Affirm (v) = de_ _ _ _ _, app_ _ _e.
  2. Aside means to one side, but at the same time it may mean mono_ _ _ _ _.
  3. Assert = declare, proc_ _ _ _.
  4. Attest = _ _ _
  5. Declare = an_ _ _ _ _ _
  6. Approve = favour, con_ _ _m

A9

allege, announce, claim, demand

  1. Allege (v) à ___________ (n)
  2. Announce (v) à ___________ (n)
  3. Claim (v) à ___________ (n)
  4. Demand (v) à ___________ (adj)

A10

re-phrase, repeat, restate

  1. Rephrase = _ _ _ _phrase
  2. Repeat (v) à ___________ (n)
  3. Restate (v) à ___________ (n)

A11

emphasis, highlight, insist, pinpoint, stress, underline

  1. He is trying to __________ the importance of his discovery. EMPHASIS
  2. She ___________ the basic principles of her method. HIGHLIGHT
  3. Why are you so ________? Can’t you think of anything else! INSIST
  4. At the meeting, they ________ the importance of a budget increase. PINPOINT
  5. In English, the first word is __________ in question tags. STRESS
  6. I tried to focus on the ____________ points. UNDERLINE

A12

exaggerate, understate

  1. Exaggerate (v) = overstate, em_ _ _ _ _ _h
  2. Understate (v) = re_ _ _e

A13

account, account for, define, depict, describe, explain

  1. This fact is not taken _____ account.
  2. Account for = ex_ _ _ _ _
  3. What is the _________ for this word? DEFINE
  4. Depict (v) à _________ (n)
  5. I need the exact _________ of the man. DESCRIBE
  6. We want an ___________ from the authorities. EXPLAIN

A14

argue, debate, discuss

– Study the difference in meaning: argue (v); debate (v, n); discuss (v)

A15

assure, conviction, convince, plausible, reassure

  1. I am asking for an ________. ASSURE
  2. Study the difference in meaning between convict (v, n) and conviction (n).
  3. His speech was far from being __________. CONVINCE
  4. Plausible = cr_ _ _ _le
  5. I need your __________ to win this game. REASSURE

A16

dissuade, persuade

Dissuade and persuade are similar in meaning. Dissuade means warn, disco_ _ _ _ _ whereas persuade means influence, con_ _ _ _ _.

A17

entail, hint, imply, suggest

  1. Entail = at_ _ _ _
  2. Hint (n) = c_ _ _
  3. Imply = in_ _ _ _ _ _
  4. Suggest = offer, pr_ _ _ _ _

A18

allude to, bring up, propose

  1. intimate, hint, suggest
  2. propose, present
  3. suggest

A19

citation, mention, quote, raise, refer, reference

  1. He is _________ among the most prominent scientists. CITATION
  2. This point is worth a _______. MENTION
  3. I am collecting famous __________s from famous people. QUOTE
  4. What does this word refer ____?
  5. In his speech, he made references ______ earlier studies.

A20

answer, ask, enquire, inquire, reply, respond

  1. What is the difference between the words answer, reply, and respond?
  2. What is the difference between the words ask, enquire, and inquire?

A21

doubt, query, sceptic, suspect

  1. It is _______ to say that he will succeed! He is the best! DOUBT
  2. He made several ________. QUERY
  3. If it goes out of control, _________ may give way to paranoia. SCEPTIC
  4. I am really ________ of his motives. SUSPECT

A22

contradict, interrogate, promise

  1. Contradict (v) à ______________ (n)
  2. Interrogate (v) à ______________ (n)
  3. Promise (v) à ______________ (n)

A23

appeal, beg, petition, plea

  1. This is quite ___________. APPEAL
  2. A _________ stopped me in the middle of the street and asked for money. BEG
  3. Petition (v) = req_ _ _ _
  4. Plea (n) = appeal, en_ _ _ _ _y

A24

complain, object

– You can complain _______ something and object _______ something.

A25

apologize, excuse, forgive

  1. I would like to express my deepest ______es. APOLOGIZE
  2. What is your ________ for being late this time? EXCUSE
  3. Actually, he is exploiting your _________. FORGIVE

A26

accuse, blame

  1. What am I accused _____?
  2. I know. I am to blame _____ the accident.

A27

admission, admit

  1. What is the difference between admission and admittance?
  2. Admit = permit; ac_ _ _ _ _ _ _ge

A28

adopt, confess

  1. What is the difference between adopt and adapt?
  2. Confess (v) à ______________ (n)

A29

commit, oath, pledge, swear, treaty

  1. He committed himself ______ his wife.
  2. Remember that in the court you will be speaking _____ oath.
  3. Pledge = pr_ _ _ _ _
  4. I swear ____ God that I’ll take my revenge!
  5. Treaty = p_ _ _

A30

acknowledge, undertake

  1. admit, tell, thank
  2. assume, shoulder

A31

blaspheme, curse

– Which of these two words is more closely related with religion: blaspheme or curse?

A32

command, commandment, dictate, obey, order

  1. He is the _______ officer of a large troop. COMMAND
  2. Moses received Ten __________ from God. COMMANDMENT
  3. He dictated everything _____ his secretary.
  4. The little boy is very _______; he never listens to his parents. OBEY
  5. I don’t take _______ from anyone. ORDER

A33

invite, summon

  1. call, convene
  2. request, ask; tempt

A34

advice, recommend

  1. We need to find a legal ________. ADVICE
  2. I desperately need your ______________. RECOMMEND

A35

consult, referee, support

  1. He is my financial ___________. CONSULT
  2. We use referee for football but ______ for basketball.
  3. One of the ________ beams crashed and the whole construction collapsed. SUPPORT

A36

admonish, beware, threat, warn

  1. Admonish is the opposite of en_ _ _ _ _ge.
  2. Beware ____ dog!
  3. Do not ________ me! THREAT
  4. This is my last __________. WARN

A37

acquiesce, agree, approve, assent, coincide, concurrence, confirm, consent, endorse

  1. Acquiesce and agree about are synonymous. They both mean “come to ____s“.
  2. We got his _________. APPROVE
  3. Assent = ac_ _ _e
  4. Coincide (v) à _________ (n)
  5. Consent / Concurrence = acq_ _ _ _ _ _ _ce
  6. Do we need further __________ from the boss? CONFIRM
  7. Endorse = confirm; san_ _ _ _n

A38

deny, disagree, reject

  1. Deny (v) à ______________ (n)
  2. Disagree (v) à ______________ (n)
  3. Reject (v) à ______________ (n)

A39

call, exclaim

  1. On the telephone, the _______ does not say “I am …”, but “This is …”. CALL
  2. The name of ! sign in grammar is __________ mark. EXCLAIM

A40

bellow, cheer, cry, scream, shout, shriek, yell

  1. When you are in great pain you ________ [bellow / cheer].
  2. He is recording animal _______ [cries / shouts]
  3. He shouted _____ [at / to] me because he wanted to attract my attention.
  4. Both shriek and yell are very loud. Is there a difference in meaning between them?

A41

stammer, stutter

– What is the difference between stammer and stutter?

  1. COMMUNICATING, MAINLY BY READING AND WRITING, PRINTING AND PUBLISHING, RADIO AND TELEVISION

B1

annotate, autograph, browse

  1. explain
  2. inscribe
  3. skim; glance

B2

inscribe, sign, signature

  1. He is trying to decipher wall _____________s. INSCRIBE
  2. Sign = en_ _ _ _ _
  3. A photo of a famous person with the signature of this person is called an ________.

B3

edit, print, rewrite, shorthand, type, write

  1. He is the ________ of a big newspaper. EDIT
  2. What is the difference between print and imprint?
  3. What is the difference between rewrite and restate?
  4. Can your secretary _______ shorthand?
  5. I bought an electric ________ machine. TYPE
  6. A person who writes plays is called a play________.

B4

delete, erase

  1. Delete (v) à _____________ (n)
  2. Erase (v) à _____________ (n)

B5

legible, literate, readable

– Something can be __legible or __readable. A person can be __literate.

B6

alphabet, decipher, initial, letter, transcription

  1. A dictionary generally presents words and their meanings in ___________ order. ALPHABET
  2. Decipher = solve; unr_ _ _l
  3. If you are asked to write in your initials on a formal document, what do you need to do?
  4. A, B, C, etc. are _________ letters and a, b, c etc. are ___________ letters.
  5. Transcription is a noun with two meanings. Which meaning of the word is uncountable: the act
    of copying or transcript?

B7

apostrophe, asterisk, punctuate, syllable

  1. When an apostrophe is used in such short forms as I’m, he’s, we’ll, isn’t etc., this short form is
    called a __________.
  2. Which of the following is an asterisk: a) # b) * c) @?
  3. Full-stop, semicolon, question mark and other are called punctuation _______. .
  4. Chinese is a _________ language. SYLLABLE

B8

sheet, stationery

  1. What is the difference between a sheet of paper and a piece of paper?
  2. What is the difference between stationery and stationary?

B9

epistle, label, record, register

  1. Epistle = l_ _ _ _r
  2. What is the difference between label and lapel?
  3. Record = register, ta_ _ _ _te
  4. Where is the __________ office? REGISTER

B10

anecdote, article, diary, manual, tale, thesis, version

  1. Anecdote = tale, nar_ _ _ _ve
  2. When a journalist’s articles appear on a certain column of the newspaper every day, this
    journalist is called a co_______st.
  3. What is the difference between a diary and a manual?
  4. The kind of unreal tales that people like hunters tell are called a ____tale.
  5. Thesis = pro_ _ _ _tion; re_ _ _ _ch paper
  6. Version = translation, rendition; acc_ _ _ _

B11

headline, title

  1. When a piece of news appears with a large headline, we say that this piece of news has _____
    the headlines.
  2. Title = name, de_ _ _ _ation (n); __title (v)

B12

abbreviate, abridge, summarize, synopsis, synthesis

  1. Why is _________ such a long word? ABBREVIATE (Duvar yazısı)
  2. I bought an ________ copy of the dictionary. ABRIDGE
  3. I’ve already read the _________ of the play. SUMMARIZE
  4. I’ve read several ________ so far. SYNOPSIS
  5. He decided to _________ his two previous studies into one. SYNTHESIS

B13

draft, manuscript, script

  1. Draft = sk_ _ _h
  2. Manuscript = written _ _ _put
  3. Script = manuscript, _ _ _ _writing, document

B14

chapter, preface

  1. introduction to a book, speech, etc.
  2. one of the parts into which a book is divided

B15

album, anthology, autobiography

  1. Album = book, volume; e_ _ _ion
  2. Anthology (n) à _____________ (adj)
  3. Autobiography (n) à _____________ (adj)

B16

pamphlet

– A pamphlet is a ______ (small / large) book.

B17

literary

– What is the difference between literary and literally?

B18

fiction, novel, poem, prose

  1. A science book can be defined as __________. FICTION
  2. Yaşar Kemal is a great ________. NOVEL
  3. He is both a writer and a _______. POEM
  4. Prose = w_ _ _ing; rh_ _ _ _ic

B19

serial, series

– What is the difference between serial and series?

B20

lyric, rhyme

  1. match, coin
  2. songlike poem

B21

author, scribe

  1. clerk, correspondent
  2. writer, creator

B22

bind, bring out, edition, publication, publish

  1. distribute, print; advertise
  2. issue, publication, copy
  3. printing, proclamation, work
  4. publish
  5. secure, tie attach; confine, obligate; enslave
  6. COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION

C1

deliver, dispatch, remit

  1. Deliver (v) ___________ (n)
  2. Dispatch = h_ _ _e; s_ _d; kill
  3. Remit (v) à ____________ (n)

C2

gossip, rumour

– What is the difference between gossip and rumour?

C3

journalism, message, news

  1. information; report
  2. news media, broadcasting
  3. note, notation; minute

C4

gesticulate, gesture, signify

  1. a movement of the hands or arms, or an expression on the face, to show an idea or feeling
  2. make known; show by a sign
  3. use movements of the arms and hands to express ideas or feelings

C5

symbolize, token

  1. personify; exemplify
  2. symbol, sign

C6

nonsense, meaning

  1. The opposite of the word nonsense is cer_ _ _ _ty.

C7

advertise, advertisement

  1. Advertise = pub_ _ _ _ze, pro_ _ _im
  2. An advertisement on TV is called a com_ _ _ _ _al.

C8

broadcast, correspond, publicity

  1. advertising, promotion
  2. communicate; agree
  3. proclaim, declare

C9

receive, transmit

  1. Receive (v) à ____________ (n)
  2. Transmit (v) à ____________ (n)

Exercise

 

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. The homework was to write a synopsis of our favourite novel.
A) evaluation B) summary C) critique D) dramatization
  1. The number of illiterates in this country continues to rise.
    A) people who cannot read and write
    B) people without children
    C) people who participate in sports
    D) people who purchase more than they can afford
    3. The consensus among his sisters was that he ought to get married.
A) agreement B) statistics C) survey D) concentration
  1. A younger sister is obnoxious to have around when a young girl’s boyfriend comes to
    call.
A) welcome B) too much C) objectionable D) talkative
  1. The public is very dubious about the government’s plans for a tax cut.
A) debit B) delightful C) delirious D) doubtful
  1. The refusal of many nations to participate in the Olympic Games in Moscow was an
    admonishment to the Soviets.
A) admission B) admiration C) rebuke D) stigma
  1. The fireman tried to coax the cat down the top branch of the tree.
A) push B) shoot C) cajole D) force
  1. Germany after the war had no industry to enable the nation to make reparations to the
    Allies.
A) eecompense B) rewards C) returns D) reasons
  1. His sage suggestion saved us from starvation.
A) repeated B) wise C) helpful D) ingenious
  1. On every packet of cigarettes, there is a warning.
A) caution B) message C) reaction D) price
  1. LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR
  2. LANGUAGE

A1

colloquial, idiom, jargon, proverb, saying, slang

  1. Colloquial (adj) à ____________ (n)
  2. Idiom (n) à ____________ (adj)
  3. Jargon = ter_ _ _ _ _ _gy
  4. Proverb = ad_ _ _
  5. Saying = m_ _ _o, ma_ _m
  6. Slang = vul_ _ _ism

A2

accent, accentuate, articulate, tongue, voice

  1. Accent = in_ _ _ _tion; em_ _ _sis
  2. Accentuate = under_ _ _ _
  3. Articulate (v) à ____________ (n)
  4. What is the difference between voice and sound?

A3

adage, alias, fluency, oral, philology, term

  1. Adage = s_ _ing; sl_ _an
  2. What is the difference between alias and nickname?
  3. Fluency (n) à ____________ (adj)
  4. Oral = sp_ _ _n, v_ _ _ ed
  5. A person who works in the field of philology is a __________.
  6. Term = word, phrase, ex_ _ _ _ _ion

A4

context, setting, text

  1. Context (n) à ____________ (adj)
  2. Setting = en_ _ _ _ _ment, r_ _ _on
  3. Text (n) à ____________ (adj)

A5

issue, subject, theme, topic

  1. This is a public _______ (issue / topic)
  2. What is the subject_ _ _ _ _ _ of the composition.
  3. Theme (n) à ____________ (adj)
  4. Topic (n) à ____________ (adj)

A6

allegory, ironic(al), literal, metaphor, rhetorical, sarcasm, satire

  1. bitterness, severity
  2. eloquent
  3. exact
  4. humour
  5. mocking, sardonic
  6. resemblance, likeness
  7. story, legend, fable

A7

antonym, synonym

  1. Antonym (n) à __________ (adj)
  2. Synonym (n) à __________ (adj)

A8

alliterate, translate

  1. Alliterate (v) à __________ (n)
  2. What is the difference between translate and interpret?
  3. GENERAL GRAMMATICAL WORDS

B1

personal, private

– What is the difference between personal and private?

B2

accordingly, consequently, furthermore, hence, thus

  1. Accordingly = cor_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ly
  2. Consequently = h_ _ _e
  3. Furthermore = b_ _ _ _ _s
  4. Hence = t_ _ _ _ _ _re
  5. Thus = con_ _ _ _ _ _ _ly

B3

although, nevertheless, nonetheless, still

  1. What is the difference between although and despite?
  2. Nevertheless = h_ _ _ _ _r
  3. Nonetheless = not_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ing
  4. Still = _ _ _

B4

account, sake, through

  1. Account = ex______ion
  2. I am doing everything ___ the sake of my friends.
  3. Through = _ _a

Exercise

 

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. A familiar adage says that the early bird gets the worm.
A) proverb B) lady C) anecdote D) book
  1. The kids spoke a jargon of their own that no one else understood.
A) accent B) unintelligible talk C) vocabulary D) foreign language
  1. The squirrel has adapted well to a suburban setting.
A) scenery B) establishment C) environment D) dwelling
  1. This sentence refers to the topic of the paragraph.
A) includes B) digests C) applies to D) selects
  1. SUBSTANCES, MATERIALS, OBJECTS, AND EQUIPMENT
  2. SUBSTANCES AND MATERIALS GENERALLY

A1

item, material, matter, resources, stuff, substance

  1. If you lose something, you should apply to the _____ item office.
  2. Material means substance; at the same time, it means te_ _ _le and in_ _ _ _ation.
  3. We haven’t been able to figure out the ________ matter of the whole incident.
  4. What is the difference between resourses and sources?
  5. Stuff means thing; at the same time it means _______ (v).
  6. Substance means object; at the same time it means es_ _ _ce.

A2

component, composite, compound, constituent, ingredient, partial

  1. Component = constituent, el_ _ _ _ _, part
  2. Composite (adj, n) à ___________ (v)
  3. Compound = com_ _ _ _te
  4. Constituent (adj, n) à ___________ (v)
  5. What is the difference between ingredient and recipe?
  6. Partial means unfinished and component. One other meaning is bi_ _ed.

A3

complex, simple

  1. Complex (adj) à ___________ (n)
  2. Simple (adj) à ___________ (n) à ___________ (v)

A4

detail, feature

  1. He told everything _____ detail.
  2. Feature = pe_ _ _ _ _ _ity

A5

fluid, liquid, solid

  1. What is the difference between fluid and liquid?
  2. What is the difference between solid and tough?

A6

bubble, glue, oil

  1. adhesive, paste
  2. foam, globule
  3. grease, smear

A7

adhere, paste, stick

  1. He is an ________ of the conservative party. ADHERE
  2. Paste (v) = stick, att_ _ _
  3. I like to read _______ on car windows. STICK

A8

garbage, litter, residue, rubbish, trash, waste

  1. He works as a garbage _______or.
  2. Please do not ______! LITTER
  3. Residue = re_ _ _nt
  4. Rubbish = d_ _ _ _s
  5. He dumped everything into the trash ______.
  6. He has got quite ______ habits. WASTE

A9

contain, content, cover, hold, include

  1. We need to find a large _______ to store all these unused books. CONTAIN
  2. What is the difference between content (n) and content (adj)?
  3. Archaeologists have been trying to _______ the mysteries of the Pyramids for ages. COVER
  4. This is a hold-____! Give me all the money!
  5. Here, there is a household of ten persons, ______ of the servants. INCLUDE

A10

dispose, except, exclude, implicate, involve

  1. Everything was at my _______ DISPOSE
  2. ________ break the rule. EXCEPT
  3. Everybody was present at the meeting, with an ________ of the under-secretary. EXCLUDE
  4. What are the ________ of this statement? IMPLICATE
  5. Complete _______ is essential in this sport. INVOLVE

A11

comprise, consist of, constitute

  1. My course of study comprises ____ English and Latin.
  2. What is the difference between consist and consistent?
  3. What are the basic _______ of the structure? CONSTITUTE

A12

insert, remove

  1. eliminate, exclude
  2. include, put in, inject

A13

circle, encircle, enclose, envelop, muffle, surround, wrap

  1. The plane was making ______ movements. CIRCLE
  2. Encircle = ring, surround, en_ _ _ _ _ss
  3. Enclose (v) à ___________ (n)
  4. What is the difference between envelop and envelope?
  5. His gun has a _______. MUFFLE
  6. The house is in beautiful __________. SURROUND
  7. They carefully removed the ______ of the mummy. WRAP

A14

accrue, amass, collect, congregate, convene, gather, pool

  1. Accrue = acc_ _ _ _ate
  2. Amass = collect, agg_ _ _ate
  3. Collect (v) à ___________ (adj)
  4. Congregate (v) à ___________ (n)
  5. Convene = ass_ _ _ _e; s_ _ _on
  6. Gather (v) à ___________ (n)
  7. Pool (v) = com_ _ _ _

A15

assemble, assembly

  1. Assemble = congregate; con_ _ _ _ct
  2. Assembly = con_ _ _tion
  3. OBJECTS GENERALLY

B1

article, piece

  1. fragment, section, part
  2. item, commodity

B2

shred, slice

  1. He tore it _____ shreds.
  2. They ______ the large loaf with utmost care. SLICE

B3

fraction, fragment

– 1.375 is a decimal ______ (fraction / fragment)

B4

layer, section, segment

  1. Layer = sh_ _ _h, mantle
  2. Section = division, fr_ _tion
  3. Segment = p_ _tion

B5

bit, particle, pinch

  1. Bit = grain, sp_ _ _
  2. Particle = scrap, sh_ _ _
  3. Pinch = bit; to_ _ _

B6

bunch, cluster, heap, mass, pile

  1. What is the difference between bunch and bundle?
  2. What is the difference between cluster and bunch?
  3. What is the difference between heap and hill?
  4. What is the difference a mass of people and a group of people?
  5. What is the difference between pile and heap?

B7

essence, gist, kernel

  1. Essence (n, adj) à ___________ (adj)
  2. Gist = c_ _ _
  3. Kernel = essence, nu_ _ _ _s

B8

brick, plank

  1. block, chunk
  2. strip of wood, lumber

B9

beam, shaft, tube

  1. brace, stud, timber
  2. passage, pipe
  3. pipe, line, hose

B10

band, belt, ribbon, strap

  1. She bought herself a colourful ________ to tie her hair with.
  2. She put a first-aid ______ on the wound to prevent infection.
  3. The strong _______ that held the luggage together broke just when they were being loaded into the cargo department.
  4. You need to fasten your safety _________ when driving.

B11

chain, rope, string, thread, wire

  1. As her eyes were failing, she spent almost an hour to put the ______ through the knitting
    needle.
  2. In the past, prisoners had to carry a metal ball fastened tightly to their ankle with an iron _____.
  3. The cat was playing with a ball of ______.
  4. The executioner put the ________ around the prisoners neck and tightened the fasten.
  5. The horse tripped over a barbed _____ during a gallop and was badly hurt.

B12

globe, sphere

  1. Globe (n) à ___________ (adj)
  2. Sphere (n) à ___________ (adj)

B13

ball, bulb

– He was trying to change an electric _____ (ball / bulb) when he fell down.

B14

hook, pin

  1. curved metal
  2. sharp metal
  3. SPECIFIC SUBSTANCES AND MATERIALS

C1

marble, stone

Marble is a kind of stone. What is the difference between stone and rock?

C2

alluvium, clay, deposit

Alluvium and deposit are similar in meaning. What is the difference between clay and mud?

C3

dust, earth, ooze, powder

  1. Dust (n) à ___________ (v) à ___________ (adj)
  2. What is the difference between mud and muck?
  3. Ooze (n) à ___________ (v)
  4. Powder (n) à ___________ (v)

C4

dirt, muck, sand, soil

  1. dirt, earth, mud, grime
  2. mud, filth
  3. sediment, silt
  4. soil, earth, clay, dust, grime

C5

amber, pearl

Amber is produced by trees while pearl is produced by ________.

C6

cement, plaster

First you use _______ to produce concrete; then you put this liquid concrete in moulds to build walls. Next, you cover the walls with _______ so that they can be neatly painted.

C7

alloy, steel, tin

  1. admixture of metals
  2. aluminium/iron alloy
  3. hardened iron

C8

rust, tarnish

  1. corrode
  2. discolour

C9

log, pulp, timber, wood

When a tree is cut down, those who cut it shout “______!” so that people around should be careful. Then the branches are removed and the remaining part is called a ______. In the factory, this piece is cut into small pieces called _______. These pieces are further ground and then mixed with water and certain chemicals to produce _____. The next stage is paper-making.

C10

acid, alcohol, alkali, starch

  1. Acid (n) à ___________ (adj)
  2. Alcohol (n) à ___________ (adj)
  3. Alkali is a substance like soda, potash or ammonia. Starch, on the other hand, is a white, tasteless substance found in most plants, including grain and potato. Yet, a starched person is a very _________ person.

C11

blaze, burn, combustion, extinguish, fire, flame, inflammable, spark

  1. What is difference between blaze (n) and fire (n)?
  2. What is the difference between burn (v) and fire (v)?
  3. The instrument which is used to put out fires is called an _________. EXTINGUISH
  4. What is the difference between flame and spark?
  5. What is the difference between flammable and inflammable?

C12

ignite, power

  1. Ignite (v) à ___________ (n)
  2. Power (v, n) à ___________ (adj)

C13

paraffin, petrol

  1. What is the difference between paraffin and kerosene?
  2. What is the difference between petrol and oil?

C14

ash, fumes, smoke

  1. burnt gases
  2. cinder
  3. vapour, effluvium

C15

bleach, leather, soap, wool

  1. cleansing bar
  2. fleece, yarn, fuzz
  3. tanned hide
  4. whitener

C16

asphalt, resin, wax

  1. gum, tree sap, glue
  2. mortar, concrete
  3. polish

C17

coat, dye, paint, polish

  1. First, he gave his wooden statue a _____ of ______; then he applied _______ so that it would
    shine.
  2. What is the difference between dye (v) and paint (v)?
  3. EQUIPMENT, MACHINES, AND INSTRUMENTS

D1

apparatus, equipment

– What is the difference between apparatus and equipment?

D2

gear, tackle

  1. cogwheel, pinion
  2. ropes and pulleys

D3

artefact, instrument, lever, tool

  1. a handle or bar that you will pull or push in order to operate a piece of machinery
  2. a tool or device that is used to do a particular task
  3. an ornament, tool, or other object made by a human being
  4. any instrument or piece of equipment that you hold in your hands in order to help you to do a
    particular kind of work

D4

device, gadget, utensil

  1. The children were left to their own ________. DEVICE
  2. Mixer, blender, toaster and iron are all ________ gadgets.
  3. The kitchen had no cooker and no proper ________ utensils.

D5

bearing, engine, machine

  1. Today, almost all moving parts of the steering system of vehicles have ________ bearings.
  2. In the past, the locomotive used to be called the ________ engine.
  3. We export textile ________ to various countries. MACHINE

D6

frame, network, structure

  1. a large number of lines or things that cross each other or meet at many points
  2. I was caught when I felt no-one could ever find me. I wonder who ________ me! FRAME
  3. the way in which something is made, built, or organized

D7

beacon, candle, lamp, torch

  1. a device which produces light by using electricity or by burning oil or gas
  2. a light or fire on a hill or tower, which acts as a signal or a warning
  3. a small electric light which can be carried in the hand and which gets its power from batteries
    inside it
  4. a stick of hard wax with a piece of string through the middle

D8

fridge, oven, stove

  1. The word fridge in an abbreviated form of the word ________.
  2. What is the difference between oven and stove?

D9

binoculars, magnet, scales, spectacular, watch

  1. Can the word binoculars be used in the singular?
  2. Magnet (v) à ___________ (adj)
  3. Can the word scales be used in the singular?
  4. Spectacular = imp_ _ _ _ive
  5. Watching secretly is called _ _ _ _ing.

D10

badge, banner, flag, seal

  1. banner, emblem, jack
  2. emblem, button
  3. emblem, symbol
  4. stamp, sticker, tie
  5. TOOLS

E1

axe, blacksmith, blade, dagger, handle, nail, point, razor, saw, scissors, screw, sharp, spade, swivel, wheel, wrench

  1. Another word for a knife used for a weapon is ________.
  2. Another word for turn is _________.
  3. If you need an iron fence, you go to the _________.
  4. If you want to hang a picture on a wall, you need to find a ______ first.
  5. Men shave with a _______.
  6. Metal or wooden plates are connected to each other with _______.
  7. The opposite of the word blunt is ________.
  8. The sharp face of a knife is called a ________.
  9. The sharp tip of a knife or sword is the _______ of it.
  10. You can change the flat-tyre of a car using a _________.
  11. You chop wood with the _____.
  12. You cut paper with the _______.
  13. You cut wood into regular pieces with a ______.
  14. You dig holes with a ________.
  15. You direct the car through the steering-________.
  16. You hold many things from its ________.

E2

broom, brush, mop, mow, shovel, sweep

  1. A witch is depicted as an old woman with a _______.
  2. He now and then ________ the blood on his forehead with his handkerchief.
  3. He was _______ his lawn when he accidentally cut the garden hose.
  4. In the past, the train driver needed to ______ more coal into the engine if he wanted to
    accelerate the train.
  5. My windscreen wipers fail to _______ the whole of the windscreen.
  6. Your jacket is covered with dust; _______ it before you wear it for the office.
  7. CONTAINERS

F1

barrel, bucket, cage, jar, mug, pan

  1. You carry a big amount of water with a ________.
  2. You drink coffee from a ________.
  3. You keep a bird in a ________.
  4. You keep marmalade in a ________.
  5. You make omelette in a ________.
  6. You store wine in a ________.

F2

chest, lid, trunk

  1. Chest is a body part; as a container it means _________.
  2. Lid is a body part as in eyelid; as a part of a container, it means ________.
  3. Trunk is a body part; as a container it means ________.

F3

package, parcel

– What is the difference between a package and a parcel?

F4

bundle, pack, sack

  1. They ________ him into an ambulance and drove off. BUNDLE
  2. He ________ his bags and left. PACK
  3. He got ________ he was always late to work. SACK

F5

baggage, luggage

– What is the difference between baggage and luggage?

  1. ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

G1

anode, circuit, current, input

  1. The opposite of the word anode is _______.
  2. Circuit (n) (v) à ___________ (adj)
  3. An electric current runs through _______.
  4. The opposite of the word input is _______.

G2

battery, fuse, socket, switch

  1. This battery is _______; it will not start the car.
  2. When one of the fuses _______, the whole cinema remained in pitch darkness for a moment.
  3. He ______ the bulb clockwise gently into the socket.
  4. Please _______ the switch, it is dark in here.

G3

generate, overload

  1. encumber, burden
  2. produce, engender
  3. WEAPONS

H1

ammunition, armaments, arsenal, weapon

  1. arms depot
  2. arms
  3. bullets and rockets that are made to be fired from guns
  4. weapons and military equipment belonging to an army or country

H2

arrow, bayonet, club, pike, spear, sword, tip, trigger

  1. In the past, soldiers that used bows and arrows were called _______.
  2. What is the difference between club and stick?
  3. Bayonet is generally attached to the tip of a _______.
  4. What is the difference between pike and spear?
  5. He ______ his sword and attacked the enemy.
  6. What is the difference between tip and top?
  7. He _______ the trigger and shot the animal.

H3

armour, shield

– What is the difference between armour and shield?

H4

bullet, cannon, cartridge, gun, magazine

  1. In Russian roulette, you get a _____, open the _______, and put one live ______.
  2. Cannon is a kind of weapon. Its synonymous to b_ _ _ _ry.
  3. What is the difference between cartridge and magazine?

H5

aim, shoot, sniper

  1. assassin
  2. direct, point
  3. fire, ignite

H6

mine, missile

  1. explosive charge
  2. rocket, projectile

Exercise

 

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. The Milky Way consists of about a hundred billion stars.
A) surrounds B) contains C) makes D) is conscious of
  1. Of the Olympic ski events, ski jumping is the most spectacular.
A) striking B) dangerous C) appealing D) difficult
  1. Politics should not impinge upon athletic events.
A) imply B) enlist C) encroach D) demand
  1. Their path was beset by various dangers.
A) surrounded B) chased C) frightened D) bested
  1. A barometer is a device that is of great use to sailors.
A) method B) invention C) figure D) instrument
  1. In the folk music type named Calypso, cleverly worded phrases make up the lyrics.
A) comprise B) oversee C) accompany D) complement
  1. Nuclear generated electricity is in use in many parts of England.
A) related B) inherited C) produced D) motivated
  1. Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe in 3 years.
A) earth B) continent C) equator D) latitude
  1. Human body consists of a large percent of water and minerals.
A) retains B) thrives on C) is composed of D) is enchanted with
  1. Sedimentary rock consists of layers of what millions of years ago was loose material.
A) mixtures B) carcasses C) strata D) crystals
  1. ARTS AND CRAFTS, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, INDUSTRY AND EDUCATION
  2. MAKING THINGS

A1

assemble, assembly, erect, fabricate, make, manufacture, output, produce

  1. bring together, put together
  2. build, form, construct, erect
  3. cause, bring about, create
  4. construction, attachment
  5. make, put together, build, assemble
  6. manufacture, create
  7. price, figure, expenditure
  8. set up, raise

A2

formulate, mould, pattern, scheme, shape

  1. describe something in terms of a list of substances used to make the thing
  2. form of something
  3. make something into a shape you want to be
  4. plan
  5. something you copy if you want to make something

A3

imitate, invent, reproduce

  1. Imitate (v) à ___________ (n)
  2. Invent (v) à ___________ (n)
  3. Reproduce (v) à ___________ (n)

A4

authentic, genuine, natural

  1. The opposite of the word authentic is _ _ _ _less.
  2. Genuine means not hy______tical
  3. Natural = int____ic

A5

artificial, counterfeit, false, forgery, synthetic

  1. As technology progresses, we are more _______ than ever before. ARTIFICIAL
  2. They had been ________ $100 notes. COUNTERFEIT
  3. They suspect that he has been ________ documents. FALSE
  4. He got the money dishonestly, by ________ his brother’s signature on a cheque. FORGERY
  5. A great number of material had been produced __________. SYNTHETIC

A6

demolish, destroy

  1. Demolish (v) à ___________ (n)
  2. Destroy (v) à ___________ (n)

A7

adapt, alter

  1. What is the difference between adapt and adopt?
  2. What is the difference between alter and change?

A8

mutated, transform

  1. Mutated (adj) à ___________ (n)
  2. Transform (v) à ___________ (n)

A9

change, vary

  1. be different; have qualities that are not the same as each other
  2. become or make different

A10

correct, rectify, revise, version

  1. Correct (v) à ___________ (n)
  2. Rectify (v) à ___________ (n)
  3. Revise (v) à ___________ (n)
  4. Version = r_ _ _ition

A11

adjust, mend, repair

  1. change slightly
  2. fix, repair, improve
  3. make work again

A12

develop, prepare, process, rate, sort

  1. grow, improve
  2. arrange, make
  3. action
  4. evaluate, rank, assess
  5. order, arrange, classify

A13

blend, combine, merge, mix

  1. combine in careful proportions to produce a taste, smell, or other good result
  2. combine so that the parts no longer have shape, appearance, etc. or cannot be easily separated
  3. join or stick to each other, but keep own identity
  4. stick or combine to a thing so that they become one or one of them becomes lost in the other

A14

abuse, exploit, misuse, waste

  1. Abuse (v) à ___________ (adj)
  2. Exploit (v) à ___________ (adj)
  3. Misuse (v) à ___________ (adj)
  4. Waste (v) à ___________ (adj)

A15

function, usage, use, utilize

  1. appropriateness (n); employ, utilize (v)
  2. duty; reception (n); perform (v)
  3. make use of
  4. utilization, usefulness
  5. ARTS AND CRAFTS

B1

art, craft, handicraft

  1. career, handiwork
  2. humanities
  3. skill; occupation

B2

manner, means, medium

  1. agency, instrument, environment
  2. instrumentality, method
  3. method, way; character

B3

method, technique, way

  1. Method (n) à ___________ (adj)
  2. Technique (n) à ___________ (adj)
  3. Way = m_ _ _ _r

B4

background, outline

  1. contour, framework, silhouette; summarize
  2. setting, environment; credentials

B5

engrave

– To engrave means to e_ _ _ letter in metal.

B6

image, sketch

  1. Image (n) à ___________ (n)
  2. Sketch (v) à ___________ (adj)

B7

clay, plaster

Walls can be covered with a thin layer of _______; when someone has broken his/her arm, the doctor puts it in a ______ mould.

B8

artist, sculptor, statue

  1. What is the difference between artist and actress?
  2. A sculptor produces sc________.
  3. What is the difference between sculpture and statue?

B9

embroider, knit, needle, sew, stitch, weave

  1. join wool or other thread into a sort of cloth using long needles
  2. make threads into cloth, by moving a thread over and under a set of longer threads on a loom
  3. mend or make by using a needle and thread
  4. movement of a needle and thread through cloth and out again
  5. sew with ornamental patterns
  6. thin piece of pointed metal with a hole at one end for thread
  7. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

C1

science, technology

  1. Science (n) à ___________ (adj)
  2. Technology (n) à ___________ (adj)

C2

artisan, manual, mechanic

  1. artist, designer
  2. by hand
  3. workman

C3

anthropology, physiology, psychiatry, psychology

  1. science concerned with the study of how the bodies of living things and their various parts work
  2. scientific study of the human race
  3. study and treatment of diseases of the mind
  4. study or science of the mind and the way it works and influences behaviour

C4

experiment, try

  1. Experiment (v) à ___________ (adj)
  2. Try (v) à ___________ (n)
  3. INDUSTRY AND WORK

D1

chore, effort, industrialization, labour, operate

  1. automation
  2. striving, attempt
  3. task, burden
  4. work; working class
  5. work, function

D2

assiduous, demanding, painstaking

  1. complicated, intricate, complex
  2. difficult, querulous, challenging
  3. diligent, continuous, careful

D3

busy, diligent, engaged, idle, strenuous, vacant

  1. Digging a water-well requires _____ effort.
  2. George Orwell lived in Paris as a completely _____ writer just to get the feel of it.
  3. He is one of our most _____ workers. If only all other workers were like him!
  4. I am sorry; I am too _____ to help you now.
  5. The line is _____; I’ll call later.

D4

brewery, mill, plant, refinery

  1. Brewery (n) à ___________ (v)
  2. Mill = f_ _ _ _ _y
  3. What is the difference between plant (= factory) and plantation?
  4. Refinery (n) à ___________ (v)

D5

assembly line, automation, shift

  1. change, variation
  2. industrialization
  3. mass production method

D6

bore, dig, excavate, pit

  1. cavity, hollow
  2. drill, penetrate, pierce
  3. mine
  4. shovel, unearth

D7

carpenter, plumber

  1. The art or work of a carpenter is car______.
  2. The work of a plumber is plu_______.

D8

boss, supervise

  1. During the expedition, the leader of the team was very ______. BOSS
  2. They completed the project under my _______. SUPERVISE
  3. EDUCATION

E1

academic, apprenticeship, pupil, scholar, tutor

  1. concerning education, especially in a college or university
  2. educator, teacher, lecturer
  3. novitiate
  4. person with great knowledge of a subject
  5. student

E2

term, topic

  1. He explained in no ________ terms that he wanted to resign.
  2. “Please stop beating around the bush!” means “Please ______ to the topic“.

E3

certificate, expert, graduate, qualify, specialize, undergraduate

  1. Certificate (n) à ___________ (v)
  2. Expert (n) à ___________ (v)
  3. Graduate (v) à ___________ (n)
  4. Qualify (v) à ___________ (n)
  5. Specialize (v) à ___________ (n)
  6. Undergraduate (n) à ___________ (n)

E4

award, prize

  1. Award (v) à ___________ (n)
  2. Prize (v) à ___________ (n)

Exercise

 

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. Dr Jones. suggested that final examinations should be discontinued, an innovation
    which I support.
A) entrance B) change C) inner part D) test
  1. Charles Darwin formulated his famous theory of evolution during his five-year cruise on
    the “Beagle”.
A) expanded B) developed C) critiqued D) finished
  1. The general planned a new stratagem to conquer the rebel forces.
A) strafing B) scheme C) bomb D) headquarters
  1. The hurricane cause great havoc in the islands.
A) winds B) treatment C) destruction D) immersion
  1. He devised a computer game and sold it to Atari.
A) played B) bought C) invented D) divided
  1. The earthquake caused great devastation in California.
A) ruin B) confusion C) movement D) gaps
  1. Swarms of locusts ravaged the crops.
A) raided B) landed on C) flew over D) destroyed
  1. He devised a folding toothbrush for travellers.
A) sold B) bought C) described D) designed
  1. As an alumnus of Harvard, he was sure that he would get the job.
A) student B) professor C) supporter D) graduate
  1. Television and newspapers are primary mediums of advertising.
A) formulations B) averages C) sources D) means
  1. NUMBERS, MEASUREMENT, MONEY, AND COMMERCE
  2. NUMBERS AND QUANTITIES

A1

percentage, primary, unit

  1. principal, chief
  2. proportion, ratio
  3. system, section, piece

A2

thrice, triple

– What is the difference between thrice and triple?

A3

alone, single, sole

  1. He feels so _____. ALONE
  2. He came _____; his wife was busy in the office. SINGLE
  3. I came _____ for you! SOLE

A4

doubly, half, multiple, quadruple

  1. Each ________ of the brain is called a hemisphere.
  2. Profits have _______ this year.
  3. The driver of the crashed car received _______ injuries.
  4. You are ________ mistaken

A5

sum, whole

– What is the difference between sum and whole?

A6

dozen, pair

  1. couple, twosome
  2. twelve

A7

nil, zero

In football, we use _____ to tell the score, as in 1-0. In mathematics we use _____. In tennis we use _____ to tell the score, as in 30-0. In daily life, we also use nought or oh.

  1. MATHEMATICS

B1

algebra, arithmetic

  1. Algebra (n) à ___________ (adj)
  2. Arithmetic (n) à ___________ (adj)

B2

add, addition, append, calculate, compute, count, figure, subtract

  1. add, attach; annex
  2. attach, increase; calculate
  3. compute, count; presume
  4. compute, think (v); number (n)
  5. enumerate
  6. figure, calculate, count; estimate
  7. summation; annexation
  8. take, deduct

B3

amount to, average, norm

  1. middle, mean
  2. standard, mean
  3. total, come to

B4

proportion, ratio, variable

  1. Proportion = di_ _ _ _ions
  2. Ration = proportion, per_ _ _ _ _ _ _
  3. Variable = al_ _ _ _ _ting

B5

angle, degree

  1. Angle (n) à __________ (adj)
  2. Degree = pro_ _ _ tion

B6

plane, row, straight

  1. Plane = level surface (n); _ _ _ _ (adj)
  2. Row = line, column (n). What does row mean in the sentence “They have a fierce row yesterday” ?
  3. Straight = d_ _ _ct

B7

circle, crescent

  1. Circle (n) à __________ (adj)
  2. Which of the following is has crescent in it? a) Z b) Y c) W d) [

B8

crucifix, rectangle

  1. Jesus Christ was __________ . CRUCIFIX
  2. The room has a __________ shape. RECTANGLE

B9

oblong, square, triangle

  1. What is the difference between oblong, rectangle, and square?
  2. Triangle (n) à __________ (adj)

B10

arc, central, centre, direct, periphery

  1. boundary, frontier
  2. core, focus
  3. main, chief
  4. part of a curved line or circle
  5. straight
  6. MEASUREMENT

C1

dimension, measure, quantify, weigh

  1. Dimension (n) à _________ (adj)
  2. Measure (v) à _________ (n)
  3. Quantify (v) à _________ (n)
  4. Weigh (v) à _________ (n)

C2

broad, wide

  1. Broad (adj) à _________ (v)
  2. Wide (adj) à _________ (v)

C3

across

Across X a_ _ _ _

C4

depth, height, length, weight, width

  1. Depth (n) à _________ (adj)
  2. Height (n) à _________ (adj)
  3. Length (n) à _________ (adj)
  4. Weight (n) X _________ (adj)
  5. Width (n) à _________ (adj)

C5

area, mass, volume

  1. quantity, amount, mass
  2. quantity, body
  3. region, field, distance

C6

acre, fathom, yard

  1. @ 0,5 of a hectare = 1 _______
  2. 1.8 metres = 1 ________
  3. 91 centimetres = 1 _______

C7

cash, change, exchange, order

  1. arrangement
  2. convert
  3. money in return
  4. money, currency

C8

drop, fall

– I ________ (dropped / fell) my books into mud.

C9

devaluate, escalate, lose, rise

  1. Devaluate (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Escalate (v) à _________ (n)
  3. Lose (v) à _________ (n)
  4. Rise (v) à _________ (n)

C10

borrow, lend

  1. loan, impart, give
  2. obtain the use of; adopt

C11

debt, loan, overdue, owe

  1. advance, credit, mortgage, debt
  2. have to pay
  3. liability
  4. unpaid, owed

C12

account, safe

  1. The task of counting money and keeping the books in a company is called ________.
    ACCOUNT
  2. For reasons of ________, these pavilions are closed to the public. SAFE

C13

invest, save, thrift

  1. Invest (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Save (adj) à _________ (n)
  3. Thrift (n) à _________ (adj)

C14

asset, dividend, interest, speculate, trust, withdraw

  1. advantage, worth
  2. confide in, believe
  3. gain, earnings
  4. gamble, venture
  5. remove, retread
  6. share

C15

prosperous, riches, well-off

  1. Prosperous (adj) à _________ (v)
  2. Riches = w_ _ _ _h
  3. Well-off = aff_ _ _ _ _

C16

affluent, fortune, luxury, treasure, wealth

  1. extravagance
  2. rich; abundant
  3. riches; wealth; stock
  4. richness
  5. treasure; possessions

C17

broke, penniless, poverty, short, tramp

  1. bankrupt; destitute
  2. destitute, poor, miserable
  3. lacking
  4. shortage, scarcity
  5. vagrant, vagabond

C18

expenditure, income

  1. earnings
  2. price, figure

C19

bankrupt, budget, deficit, maintain, upkeep

  1. Finally, the company _____ bankrupt a year ago.
  2. A budget holiday is a _____ holiday.
  3. Deficit = defi_ _ _ _cy
  4. Maintain = s_ _tain
  5. Upkeep = mai_ _ _ _ance

C20

economic, economical

  1. Economic = f_ _ _ _ _ial
  2. Economical = m_ _ _ _ate
  3. COMMERCE

D1

pawnbroker

– A pawnbroker works in a pawn_____.

D2

buy, purchase, retail, sell

  1. Which is a more formal word: a) buy or b) purchase?
  2. Which is a more formal word: a) retail or b) sell?

D3

cost, worth

  1. Cost (v) à _________ (adj)
  2. Worth (n) à _________ (adj)

D4

afford, pay, spend

  1. give the money of
  2. manage to buy
  3. pass, circulate

D5

charge, price, prize

  1. award, honour
  2. sell for
  3. tariff, worth

D6

assess, bargain, expense, fare, sale, value

  1. Assess (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Bargain (v) à _________ (n)
  3. Expense (n) à _________ (adj)
  4. What is the difference between fare and fee?
  5. Sale (n) à _________ (v)
  6. Study the difference in meaning: valuable, valueless, invaluable

D7

handle, monopolize, trade

  1. control, do business
  2. exchange, patronize
  3. subdue, tame, handle, control

D8

economics, enterprise, venture

  1. Study the difference in meaning: economics, economy, economical.
  2. Study the difference in meaning: enterprise, enterprising.

D9

estimate, mediator, negotiate, overestimate, underestimate

  1. exaggerate
  2. go-between, arbitrator
  3. guess, assess, predict
  4. moderate, mediate
  5. neglect, discount

D10

hire, rent

  1. own for a longer time
  2. own for a short life

D11

bill, receipt

– In a restaurant, after you’ve finished your meal, you ask for the _______ (bill/receipt) first.

D12

burden, load

  1. The donkey is a ______ of burden.
  2. This is ridiculous! A load of ______!

D13

goods, merchandise

  1. possessions, commodities
  2. wares, stock, goods, commodities

D14

insure, policy

  1. Insure = safe_ _ _ _ _
  2. Policy = m_ _ _ _d

D15

bribe, customs, tax

  1. He is accused of ________ several companies to win the contract.
  2. I need to pay my income _______ this month.
  3. The _______ officer checked my luggage.

D16

discount, wholesale

  1. abate, deduct
  2. bulk distribution

D17

profit, revenue, turnover

  1. Profit (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Revenue = ea_ _ _ _ _s
  3. Turnover = pr_ _ _ _
  4. SHOPPING AND GENERAL EXPENSES

E1

market, shop, store

  1. Because it is tax-free region, Hong Kong is called an _____ market.
  2. Entering a shop as a customer and stealing things from the shop is called ________.
  3. When a store has several sections or storeys, it is called a ________ store.

E2

auction, bid

  1. offer, declare
  2. public sale

E3

client, customer

What is the difference between client and customer?

E4

shelf, trolley

  1. carriage on wheels
  2. place to put things, rack

E5

baker, stationery

  1. A baker ______ bread and sells it at a _______.
  2. What is the difference between stationary and stationery?

E6

dear, expensive, inexpensive

  1. Dear (adj) à _________ (n)
  2. Expensive (adj) à _________ (n)
  3. Inexpensive = e_ _ _ _ _ical

E7

steep, low

  1. Steep = a_ _ous
  2. Low = d_ _ _ _ded

E8

invaluable, precious, priceless

  1. Invaluable X ________
  2. Precious X ________
  3. Priceless X ________

E9

inferior, superior

  1. Inferior = sub_ _ _ _ _ate
  2. Superior = s_ _ _ _r

E10

banknote, coin

  1. piece of paper money
  2. round piece of money made of metal
  3. BUSINESS, WORK, AND EMPLOYMENT

F1

business, career, finance, job, occupation, profession

  1. He is ______ business with several European companies.
  2. He is trying to ______ a career in teaching.
  3. Finance (n) à _________ (adj)
  4. A person without a job is _______.
  5. What is the difference between occupation and profession?

F2

mission, task

  1. assignment, goal, duty
  2. job, assignment, chore

F3

employ, recruit

  1. enrol in the army forces
  2. give job to

F4

discharge, dismiss, fire, redundant, retire, sack, strike

  1. He had only a month to _______ when he had a heart attack and died.
  2. I was made _______ when the new robots were installed in the factory.
  3. She _______ the offer with a wave of the hand and left the meeting.
  4. The _______ from the factory was included highly toxic substances.
  5. They are ______ several workers because they no longer need them.
  6. We are going on ______ to protest our low wages.
  7. You cannot _______ me without any prior notice!

F5

enlist, join

  1. attach; unite
  2. enrol in the armed forces

F6

quit, relinquish, resign

  1. give up, abandon, quit
  2. leave the post, relinquish
  3. leave, relinquish; yield

F7

assign, demote, promote

  1. Assign (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Demote (v) à __________ (n)
  3. Promote (v) à __________ (n)

F8

earn, gain

– Study the difference in meaning; earn, gain, win.

F9

allowance, fee, pension, raise, salary, wage

  1. The plan does not make _______ for a future change in the schedule. ALLOWANCE
  2. I need to pay my course _______ (fee / fare ) before the end of this week.
  3. My father is a ______. PENSION
  4. I’m expecting a pay ______ this month. RAISE
  5. What is the difference between salary and wage?

F10

crew, personnel, staff, team

  1. a group of people who work, act, or especially play together
  2. all the people employed by a company, in the armed forces, or working in any organization all
    the people who work on a ship or a plane
  3. the group of people who carry on a job or do the work of an organization, especially of a teaching
    or business organization

F11

permanent, temporary

  1. momentary, brief
  2. stable, constant

F12

agency, agent, corporate

  1. bureau, affiliate; instrument
  2. partner, association
  3. representative; instrument

F13

nationalize, private, public

  1. Nationalize (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Private (adj) à __________ (v)
  3. Public (n) à __________ (v)

F14

base, headquarters, sector

  1. camp, center
  2. point of departure
  3. region, section

F15

boss, member, partner

  1. When someone behaves like a boss, this person is ______.
  2. Being a member is _______.
  3. Being a partner is _______.

F16

dictate, file, shorthand

  1. The boss was speaking while the secretary was taking _______. DICTATE
  2. We need a ______ cabinet in this office. FILE
  3. Can you _______ shorthand?

Exercise

 

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. The earthworm is a segmented worm found in all parts of the world.
A) plated B) round C) long D) sectional
  1. In many coastal areas of Turkey, there is deficiency of sand, causing an erosion
    problem.
A) quality B) propagation C) movement D) lack
  1. Peter advised his clientele that they should not hurry to buy the shares.
A) clinic B) customers C) contact D) salespeople
  1. I am not affluent enough even to go to the cinema.
A) destitude B) arrogant C) wealthy D) afraid
  1. The principal threatened to expel him from school.
A) excise B) exert C) send out D) try out
  1. No one could decide whether she married him for mercenary motives.
A) money-loving B) mercurial C) unknown D) lucrative
  1. They lived luxuriously even though they had no income.
A) expensively B) cheaply C) utterly D) beautifully
  1. Although she is economical in most things, she spent a lot of money on clothes.
A) awkward B) extravagant C) thrifty D) careless
  1. Mary joined a health club in order to use the swimming pool.
A) visited B) co-ordinated C) bought a share of D) became a member of
  1. He began his business in a very small way but died a tycoon.
    A) type
    B) civic leader
    C) politician
    D) successful businessman
  2. ENTERTAINMENT, SPORTS, AND GAMES
  3. ENTERTAINMENT GENERALLY

A1

amuse, celebrate, entertain, hilarious

  1. Disneyland is a large _______ park. AMUSE
  2. During ________, tons of cakes were consumed. CELEBRATE
  3. In the past, radio use to be the major source of ________. ENTERTAIN
  4. The _______ of the party surprised the foreign delegates. HILARIOUS

A2

leisure, pastime, recreation

  1. amusement and enjoyment; way of spending free time
  2. something done to pass one’s time in a pleasant way
  3. time when a person is free from work or duties of any kind

A3

craze, enthusiasm, excite, keen, passion, zeal

  1. Craze (n) à _________ (adj)
  2. Enthusiasm (n) à _________ (adj) X r_______t
  3. Excite (v) à _________ (n)
  4. Keen (adj) à _________ (n)
  5. Passion (n) à _________ (adj)
  6. Zeal (n) à _________ (adj)

A4

audience, spectator

– What is the difference between audience and spectator?

A5

clap, congratulate, praise

  1. applaud
  2. compliment
  3. glorify, honour

A6

game, play

– A ______ is a form of _____ or sport, or one example or type of this.

  1. MUSIC AND RELATED ACTIVITIES

B1

rhythm, song, tune

  1. What is the difference between rhythm and rhyme?
  2. What is the difference between song and tune?

B2

bagpipes, whistle

  1. Bagpipes is the typical musical instrument of which people?
  2. Whistle (n) à _________ (v)
  3. RECORDING SOUND, LISTENING TO THE RADIO, ETC.

replay, rewind

– In the words replay and rewind, what does the prefix re- stand for?

  1. DRAMA, THE THEATRE, AND SHOW BUSINESS

D1

aisle, balcony, curtain, line, queue, row, screen, stage

  1. a kind of thin wall that you can move around
  2. a line of people or things
  3. a line of people waiting to do something
  4. a number of people side by side or one behind the other
  5. a sheet of heavy material that can be lowered across the front of a stage in a theatre
  6. a way between lines of seats, for example in a church or theatre
  7. the part of a theatre where actors, dancers, etc. stand and move
  8. the seats upstairs in a theatre

D2

audition, rehearsal

– What is the difference between audition and rehearsal?

D3

act, climax

  1. In a theatre play, an act can have several s______s.
  2. Climax = s____t

D4

actor, actress, artist, cast, role, villain

  1. a man who is a main bad character
  2. a person who acts in plays, films or television programmes
  3. a person who draws or paints pictures
  4. a woman who acts in plays, films or television programmes
  5. the actors in a play, film, etc.
  6. the part or character taken by an actor in a play, film, etc.

D5

humour, joke, tragic

  1. Humour (n) à _________ (adj)
  2. Joke (n) à _________ (v)
  3. Tragic (adj) à _________ (n)

D6

acrobat, puppet

  1. What an acrobat does is called _________.
  2. The person who plays puppets is called a ________.
  3. SPORTS AND GAMES GENERALLY

E1

bounce, exercise, jump, ride

  1. hurdle, leap
  2. jump, hop, spring, leap
  3. motor, tour
  4. training

E2

contest, tournament

– Beauty ________; chess ________.

E3

challenge, compete, defiance, rival

  1. Challenge (v à _________ (adj)
  2. Compete (v à _________ (n)
  3. Defiance (n) à _________ (v)
  4. Rival (adj)_________ (n)

E4

beat, defeat

  1. Beat = _ _ _do
  2. Defeat = _ _ _ _power

E5

lose, miss

  1. not to hit or catch something
  2. not to keep; not to have something any more

E6

result, triumph, victory, win

  1. He had a narrow _____ in the competition; he won by only a few points.
  2. He heard the football _____ on the radio and was very disappointed.
  3. How many _____ did the champion have so far?
  4. When the British won the Waterloo battle, they held various celebrations as this was a
    magnificent _____.

E7

award, prize, trophy

  1. a prize given for winning a race, competition, or test of skill
  2. something given as the result of an official decision
  3. something of value given to someone who is successful in something

E8

adjudicate, judge, referee

  1. act as a judge in charge of a team game such as football
  2. give decisive decision
  3. judge, especially in competitions

E9

amateur, professional, team

  1. company; close-knit crew
  2. skilled, expert
  3. unskilled, inexperienced

E10

bet, gamble, odds

  1. He lost on the _____.
  2. The _____ are 10 to 1 that her horse will not win the race.
  3. The operation may not succeed; it is a _____ whether he dies or lives.
  4. INDOOR GAMES

ace, backgammon, capture, deal, punch, wrestle

  1. a game for two players, using round wooden pieces and dice
  2. a playing card that has a single mark or spot and which usually has the highest or lowest value
    in a game
  3. fight by holding and throwing the body
  4. strike hard with the closed hand
  5. take
  6. the act or right of giving out cards to players in a card game
  7. CHILDREN’S GAMES AND TOYS

doll, riddle, toy

  1. He started to cry because he broke one of his _____ soldiers.
  2. Here is a ______: What has four legs but can’t walk? A chair!
  3. Probably the most famous baby _____ today is either Barbie or Cindy.
  4. OUTDOOR GAMES AND SPORTS

H1

ball, flag, goal, net, pool

  1. _____ is an American version of billiards.
  2. He kicked the _____ his all his might.
  3. In golf, a _____ marks the place where the hole is.
  4. The goalkeeper stood alert before his _____.
  5. When the ball passed the goal line and eventually met the _____, we knew we were going to win
    this match.

H2

saddle, trot

  1. keep a steady pace
  2. seat; chair

H3

leap, skid, skip, walk

  1. She fell and hurt her knee when she was _____ rope.
  2. The car _____ on a pool of oil and ran into a fence.
  3. The dog _____ over the high wall to the other side.
  4. We _____ to school each day.

H4

skate, ski

– What is the difference between skate and ski?

H5

aim, archer, target

The _____ carefully ______ the _______ and held his breath.

H6

bait, rod

– What is the difference between bait and rod?

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. During the long flight, she beguiled herself by reading comic books.
A) fooled B) tired C) laughed D) amused
  1. She plans to compete in the marathon.
A) contend B) compare C) delay D) register
  1. As a rookie player, he doesn’t get paid much.
A) rotten B) novice C) experienced D) practising
  1. Her employer lauded her for her flawless typing.
A) lowered B) promoted C) fired D) praised
  1. Ancient religious festivals are today held in many countries.
A) celebrations B) services C) documents D) traditions
  1. When I was a young boy, I used to challenge my friends to climb to the top of a cherry
    tree.
A) dare B) motivate C) encourage D) persuade
  1. Shakespeare describes the seven stages of human life, from birth to death, in As You
    Like It.
A) platforms B) types C) scenes D) steps
  1. SPACE
  2. THE UNIVERSE

A1

world, world-wide

  1. earth, globe
  2. in everywhere

A2

astronomy, constellation, eclipse, planet, solar, space, universal

  1. Astronomy (n) à _________ (adj)
  2. Constellation = a_ _ _ _ _ _ment
  3. When the moon covers outer rim of the sun completely, this is called the _____ eclipse of the
    sun.
  4. Planet (n) à _________ (adj)
  5. Solar = concerning the ___
  6. When a place is large, it is _________. SPACE
  7. Universal (adj) à _________ (n)

A3

axis, clockwise, compass, direction, gravity, latitude(s), orbit, orient, pole, zone

  1. area, territory
  2. circumscription
  3. course, passage; circle
  4. device to indicate direction
  5. far east; turn
  6. pivot, shaft
  7. point of compass
  8. pulling force
  9. rob, shaft, axis
  10. to the left direction
  11. LIGHT AND COLOUR

B1

gloom, shade, shadow

  1. Gloom (n) à _________ (adj)
  2. What is the difference between shade and shadow?

B2

bright, brilliant, dazzle, gleam, glow, illuminate, radiate, shine

  1. Bright (adj) à _________ (n)
  2. Brilliant (adj) à _________ (n)
  3. Dazzle (v) à _________ (adj)
  4. Gleam (n) à _________ (v)
  5. Illuminate (v) à _________ (n)
  6. Radiate (v) à _________ (n)
  7. Shine (v) à _________ (adj)

B3

darken, dim, dull, dusk, faint, obscure, vague

Darken (v) = dim (v) = dull (v) = obscure (v)

  1. What is the difference between dusk and dawn?
  2. What is the difference between faint and vague?

B4

dye, spectrum, tint

  1. Compare die (v), die (n) and dye (v).
  2. Spectrum = continuous r_ _ _ _
  3. Tint = _ _ _

B5

amber, purple

  1. colour of a badly swollen part
  2. yellowish

B6

fade, pale, vivid

  1. brilliant; animated
  2. colourless, dim
  3. decline, disappear

B7

redden, whiten

Redden = make red; whiten = make white. Which combinations are possible?

black, grey, rich, poor, light, yellow, green, strength, wide  
-(e)n
  1. WEATHER AND TEMPERATURE

C1

climate, temperature, weather

  1. Climate = at_ _ _ _heric conditions
  2. Compare temperature, temperate and temperament.
  3. Weather (v) = en_ _ _ _

C2

acclimatize, adjust

  1. adapt, accustom
  2. fit, regulate, settle

C3

erode, illustrate, scale, wear

  1. Soil _________ is a big problem in Turkey. ERODE
  2. There were lifesize _________on the wall. ILLUSTRATE
  3. Scale = climb, a_ _ _ _ _
  4. I feel _________ out. WEAR

C4

air, atmosphere, breathe, inhale, vacuum

  1. The room was quite _________ and comfortable. AIR
  2. _________ conditions forced the astronauts to orbit the Earth one more day. ATMOSPHERE
  3. The scenery was magnificent! The forest was absolutely _________! BREATHE
  4. _________ of the cigarette smoke gives pleasure as well as dangerous substances! INHALE
  5. Vacuum = emptiness, v _ _ _

C5

dew, fog, mist, steam

  1. What is the difference between dew and steam?
  2. What is the difference between fog and mist?

C6

condense, evaporate, vaporize

  1. Condense (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Evaporate (v) à _________ (n)
  3. Vaporize (v) à _________ (n)

C7

frost, rainfall, shower, snow

  1. Because his fingers were _________, doctors had to amputate them. FROST
  2. Which area in your country takes the most _________? RAINFALL
  3. Heavy _________ are expected in the area. SHOWER
  4. This year, the _________ has been quite heavy. SNOW

C8

blizzard, hurricane, storm, thunder, typhoon, wind

– Study the difference: blizzard, hurricane, typhoon.

  1. In _________ sessions, people put their ideas together in a randomly order. STORM
  2. Thunder and _________.
  3. Study the difference: wind (n) and wind (v)

C9

abate, lessen

– Finally, the storm _________ (abated / lessened)

C10

damp, humid, moisten

  1. Damp (adj) à _________ (v)
  2. Humid (adj) à _________ (n)
  3. Moisten (v) à _________ (n)

C11

drown, soak, wet

  1. What is the difference between drown and suffocate?
  2. Soak = drench, im _ _ _ _ _
  3. Wet = soaked, mo _ _ _

C12

melt, molten, thaw

  1. During the eruption, _________ lava went down the hill at a great speed.
  2. He left the frozen chicken on the kitchen counter so that it would _________.
  3. The snow is finally _________ .

C13

heat, warm

– What is the difference between heat and warm?

C14

chilly, cool, mild

  1. Chilly = cold, in _ _ _
  2. Cool = chilly, ch _ _ _ _ _ _
  3. Mild = calm, tem _ _ _ _ _ _
  4. GEOGRAPHY

D1

map, wilderness

  1. Map = chart, diagram, blu _ _ _ _ _
  2. Wilderness = wasteland, de _ _ _ _

D2

horizon, landmark, panorama, scene

  1. He apologised even though he was not at fault, because he did not want to make a _________.
  2. The observatory provides you with a _________ view.
  3. The opposite of vertical is _________ .
  4. This battle was one of the _________ of the history of the whole nation.

D3

continent, island, land, peninsula, territory

  1. What is the Continent?
  2. People who live on an island are called _________.
  3. What is the difference between land and territory?
  4. What is the difference betwen peninsula and isthmus?

D4

dam, lake, ocean, pond, pool

  1. Dam (n) à _________ (v) 2. Study the difference: lake, pond, pool.
  2. Ocean = high s _ _ _

D5

course, ebb, tide

  1. Course = direction, ro _ _ _
  2. Ebb and tide occur at certain periods in the ocean. Study the verb form of ebb.

D6

drift, flood, flow, influx, surge

  1. deluge, glut, inundate
  2. discharge, proceed
  3. flow, trend, ride
  4. gush, rush, swell
  5. inflow, crowd

D7

foam, wave

  1. Foam (n) à _________ (v)
  2. Wave (n) à _________ (adj)

D8

bank, bay, beach, coast, shore

– Study the difference in meaning: bank, bay, beach, coast, shore.

D9

brook, fountain, source, stream, torrent, waterfall

  1. What is the difference between brook and stream?
  2. What is the difference between fountain and source?
  3. What is the difference between torrent and waterfall?

D10

alpine, cliff, hill, mountain, mountainous, range, scale, slope, summit, top, valley

  1. Alpine = mountanious, lo _ _ _
  2. Cliff = pre _ _ _ _ _ _
  3. Hill = bluff, mo _ _ _
  4. Mountain = _ _ _ _
  5. Mountainous = alpine, soa _ _ _ _
  6. Range = series, r _ _
  7. Scale = cl _ _ _
  8. Slope = slant, inc _ _ _ _
  9. Summit = peak, zenith, ap _ _ _
  10. Top = peak, cr _ _ _
  11. Valley = chasm, ab _ _ _

D11

cave, crack, dribble, hole, hollow, leak

  1. Study the difference in meaning: cave, crack, hole, hollow.
  2. Study the difference in meaning: dribble, leak.

D12

oasis, prairie, swamp

  1. green area in the desert
  2. land covered with water and mud
  3. large and green land

D13

jungle, wood

– Compare forest, jungle and wood

D14

avalanche, earthquake, landslide

  1. What is the difference between avalanche and landslide?
  2. Earthquake = tr_ _ r TREMOR

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. Amphibians like frogs and toads have moist skin.
A) wet B) slimy C) sticky D) tough
  1. Blizzards in the high mountains can be dangerous for hikers and skiers.
A) Snow storms B) High winds C) Avalanches D) Slippery ice
  1. If you are going to be in a swamp area, you should take a mosquito repellent.
A) marsh B) jungle C) savanna D) tropical
  1. Tenging Norkay and Sir Edmund Hillary were the first people to scale Mount Everest.
A) climb B) camp on C) discover D) survive on
  1. At a high temperature, evaporation is more rapid than at a lower temperature.
    A) absorption of a liquid
    B) decreased energy of molecules
    C) change of a solid into a liquid
    D) change of liquid into vapour
    6. The main road will be closed until the blizzard finishes.
A) snowstorm B) hurricane C) tornado D) thunderstorm
  1. After climbing to the zenith, he slowly walked his way down the mountain.
A) zero B) top C) cabin D) mountain
  1. The lifeboat was inundated by a huge wave.
A) flooded B) capsized C) involved D) lifted
  1. A pole with red and white spiral stripes is the symbol for a barber’s shop.
A) rectangle B) stick C) wire D) figure
  1. The river streams through the city centre.
A) fixates B) inclines C) glides D) breezes
  1. TIME
  2. TIME GENERALLY

A1

anachronism, schedule

  1. incongruity, misdate
  2. list, agenda

A2

cycle, recycle, spell

  1. What is the difference between cycle and spell?
  2. Recycle (v)à __________ (n)

A3

interval, period, transition

  1. Interval = time, sp _ _
  2. Period = cycle, dur _ _ _ _ _
  3. Transition = transformation, sh _ _ _

A4

hesitate, pause

  1. Hesitate = falter, flu _ _ _ _ _ _
  2. Pause = break, h _ _ _

A5

brief, lapse, moment, occasion, prior, prompt, punctual, quite, time

  1. __________ to taking the test, you need to learn what question types they are likely to use.
  2. He himself is so __________ that he will get annoyed if you are a few minutes late.
  3. Hours __________ between each telephone call. I started to feel a bit worried.
  4. Okay, tell me what you saw. But please make it __________. I don’t have much ___________.
  5. Orson Wells broadcast The War of the Worlds on the radio. On that __________, millions of
    people thought it was real.
  6. She is studying in her room at the __________.
  7. The situation calls for __________ action; we cannot tolerate any delay!
  8. They tried to persuade me to sell my car, telling that it was about to break into pieces. I said no
    and see what happened. __________ the contrary! It is running better than ever!
  9. You swim around the pool and I’ll __________ you.

A6

epoch, era

– What is difference between epoch and era?

A7

abrupt, immediate, instant, sudden, urgent

  1. Abrupt = brusque, s _ _ _ p
  2. Immediate = instantaneous, di _ _ _ _
  3. Instant = immediate; m _ _ _ _ t
  4. Sudden = abrupt, s _ _ _ t
  5. Urgent = pressing, im _ _ _ ative

A8

frequent, regular, tick

  1. Frequent = repeated, rec _ _ _ _ _ _
  2. Regular = customary, per _ _ _ _ _
  3. Tick = click, th _ _ _

A9

historic, historical

– Ladies and Gentlemen! This is a __________ (historic / historical) moment!

A10

endure, spend

  1. Endure (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Spend (v) à __________ (n)

A11

last, outlive, persist

  1. Last (v) à __________ (adj)
  2. Outlive = out _ _ _ _
  3. Persist (v) à __________ (n)

A12

continue, persevere, prevail, proceed

  1. Continue (v) à __________ (adj)
  2. Persevere (v) à __________ (n)
  3. Prevail (v) à __________ (adj)
  4. Proceed (v) à __________ (adj)

A13

constant, eternal, incessant, permanent, perpetual, steady, temporal, temporary

1. Here to stay constant, eternal, … 
2. Bound to change temporal, …

A14

chance, destined, fate

  1. _________ of anything coming from Mars are a million to one, he said.
  2. He is _________ to succeed; he has no other choice.
  3. Study the difference: fate, fatal, faith.

A15

inevitable, unavoidable

  1. Inevitable = certain, ines _ _ _ able
  2. Unavoidable = inevitable, i_ _ _ nent

A16

envisage, predict

  1. Envisage = visualize, co _ _ _ ive
  2. Predict = guess, fore _ _ _ _

A17

forecast, outlook, visualize

  1. Forecast (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Study the difference: outlook, overlook
  3. Visualize (v) à __________ (adj)

A18

omen, prophesy, prophet

  1. Study the difference between omen and prophecy.
  2. Prophet = seer, au _ _ _
  3. BEGINNING AND ENDING

B1

inaugurate, initiate, introduce, launch, resume, trigger

  1. Inaugurate (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Initiate (v) à __________ (n)
  3. Introduce (v) à __________ (n)
  4. Launch (v) à __________ (n)
  5. Resume (v) à __________ (n)
  6. Trigger (v) à __________ (n)

B2

break out, outbreak

Which of the following can break out?

o epidemic, o fire, o flood, o hooliganism, o test, o war

Outbreak = outbu _ _ _

B3

cease, expire, shut

  1. “_________ fire!” called out the colonel.
  2. The contract _________ by the end of next month.
  3. Will you please ________ the door?

B4

abort, finish, halt

  1. Do not attempt to leave your seat until after the vehicle has come to a complete _________ !
  2. The computer is running quite slow. You need to _________ some of the programmes already
    running.
  3. When does the lesson _________?

B5

complete, culminate in, terminate

  1. Complete (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Culminate (v) à __________ (n)
  3. Study terminate and terminal.

B6

end up, turn out

  1. If he goes on drinking like this, he’ll soon __________ in hospital.
  2. The stranger in my compartment ____________ to be a close friend of my father’s!

B7

adjourn, cancel, delay, postpone, suspend

  1. Study the difference: adjourn, cancel, suspend.
  2. Study the difference: delay, postpone.

B8

ceaseless, infinite

  1. Ceaseless = continual, incessant, pe _ _ _ tual
  2. Infinite = limitless, b _ _ _ _ less

B9

origin, original, prime

  1. Origin (n) à __________ (v)
  2. Original (adj) à __________ (n)
  3. Prime = primary, le _ _ ing

B10

antecedent, former, latter

  1. Both Pakistan and Bangladesh originally belonged to India. The __________ gained
    independence a few years later India had gained hers, and, a several decades later, the
    __________ gained independence from Pakistan.
  2. The lawyer cited several ___________ to support his argument.

B11

premature, previous

  1. His ideas are yet too _________.
  2. I don’t remember what we did in the _________ lesson.

B12

eventual, subsequent, terminal, ultimate

  1. Eventual = inevitable, ult _ _ _ _ _
  2. Subsequent = following, su _ _ _ _ _ ing
  3. Terminal = end, bo _ _ _ ary
  4. Ultimate = furthest, su _ _ _ me

B13

begin, commence, end, start

  1. Study the difference: begin, commence, start
  2. Study the difference: end, end up
  3. OLD, NEW, AND YOUNG

C1

ancient, antics, archaic, obsolete

  1. Ancient = very old, anti _ _ _ _ ed
  2. Study the difference: antics, antique.
  3. Archaic = prehistoric, anti _ _ _
  4. Obsolete = archaic, ex _ _ _ _ t

C2

out-of-date, outdated

– What is the difference between out-of-date and outdated?

C3

antique, antiquity, contemporary

  1. Study the difference between antique and antiquity.
  2. Study the difference between contemporary and temporary.

C4

current, novel, recent, up-to-date

  1. Study the difference between current and recent.
  2. Study the difference between novel (adj) and up-to-date.

C5

imminent, peak, prospective

  1. He was in _________ danger.
  2. It is better to remain in the office for an extra hour until the ________ time traffic subdues.
  3. So, this is the _________ husband, is that so?

C6

adult, teenage

  1. What is the difference between adult and adultery?
  2. What is the difference between teenage and adolescence?

C7

mature, ripe

– Peter was a very _________ (mature / ripe) boy.

C8

aged, elderly, senile

  1. What is the difference between aged and elderly?
  2. Senile (adj) à __________ (n)

C9

adolescence, youth

  1. Adolescence (n) à __________ (n – person)
  2. Youth (n) à __________ (adj)

C10

age, evolve

  1. Age (n) à __________ (adj)
  2. Evolve (v) à __________ (n)
  3. PERIODS OF TIME AND THEIR MEASUREMENT

D1

dawn, sunset, twilight

  1. Dawn = _ _ _ break
  2. Sunset = sun _ _ _ _
  3. Twilight = d _ _ ness

D2

century, decade, fortnight

  1. 10 years
  2. 100 years
  3. 2 weeks

D3

anticlockwise, pendulum, second, strap, watch

  1. Just a _________. I’m coming.
  2. The antique clock had been secured with a __________ around it.
  3. The grandfather clock in the hall had a huge __________ made of brass.
  4. Turn the knob __________.
  5. What time do you make it? My _________ has stopped.

D4

AD, calendar, leap year

  1. 366 days
  2. after the time of Christ
  3. yearly agenda

D5

autumn, season, spring, summer, winter

  1. Autumn = ______ (AmE)
  2. Study the difference: season (n), season (v)
  3. Study the difference: spring (n), spring (v)
  4. Summer = summer _ _ _ _
  5. Winter (n) à __________ (adj)

D6

anniversary, annual, centennial

  1. commemoration
  2. of each century
  3. yearly
  4. GRAMMATICAL WORDS AND PHRASES RELATING TO TIME

E1

about to, again, by and by, soon

  1. “This food is delicious!” “You can say that ______.”
  2. How ________ do you think he’ll be here?
  3. Hurry up! The film is ________ start!
  4. It took the dog a long time to get used to its new home but, _________, it regarded the place its
    home.

E2

right away, simultaneous

  1. “Bring me a notepad.” “________, Sir.”
  2. Do not speak __________. One by one, please.

E3

almost, already, always, forever, seldom

  1. And the tiny spacecraft Pioneer I finally left our solar system to travel in interstellar space _______.
  2. This can’t be Tom at the door. He has _______ gone to bed.
  3. We ________ had an accident on the way home.
  4. We work in different departments, so I __________ see her.
  5. Why do you ________ scratch your nose? Is it a habit?

E4

afterwards, ago, beforehand

  1. He left his home to live alone. _________, he regretted having left his parents.
  2. Let me tell you _________. We will sleep in a small tent and eat canned food for three weeks.
  3. This crater must have been formed several million years __________.

E5

through, throughout

  1. __________ history, there is not a single day when there has been no war.
  2. Are you __________ with this newspaper?

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. Credit card holders can postpone payment on their purchases by accepting a monthly
    interest charge.
A) provide B) decrease C) mail D) defer
  1. To make raisins, the ripened grapes are usually picked by hand, placed on trays, and
    set in the sun for several days.
A) dried B) cleaned C) crushed D) mature
  1. Charles Darwin and A. R. Wallace published their ideas on evolution simultaneously in
    1858.
A) in the same book B) for the same people C) fewer in numbers D) at the same time
  1. An increasing number of women in the 1980s delayed marriage and childbirth in order to launch their careers.
A) postpone B) expand C) begin D) participate in
  1. If you stay on this diet, you will ultimately lose weight.
A) formerly B) finally C) unlikely D) possibly
  1. Earthquakes frequently occur in Japan.
A) instantly B) annually C) often D) spontaneously
  1. It is inevitable that smoking will damage your health.
A) invading B) unhealthy C) unavoidable D) intriguing
  1. The president held a brief press conference.
A) documented B) long C) pleasant D) short
  1. The epoch of space travel has just begun.
A) fear B) moment C) period D) event
  1. Students beguile their leisure hours in book shops.
    A) cause time to pass unnoticed
    B) begin
    C) waste regrettably
    D) fool around
  2. MOVEMENT, LOCATION, TRAVEL, AND TRANSPORT
  3. MOVING, COMING, AND GOING

A1

approach, attend, circulate, loiter, move, remain

  1. Everything changes but my troubles _________ the same!
  2. He failed to get a certificate because he failed to _________ most of the lessons.
  3. In some European countries, _________ is considered a crime.
  4. They _________ the leaflet on general strike in town streets.
  5. We _________ a policeman to ask the whereabouts of the museum.
  6. When are you _________ into your new flat?

A2

await, wait

  1. Await = expect, an _ _ _ _ _ _ te
  2. Wait = await, expect, li _ _ _ _

A3

depart, emerge, evacuate, leave

  1. Depart (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Emerge (v) à _________ (n)
  3. Evacuate (v) à _________ (n)
  4. Leave (v) à _________ (n)

A4

appear, appearance, vanish

  1. Appear = come into view, eme _ _ _
  2. Appearance = emergence, arr _ _ _ _
  3. Vanish = disappear, rec _ _ _

A5

admit, arrive, reach

  1. As soon as he’d _________, he started giving orders.
  2. He child _________ out for the apple but the branch was too high for him to touch.
  3. We _________ members only.

A6

greet, meet, salute, welcome

  1. He sends your his very best _________. GREET
  2. Do you know where the _________ is? MEET
  3. Each political party had adopted a peculiar way of _________. SALUTE
  4. Dear President, we _________ you to our town. WELCOME

A7

alight, descend, disembark

  1. What is the difference between alight and disembark?
  2. What is the opposite of the word descend?

A8

ascend, sink, subside

  1. What is the difference between ascend and subside?
  2. Sink (v) X _________

A9

ascent, board, embark, mount

  1. What is the difference between ascend and ascent?
  2. Study the difference: board, embark, mount.

A10

motion, movement

  1. The cat was completely __________ so that the dog would not notice it. MOTION
  2. When he had made his next __________, I knew that I was about to win the game. MOVEMENT

A11

admission, destination, reception

  1. __________ to the concert is free.
  2. The plane missed its __________ due to severe atmospheric conditions.
  3. You should check in first at the __________ desk.

A12

busy, idle, mobile, portable, stationary, still

  1. As expected, he lost his __________ phone.
  2. I’m sorry but I’m too __________ to help you now.
  3. On way to the office, I enviously watched two __________ old man enjoying themselves in the
    park.
  4. We took a __________ table to the picnic ground.
  5. Will you please stand __________. I can’t do your shoelaces.

A13

quick, rapid, swift

  1. Quick (adj) à _________ (v)
  2. Rapid (adj) à _________ (n)
  3. Swift (adj) à _________ (n)

A14

gradual, hasty, slow

  1. Gradual X h _ _ _ _ _ _
  2. Hasty X anxious, calculated, ca _ _ _ _ _
  3. Slow X quick, _ _ _ _

A15

pace, precipitate, rate, speed

  1. Study the difference: pace, rate, speed
  2. Precipitate = indiscreet, abrupt (adj); fall (v); s _ _ _ _ (n)

A16

hitchhike, ride, sail

Hitchhike à hitchhiker

Ride à __________

Sail à __________

A17

amble, stagger, tiptoe, wander

  1. Amble = walk, me _ _ _ _ _
  2. Stagger = sway, fal _ _ _
  3. Tiptoe = walk lightly, scutt _ _
  4. Wander = roam, st _ _ _

A18

march, parade, procession

  1. I do not know what to wear for the _________.
  2. There is a protest ________ .
  3. There will be a torch light _________ tonight.

A19

pound, ramble, stride

  1. beat; pulverize
  2. walk, march
  3. wander; babble

A20

dash, race, zoom

  1. Dash = rush, race, d _ _ t
  2. Race = speed, h _ _ _ en
  3. Zoom = speed, s _ u _ t

A21

crawl, creep, roll

  1. A baby __________.
  2. A snake ___________.
  3. A stone ___________.

A22

glide, slip, sneak, sob

  1. “I didn’t deserve this!” she ________.
  2. Do not pay any attention to what he may have said. I’m sure it was merely a _________ of the
    tongue.
  3. The neighbour’s children silently __________ into the kitchen to steal a piece of cake.
  4. The plane _________ through the clouds.

A23

cruise, navigate, steer

  1. Cruise (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Navigate (v) à _________ (n)
  3. Steer (v) à _________ (n)

A24

accelerate, brake, overtake

  1. catch up with, reach
  2. slow, stop
  3. speed, advance

A25

haste, hurry, rush

  1. Haste = rapidity, prompt _ _ _ _
  2. Hurry = haste, quick _ _ _ _
  3. Rush = haste, cha _ _ _

A26

chase, follow, pursue

– Study the difference in meaning and use: chase, follow, pursue.

A27

elude, escape, flee, fugitive

  1. Elude (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Escape (v) à _________ (adj)
  3. Flee (v) à _________ (adj)
  4. Fugitive (n) à _________ (adj)

A28

avoid, evasion

  1. Avoid = evade, el _ _ _
  2. Evasion = avoidance, subter _ _ _ _

A29

abandon, desert

  1. Abandon = quit, relin _ _ _ _ _
  2. Desert = abandon, run _ _ _ _

A30

advance, progress

  1. Advance (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Progress (v) à _________ (n)

A31

curve, throw

  1. arch, bend
  2. hurl, toss

A32

bend, distort

  1. A sharp curve on a road is sometimes called a “hairpin ________”.
  2. I’m sure the newspapers will _________ my words.

A33

lean, turn, twist

  1. _________ around so that we can see your trousers.
  2. He was _________ against the wall when the whole wall collapsed.
  3. You need to ________ the cap to open this beer bottle.

A34

drift, drip, spill, trickle

  1. flow, flux
  2. leak, escape, ooze
  3. seepage, leakage
  4. slop, splash, drop
  5. PUTTING AND TAKING, PULLING AND PUSHING

B1

install, lay, place, position, predicament, put, set, situate

  1. Install (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Study the difference: lay, layman.
  3. Place (v) à _________ (n)
  4. Predicament = co _ _ _ tion
  5. Study the difference: put, set.
  6. Situate (v) à _________ (adj)

B2

bring, fetch

– What is the difference between bring and fetch?

B3

bear, carry, convey, dispatch, lift

  1. I can’t _________ his insults any more!
  2. Several children _________ their fingers to the teacher’s question.
  3. The cat was _________ its kitten in its mouth.
  4. This sentence _________ a completely different meaning from the original.
  5. Troops were _________ to the southern border.

B4

project, protrude

  1. Project = protrude, ex _ _ _ _
  2. Protrude = project, stick _ _ _

B5

deliver, send

  1. Deliver (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Send (v) à _________ (n)

B6

remove, shift

  1. Remove (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Shift (v) à _________ (n)

B7

accompany, lead, usher

  1. They entered the city with the __________ of a troop of soldiers. ACCOMPANY
  2. He is one of the _________ figures of the party. LEAD
  3. In the cinema hall, an __________ helped us find our seats. USHER

B8

drag, draw, pull, tow

  1. _________ a card. It doesn’t matter which.
  2. Do not _________ this sack on the ground! Its fabric is not that strong!
  3. They have _________ my car away!
  4. Will you stop __________ and pushing about!

B9

extract, withdraw

  1. deduce, elicit, distil
  2. remove, retread

B10

push, thrust

– Study the difference: push, thrust

B11

scatter, sprinkle, toss

  1. He _________ the coin and shouted, “Heads, I win!”
  2. She carefully __________ herbs on to her macaroni.
  3. Suddenly, all of the children _________ around.

B12

eject, emit

  1. Eject = throw out, dis _ _ _ _
  2. Emit (v) à _________ (n)

B13

bar, jam

  1. They are __________ enemy’s radio broadcast.
  2. We was _________ from entering the disco.

B14

fasten, knot

  1. Fasten = affix, at _ _ _ _
  2. Knot = web, tan _ _ _

B15

lock, tie, unlock

  1. Lock (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Tie (v) à _________ (n)
  3. Study the difference: unlock, dismantle.

B16

gap, opening

– What is the difference between gap and opening?

  1. TRAVEL AND VISITING

C1

come across, encounter, invite

  1. call
  2. face, meet
  3. meet accidentally

C2

commute, roam

  1. A person who travels to work by train is a ________. COMMUTE
  2. Roam = wander   i _ ly

C3

expedition, itinerary, journey, pilgrimage, travel, trip, voyage

In this list, travel is the most general word. _________ is for religious purposes. ________ is short. __________ is either on the sea or in space. ___________ is long and with a purpose. _________ is for scientific purposes. __________ is a plan.

C4

emigrate, immigrate, migrate, nomad, refugee

  1. Study the difference: emigrate, immigrate, migrate
  2. Study the difference: nomad, refugee

C5

guest, host, passenger

  1. one who entertains guests
  2. traveller
  3. visitor

C6

book, reserve, seat

  1. Book (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Reserve (v) à _________ (n)
  3. Seat (n) à _________ (v)
  4. VEHICLES AND TRANSPORT ON LAND

D1

auto, buffet, carriage, transport, vehicle

  1. car
  2. instrument
  3. move, carry
  4. passenger car on the train
  5. restaurant car on the train

D2

pram, trolley, wheelchair

  1. baby’s car
  2. vehicle for serving drinks etc. in a restaurant
  3. vehicle for sick or physically handicapped people

D3

due, scheduled

  1. Due X _ _ due
  2. Scheduled X _ _ _-scheduled

D4

boot, chain, engine, gear, puncture, shield, tyre, wheel, windscreen

  1. a bicycle has two
  2. on bicycles, this transmits power to the back wheel
  3. rubber part of a wheel
  4. sometimes the upper part of a car is called this
  5. the “front window” of a car
  6. the part that runs the car
  7. the place where luggage is placed
  8. you change this in a vehicle when you want to speed
  9. you have this when you have a flat tyre

D5

tube, underground

Tube = underground = m _ _ _ _

D6

luggage, pedestrian, porter

  1. people who walk on the pavement
  2. person who carries bags, etc.
  3. what you carry when you travel

D7

accident, collide, crash, impact

  1. Accident (n) à _________ (adj)
  2. Collide (v) à _________ (n)
  3. Crash (v) à _________ (n)
  4. Impact = crash, col _ _ _ _ _ _
  5. PLACES

E1

junction, locate, posture, stretch

  1. attitude, position
  2. find the whereabouts
  3. range, length
  4. where roads meet

E2

barrier, border, boundary, frontier, margin, span

  1. What is the difference between barrier and barricade?
  2. Study the difference: border, boundary, frontier.
  3. What is the difference between margin and span?

E3

threshold, verge

  1. doorsill; starting point
  2. edge, brink, border

E4

environment, setting

  1. We are faced with a very big _________ problem. ENVIRONMENT
  2. The film is ________ in north India. SETTING

E5

alley, avenue, walk

  1. It is dangerous to walk around dark _________ after sunset.
  2. The main _________ of the city has been closed to car traffic.
  3. These workers come from different _________ of life.

E6

path, road, route, thoroughfare, track, trail, way

  1. Finally, we found a narrow _________ down the hill. PATH
  2. Road = passage, ch _ _ _ _ _
  3. Route = course, iti _ _ _ _ _ _
  4. Thoroughfare = highway, ar _ _ _ y
  5. Track = path, trail, tr _ _ e
  6. Trail = path, track, l _ _ e
  7. Way = passage, channel, av _ _ _ e

E7

beacon, pavement, square

  1. curb
  2. plaza
  3. street lamp
  4. SHIPPING

F1

launch, shipping

  1. Launch = initiate, set fo _ _ _
  2. Shipping = lo _ _ ing

F2

deck, keel, propeller, raft

  1. a small, flat, primitive type of water vehicle, generally made of wood
  2. a system of blades that chop the air or water so that the vehicle can move
  3. the main skeleton of a ship or a similar vehicle
  4. the upper part of a ship or a similar vehicle

F3

aboard, afloat, aground, ashore, astern, dive, float

  1. go under water
  2. on board
  3. on or to the shore
  4. on the ground
  5. on the surface of a liquid
  6. stay on the surface
  7. to the rear

F4

ahead, below

  1. “May I smoke here?” “Go _________.”
  2. Temperature is __________ freezing.

F5

harbour, warehouse

  1. What is the difference between harbour and dock?
  2. What is the difference between warehouse and depot?

F6

crew, mate

  1. comrade, assistant
  2. group, gathering

F7

alongside, anchor

  1. Alongside ________ his proposal, several others will be discussed at the meeting.
  2. What is the difference between anchor and hook?

F8

oar, paddle

– Study the difference between oar and paddle.

F9

capsize, overturn

– Which of these two words is generally used for boats, ships and the like: capsize or overturn?

  1. AIRCRAFT

G1

aeroplane, aerospace, airfield, airplane, airport, aviation, charter

Aeroplane = airplane

Airfield @ airport

  1. Study the difference: aerospace, aerodynamic.
  2. Study the difference: aviation, flight.
  3. Study the difference: charter, scheduled.

G2

land, take off

  1. come into port, arrive
  2. fly, depart
  3. LOCATION AND DIRECTION

H1

brim, edge, ridge, surface

  1. Brim = margin, perimeter, fr _ _ _ e
  2. Edge = border, bo _ _ _ _ _ y
  3. Ridge = bank, r _ _ f
  4. Surface = covering, f _ _ e

H2

apex, bottom

  1. Apex = peak, s _ _ _ _ t
  2. Bottom = lowest part, s _ _ e

H3

core, heart, middle

  1. __________ of a volcano.
  2. Apple _________.
  3. In the ________ of a lesson.

H4

tip, top

  1. She has a _________ nose. TIP
  2. Women sunbathe _________ here. TOP

H5

rear, side

  1. back
  2. edge

H6

around, round, throughout

  1. Study the difference between around and round.
  2. Study the difference between through and throughout.

H7

indoors, inner, inside, interior, internal, inward(s)

  1. Fold the paper _________.
  2. He is an __________ decorator.
  3. I have _________ doubts about his sincerity.
  4. I would like to know what is _______ this box.
  5. We are making an _______ office voting.
  6. We have an __________ swimming pool.

H8

external, outdoor, outermost, outward(s)

  1. External X _________
  2. Outdoor X _________
  3. Outermost X __________
  4. Outward(s) X __________

H9

absence, present

  1. Absence (n) à _________ (adj)
  2. Present (adj) à _________ (n)

H10

across, along

  1. above, over, beyond
  2. ahead, onward, forward

H11

against, through

  1. He was leaning ________ the wall.
  2. We walked _________ the park to the bus-stop.

H12

adjacent, beside, by, close, near, next

– What is the difference between beside and besides?

– What is the difference between close and closed?

  1. close, related
  2. immediate, close, near
  3. near, close to, next to
  4. near, imminent, neighbouring

H13

almost, approximate, straight

  1. It is _________ ten o’clock.
  2. Walk _________ and you cannot miss the building.
  3. What is the _________ price of this car?

H14

distance, extreme, far, remote

  1. Distance (n) à _________ (adj)
  2. Extreme (adj) à _________ (n)
  3. Far (adj) à _________ (phrase)
  4. Remote (adj) à _________ (n)

H15

among, apart, aside, away

  1. Study the difference between among and between.
  2. Apart _________ this, we visit the museum.
  3. Study the difference between aside and away, as in “He put it aside / He put in away“.

H16

backwards, onward(s), toward(s), upward(s)

  1. above
  2. advanced; ahead
  3. in the direction of
  4. retrograde, reactionary

H17

above, beneath, underneath

  1. Above X b _ _ _ _
  2. Beneath X o _ _ _
  3. Underneath X a _ _ _ _

H18

after, before, back, front

  1. In the ________ of the war, the Allies helped Germany re-establish its economic power. AFTER
  2. Let me tell you __________. I don’t agree with you. BEFORE
  3. He is a bit __________ in his class due to a major hearing problem. BACK
  4. I think what you need is a small __________ operation on your gums. FRONT

H19

beyond, foremost, past

  1. first, leading
  2. former, gone, recent
  3. over, distance, thence

H20

outside, upside-down

  1. What is the difference between outside and outward?
  2. What is the difference between upside-down and inside-out?

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. Coral is made by a small, sedentary animal that lives in the ocean.
A) secluded B) immobile C) lively D) hard-working
  1. When the earth turns, the moon appears to rise in the east and set in the west.
A) refers B) seems C) is likely D) is supposed
  1. In certain areas of many cities, it is against the law to loiter.
A) throw paper B) stand around C) join a mob D) carry a weapon
  1. The argument caused a great dilemma.
A) situation B) predicament C) embarrassment D) aura
  1. He sang the hymn to the accompaniment of the church choir.
A) voices B) support C) meter D) music
  1. She was slow and never seemed to drag.
A) dread to move B) dress carelessly C) walk fast D) move too slowly
  1. He used various means to elicit a confession from the murderer.
A) make B) force C) frame D) draw out
  1. I will have to keep my arms immobile for a few days.
A) in a sling B) encased in plaster C) motionless D) exercised
  1. The Captain gave order for the crew to jettison the cargo to lighten the ship.
A) throw overboard B) consume C) jostle lightly D) transfer
  1. A girl ushered us during the party.
A) introduced B) conducted C) pushed D) entered
  1. GENERAL AND ABSTRACT TERMS
  2. POSSIBILITY, CHANCE, AND NECESSITY

A1

apt, feasible, likely, possible, probable, random

  1. Apt (adj) à __________ (n)
  2. Feasible (adj) à __________ (n)
  3. Likely (adj) à __________ (n)
  4. Possible (adj) à __________ (n)
  5. Probable (adj) à __________ (n)
  6. Study the meaning: random, at random.

A2

bound, certain, conclusive, confidence, definite, signify, sure

  1. He is bound _________ win the race.
  2. Certain (adj) à __________ (n)
  3. Conclusive (adj) à __________ (n)
  4. I have full confidence __________ your success.
  5. Definite (adj) à __________ (v)
  6. Signify (v) à __________ (adj)
  7. He is sure _________ be successful.

A3

chance, contingent, fortune, luck, misfortune

  1. His being promoted was completely __________.
  2. She’s experienced quite a number of __________ on her travel abroad.
  3. We met a __________-teller on the pier.
  4. What are his __________ of survival?
  5. With a bit of __________, we can complete the project on time.

A4

advantage, auspicious, opportunity, prospect

  1. He took _________ of the road conditions and took the lead in the race.
  2. He’s always had unbelievably high __________.
  3. His is a great _________ for your father to be promoted.
  4. The proposal he brought about at the meeting was __________ for the future of the organisation.

A5

fortunate, unfortunate

  1. Fortunate = happy, fav _ _ _ _ _
  2. Unfortunate = unlu _ _ _

A6

danger, hazard, jeopardy, peril, safe

  1. Danger (n) à __________ (adj) à __________ (v)
  2. Hazard (n) à __________ (adj)
  3. Jeopardy (n) à __________ (v)
  4. Peril (n) à __________ (adj)
  5. Safe (adj) à __________ (n)

A7

endanger, ensure, risk

  1. Endanger = risk, _ _ peril
  2. Ensure = protect, _ _ _ _ guard
  3. Risk = endanger, ga _ _ _ e

A8

ominous, threatening

  1. Ominous = dangerous; d _ _ _ ed
  2. Threatening (adj) à __________ (n) à __________ (v)

A9

grave, important, serious, sober, solemn, substantial

  1. Study the difference in meaning: grave (n), grave (adj).
  2. Study the difference in meaning: sober (adj-1), sober (adj-2).
  3. Study the difference in meaning: serious, series.
  4. Important (adj) à __________ (n)
  5. Solemn = grave, serious, dig _ _ _ _ ed
  6. Substantial = real; important; ab _ _ _ _ nt

A10

essential, indispensable

  1. fundamental, necessary, rudiment
  2. necessary, imperative

A11

key, necessary

  1. Key = m _ _ _ s
  2. Necessary (adj) à __________ (n) à __________ (v)

A12

crucial, drastic, vital

  1. Crucial = acute, fi _ _ _ _
  2. Drastic = extreme, exce _ _ _ ve
  3. Vital = necessary; vi _ _ _ ous

A13

imperative, urgent

  1. Imperative = essential, p _ _ _ _ ing
  2. Urgent (adj) à __________ (n)

A14

mere, petty, trifling, trivial

  1. Mere = simple, p _ _ e, small
  2. Petty = trivial, _ _ significant
  3. Trifling = worth _ _ _ _
  4. Trivial = idle, use _ _ _ _
  5. GENERAL, USUAL, UNUSUAL, ETC.

B1

common, communal, prevalent, widespread

  1. In England, the Parliament has two divisions: the House of Lords and the House of _________ .
    COMMON
  2. There is a large Christian _________ in Iran. COMMUNAL
  3. The law does not exist any more, but its negative effects still _________. PREVALENT
  4. Widespread = prevalent, uni _ _ _ _ _ _

B2

absolute, altogether, by and large, mutual

  1. Study the difference: absolute, obsolete.
  2. Study the difference: altogether, all together.
  3. By and large = ge _ _ _ _ _ ly
  4. Mutual = communal, col _ _ _ tive

B3

individual, local, particulars, specific, vacant

  1. I buy a __________ newspaper to learn what’s going on in the neighbourhood.
  2. Position ________: Night watchman wanted.
  3. They are streamlining the __________ of the agreement.
  4. This meal is ________ to this island only.
  5. This new law will safeguard the rights of the _________ before the State.

B4

rare, unique

  1. Rare = uncommon, sc _ _ _ _
  2. Unique = sole, so _ _ _ ary

B5

customary, familiar, regular, usual

  1. I’m __________ to being treated like this by him! CUSTOMARY
  2. I sense a feeling of ___________, but I can’t make out what. FAMILIAR
  3. Bowels _________ in an infant is of crucial importance. REGULAR
  4. He hates smoking, so it is rather ________ for him to be smoking a large cigar in his office.
    USUAL

B6

common, ordinary, plain

  1. In common ________ the nomads of other countries, gypsies in Turkey are viewed with
    suspicion.
  2. I’d like to buy her something _____ of the ordinary.
  3. Murat IV was famous for walking plain-_________ around in the streets of Istanbul.

B7

easy, straightforward

  1. Study the difference in meaning: easy, uneasy, at ease.
  2. Analyse forward, straight and straightforward.

B8

awkward, difficult, tough

  1. Awkward = strange, _ _ _
  2. Difficult = hard, st _ _ _ _ ous
  3. Study the difference: tough, hard, stale.

B9

basic, elementary

– What is the difference between basic and elementary?

B10

advanced, primitive

  1. Advanced (adj) à __________ (n)
  2. Primitive = simple, _ _ civilized

B11

complex, elaborate, intricate, sophisticated

  1. Study the difference: complex, complicated, sophisticated.
  2. Elaborate = complicated, de _ _ _ _ ed
  3. Sophisticated = complex, obs _ _ _ _

B12

complicate, simplify

  1. Complicate (v) à __________ (adj)
  2. Simplify (v) à __________ (n)

B13

generalize, particular

  1. Generalize (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Particular = de _ _ _ _

B14

accustom, regulate, standardize

  1. I’m __________ to living in this chaotic city.
  2. This gadget ________ the flow of liquid.
  3. They are trying to _________ the dimensions of postal parcels.

B15

limitation, restriction

– What is the difference between limitation and restriction?

B16

amend, modify

  1. Amend (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Modify (v) à __________ (n)

B17

extraordinary, remarkable

  1. Extraordinary = phenomenal, amazing, _ _ believable
  2. Remarkable = outstanding, mar _ _ _ _ ous

B18

odd, peculiar, queer, strange

  1. Study the difference: odd (n), odd (adj).
  2. This is peculiar ______ us.
  3. Queer = odd, ex _ _ ic
  4. Strange (adj) à __________ (n)

B19

eccentric, eerie, uncanny, weird

  1. Study the difference: eccentric, weird.
  2. Eerie = uncanny; fear _ _ _
  3. Uncanny = abnormal, freak _ _ _

B20

monster, pervert

  1. Monster (n) à __________ (adj)
  2. Pervert (n, adj) à __________ (n)
  3. SIZE, IMPORTANCE, AND AVAILABILITY

C1

amount, bulk, mass, quantity, size, volume

  1. Amount = sum, wh _ _ _
  2. Bulk = mass, mag _ _ _ _ _ _
  3. Mass = quantity, acc _ _ _ _ ation
  4. Quantity = amount, agg _ _ _ _ _ _
  5. Size = extent, di _ _ _ _ ion
  6. Volume = quantity, s _ _ _

C2

colossal, enormous, gigantic, huge, immense, large, mammoth, prodigious, tremendous

All these words mean very big: colossal, enormous, gigantic, huge, immense, mammoth, prodigious, tremendous. Study the noun forms of enormous, huge, immense, and large.

C3

heavy, light

  1. In the sentence “He lay sleeping, his breathing heavy”, what does the word heavy mean?
  2. Light (adj) à __________ (n)

C4

considerable, maximum, optimum, vast

  1. Considerable = important, sub _ _ _ _ tial
  2. Maximum = supreme, _ _ _ most
  3. Optimum = i _ _ al
  4. Vast = big, en _ _ _ ous

C5

minute, negligible, small, tiny

  1. Study the difference between minute (n) and minute (adj).
  2. Negligible (adj) à __________ (v)
  3. Small X great, large, br _ _ _
  4. Tiny = little, dw _ _ _

C6

chief, main, major, principal, priority, privilege

  1. Study the difference between chief (n) and chief (adj).
  2. Study the difference between main (n) and main (adj).
  3. Study the difference between major (n) and major (adj).
  4. Study the difference between principal (n) and principal (adj).
  5. Privilege = freedom, im _ _ _ ity

C7

minor, senior, superior

  1. Minor X _ _ _ or
  2. Senior X _ _ _ _ or
  3. Superior X _ _ _ _ _ _ or

C8

amplify, enlarge

  1. Amplify (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Enlarge (v) à _________ (n)

C9

exceed, expand, extend

  1. Study exceed, exceeding and excessive.
  2. Expand à _________
  3. Study extend and extent.

C10

grow, increase, inflate, magnify, multiply, prolong

  1. 30 ________ by 13 is 390.
  2. All children _________ up; what matters is how they are brought up.
  3. High oil prices are artificially _________ prices of other goods.
  4. I keep a coffee plant in my balcony and I do not know how I can ________ its life.
  5. Inflation is on the _________.
  6. This special gadget will _________ object ten times so that we can get a better view.

C11

augment, extent, spread, sprout, swell

  1. Augment = enlarge, en _ _ _ _ _
  2. Extent = border, l _ _ _ t
  3. Spread = distribute, dis _ _ _ _ e
  4. Sprout = flourish, de _ _ _ _ p
  5. Swell = expand, b _ _ _ e

C12

addition, supplement

  1. Addition (n) à __________ (adj)
  2. Supplement (n, v) à __________ (adj)

C13

decline, decrease, lessen, minimize, reduce

  1. Decline X imp _ _ _ _
  2. Decrease X _ _ crease
  3. Lessen X _ _ large
  4. Minimize X _ _ _ _ mize
  5. Reduce X _ _ _ lify

C14

contract, shrink

– What is the difference between contract and shrink?

C15

majority, minority

  1. bulk, most, plurality
  2. lesser part, opposition

C16

barely, just, hardly

He had barely = just = hardly opened the door when he remembered that he had invited friends for dinner.

– Study bare (adj) and barely (adv).

– Study just (adj-1) and just (adj-2).

– Study hard (adj) and hardly (adv).

C17

also, besides

– Study also, in addition, moreover, furthermore, what’s more, too; besides and beside.

C18

by the way, furthermore, moreover

– We met outside the pub as we’d arranged. __________ , (By the way / Furthermore / Moreover] have you met Alice before? She’s my girlfriend.

C19

otherwise, rest

– I warn you for the last time not to insist on your silly idea. __________ , (Otherwise, Rest) I’ll have to take whatever action is needed.

C20

adequacy, enough, sufficient

  1. Adequacy X _ _ adequacy
  2. Enough = abun _ _ _ _
  3. Sufficient X _ _ sufficient

C21

ample, generous, numerous, several

  1. Ample = ex _ _ _ sive
  2. Generous X m _ _ _
  3. Numerous = p _ _ _ _ y
  4. Several = s _ _ _

C22

abundance, excess, extravagant, plenty

  1. It was a beautiful party! Food and drink was __________. ABUNDANCE
  2. They have taken __________ measures against terrorism. EXCESS
  3. His __________ is beyond logic! EXTRAVAGANT
  4. There were a handful of supporters for my team, but the fans of the other team were definitely __________. PLENTY

C23

scarce, short, shortage

  1. Food and drink was so _________ that we had to draw a plan as to how to use the available
    amount most efficiently.
  2. I’m __________ of money these days.
  3. There is a __________ of foreign currency.

C24

moderate, modest

– Study the difference between moderate and modest.

C25

access, available, ready

  1. “Are you _________ for the final exam?” “Not exactly. I have a few more pages to study.”
  2. I have no __________ to these files on the computer.
  3. Now, these secret files and documents of the Second World War are _________ in libraries and
    similar institutions.

C26

spare, surplus

  1. I always carry a ________ key to my car, just in case.
  2. We sell _________ warfare material here, like helmets and jeeps from the American NATO
    forces in Europe.
  3. RESEMBLANCE, DIFFERENCE, AND CHANGE

D1

resemble, take after

– Study the difference: resemble, take after, look like.

D2

alike, analogous, like, unlike

  1. Study the difference: alike, like, unlike.
  2. Analogous = _ _ _ _ _ _ lent

D3

even, level, uniform

  1. What does to get even mean?
  2. What does level mean in the sentence “She levelled the picture on the wall.”
  3. What is the difference between uniform (n) and uniform (adj)?

D4

distinct, identical, respective, same, similar

  1. 4 X 3 is the __________ as 3 X 4.
  2. Is this hat __________ to the one I bought last season?
  3. Me and my brother are __________ twins.
  4. These houses are slightly _________ from each other. The one on the left is larger.
  5. They invited Professor Wilkins, Sir Adams and Sir Peterson, __________, to present the awards
    to winners.

D5

contrary, perverse, reverse

  1. Contrary _________ common belief, sharks rarely attack people.
  2. Perverse = ag _ _ _ able
  3. Reverse = contrary, _ _ _ _ site

D6

varied, various

– What is the difference between varied and various?

D7

alternate, another, assortment, identity, variety

– Study the difference between assortment and variety.

  1. Can I have _________ beer, please?
  2. Have you checked the policeman’s _________.
  3. We _________ driving from Istanbul to Erzurum; I drove mostly during daytime, my wife after
    sunset.

D8

deviate, divergent

  1. Deviate (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Divergent (adj) à __________ (n)

D9

compare, contrast, differ, equal, oppose

  1. What is the difference between compare and contrast?
  2. Study: differ and vary; different and indifferent.
  3. Equal (adj) à __________ (v)
  4. Oppose (v) à __________ (n)

D10

discriminate, distinguish, identify

  1. He is accused of __________ between races.
  2. His sharp features __________ him from the rest of the group.
  3. It is wrong to __________ him with the notorious figures of his country’s history.

D11

arrange, classify

  1. Arrange (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Classify (v) à __________ (b)

D12

grade, order, rank, sort, systematic

  1. I’d like you to place the tins in this ________.
  2. Isn’t there a _________ way of memorizing phrasal verbs in English?
  3. My sister is older than me; she is ________ Six at school.
  4. She ___________ among the best swimmers of the world.
  5. We couldn’t _________ this out.
  6. RIGHTNESS, FAIRNESS, PURPOSE, USE, AND STRENGTH

E1

appropriate, convenient, proper, relevant, suitable

  1. Appropriate X _ _ appropriate
  2. Convenient X _ _ convenient
  3. Proper X _ _ proper
  4. Relevant X _ _ relevant
  5. Suitable X _ _ suitable

E2

valid, worthy, worthwhile

  1. His documents have no __________. VALID
  2. He is worthy _________ praise.
  3. Worthwhile = suit _ _ _ _

E3

accuracy, exact, precise

  1. Accuracy (n) à __________ (adj)
  2. Exact (adj) à __________ (n)
  3. Precise = exact, exp _ _ _ _ _

E4

ideal, perfect, spotless

  1. He has _________, none of which can be realized.
  2. The patient was in a __________ condition following the operation.
  3. The room was __________ clean.

E5

purge, purify, rectify, refine

  1. better, correct
  2. clean, refine, disinfect
  3. cleanse, eliminate
  4. purify, polish

E6

correct, right

  1. Correct (adj) à __________ (v)
  2. Right (adj) à __________ (v)

E7

defect, drawback, fault, flaw

  1. Study the difference between defect and drawback.
  2. Study the difference between fault and flaw.

E8

anomaly, discrepancy

  1. Anomaly = _ _ normality
  2. Discrepancy = _ _ consistency

E9

error, lapse, mistake

  1. To __________ is human, to forgive is divine. (Proverb) ERROR
  2. Lapse = decline; error, s _ _ p
  3. He mistook me __________ a friend, probably.

E10

detect, evidence, proof, prove

  1. Detect (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Evidence (n) à __________ (adj)
  3. Proof (n) à __________ (v)
  4. Prove (v) à __________ (adj)

E11

clarify, clear, dilute, obvious, prune

  1. Clarify (v) à __________ (n)
  2. What is the difference between clear and clean?
  3. Dilute (v) à __________ (adj)
  4. Obvious X am _ _ _ _ ous
  5. Prune = cut, t _ _ m

E12

accord, balance, counteract, harmonious

  1. His plans are in __________ with the decisions of the higher council. ACCORD
  2. The whole building was ___________ due to the tremours during the earthquake. BALANCE
  3. They responded with __________. COUNTERACT
  4. Your hair style should be in __________ with the way you dress. HARMONIOUS

E13

align, correspond, fit, match

  1. I’m _________ to my own homework. ALIGN
  2. Our special __________ in the area reported serious damage. CORRESPOND
  3. This tool is _________ for the repair we aim to undertake; we need a stronger one. FIT
  4. This is a disaster of __________ volume in the history of mankind! MATCH

E14

account for, answer for, justice, justify

  1. confirm, assert
  2. explain, bring an explanation
  3. fairness, right
  4. trust, have confidence in

E15

aim, end, purpose

– Study the difference: aim, end, purpose.

E16

helpful, use, utility

  1. What is the difference between helpful and helpless?
  2. Study the difference between use (v) and use (n).
  3. Utility (n) à __________ (v)

E17

ambition, goal

  1. aim, objective
  2. aspiration, desire

E18

profitable, practical

  1. Profitable X _ _ profitable
  2. Practical X _ _ practical

E19

futile, pointless, sensible, vain

  1. Futile (adj) à __________ (n)
  2. There is no __________ in arguing with him. POINTLESS
  3. Study the difference sensible and sensitive.
  4. He tried __________ vain to escape the argument.

E20

fragile, might, robust, strength

  1. He lacks _________ strength and courage essential for a real boxer.
  2. He tried to lift the weight with all his __________.
  3. These _________ robust sailors crossed the ocean to explore new lands.
  4. This parcel contains __________ material and should be handled with utmost care.

E21

arbitrary, feeble, impotent, intense, potent, weak

  1. Arbitrary = _ _ _ cretionary
  2. Feeble = frail, _ _ effective
  3. Impotent = power _ _ _ _
  4. Intense = con _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ed
  5. Potent = power _ _ _
  6. Weak = fragile, feeble, de _ _ _ ate

E22

affiliate, attach, attachment, relate

  1. Affiliate = associate, col _ _ _ _ _ e
  2. Attach X _ _ tach
  3. Attachment = s _ _ _ _ ation
  4. Relate = _ _ _ connect

E23

concentrate, reinforce

  1. focus, pay attention
  2. strengthen

E24

able, enable

  1. Able X _ _ capable
  2. Enable X _ _ _ able
  3. FULLNESS, HEAVINESS, THICKNESS, STIFFNESS, ROUGHNESS, ETC.

F1

complete, entire

– What is the difference between complete and entire?

F2

thorough, thoroughbred

  1. Study the difference between thorough and through.
  2. Study the difference between thoroughfare and thoroughbred.

F3

pitch, sheer, total, utter, whole, wholehearted

  1. He has the _________ support of the younger members.
  2. I think this is _________ madness.
  3. It was __________ dark and we needed a torch.
  4. To my _________, amazement, I passed the test.
  5. What is the _________ amount?

F4

blank, empty, superficial, vacant

  1. Blank = empty, v _ _ _
  2. Empty (adj à __________ (v)
  3. Superficial (adj) à __________ (n)
  4. Vacant (adj) à __________ (n)

F5

fill, occupy, pervade

  1. __________ in the blanks with correct form of the word in brackets.
  2. A strong smell of gas __________ the building
  3. The troops __________ the school building as their headquarters.

F6

drain, plug

  1. Drain (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Plug X _ _ plug

F7

unload, unpack

  1. Unload = unpack, e _ _ ty
  2. Unpack = unload, _ _ _ charge

F8

airy, light

  1. Airy = sp _ _ _ ous
  2. Light X _ _ avy

F9

dense, thick, thin

  1. What is the _________ of the fog? DENSE
  2. The ________ of this mattress is in line with the standards. THICK
  3. My hair is __________ . THIN

F10

firm, hard, harsh, rigid, stiff

  1. Firm (adj) à __________ (n)
  2. Hard (adj, adv) à _________ (v)
  3. Harsh (adj) à __________ (n)
  4. Rigid (adj) à __________ (n)
  5. Stiff (adj) à __________ (n)

F11

austere, stern, strict

  1. Austere = stern, gr _ _ _
  2. Stern = harsh, cruel, _ _ ve _ _
  3. Strict = stern, cr _ _ ical

F12

limp, mild, rigour, severe

  1. cold
  2. gentle, calm, tender
  3. infirm, loose, weak
  4. strict, grim

F13

flexible, slope

  1. Flexible X _ _ flexible
  2. Slope = sl _ _ _

F14

spring, stretch

  1. Spring = _ _ coil
  2. Stretch = length _ _

F15

consistence, loose, soften, tight

  1. Consistence X _ _ consistence
  2. Loose (adj) à __________ (v)
  3. Soften (v) à __________ (adj)
  4. Tight (adj) à __________ (v)

F16

coarse, crude, smooth

  1. _________ oil prices have risen again.
  2. His palms felt __________ from working too much in the garden.
  3. We intend a _________ pass into a fully computerized factory.

F17

fickle, jagged, rough, serrated, stabilize

  1. irregular, uneven, jagged, unfinished
  2. irregular, uneven, rough
  3. saw-toothed
  4. steady, firm
  5. unstable, inconstant

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. The Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961 resulted in severe criticism of President Kennedy by
    the American people.
A) deep B) special C) tight D) harsh
  1. The increase in world population was negligible until around 1900.
A) unimportant B) needless C) average D) misleading
  1. One goal of physical fitness is to maximize a person’s strength and endurance.
A) split B) distinguish C) increase D) combine
  1. Among the dangers of drilling for oil in the ocean is the problem of potential leaks.
A) serious B) dangerous C) imminent D) possible
  1. Most animals have become scarce during this century.
A) easily frightened B) prone to disease C) fewer in numbers D) difficult to catch
  1. In coastal areas where there is an abundance of fish, the fishing industry prospers.
    A) more than sufficient quantity
    B) a wide variety
    C) a unique type
    D) a common diet
    7. A backyard swimming pool can be a hazard for small children.
A) pleasure B) disaster C) danger D) thrill
  1. She has written a new, comprehensive book.
A) complete B) factual C) festive D) illustrated
  1. My students think I am odd.
A) dangerous B) friendly C) strange D) humorous
  1. Oil is one of the principal sources of energy.
A) most expensive B) most important C) most difficult D) most popular
  1. DOING THINGS
  2. BEING, BECOMING, AND HAPPENING

A1

exist, prevail

  1. I’m glad to state that today the smallpox disease is __________. We’ve won the battle against it.
    EXIST
  2. One view __________ among astronomers is that the moon was once a part of the Earth.
    PREVAIL

A2

appear, look like, seem

  1. In the Victorian times, it was forbidden for women to __________ on the theatre stage.
  2. It _________ it is going to rain.
  3. What does your cousin _________ ?

A3

attribute, quality, trait

  1. School kills creativity and free-choice, both __________ essential for a genius.
  2. The idea of the United Nations is __________ to the US President Roosevelt.
  3. Those items that fail the __________ control are sent to a separate section of the plant.

A4

appearance, state

  1. Appearance = emergence, s _ _ _ ing
  2. State = condition, cir _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ces

A5

character, personality

– What is the difference between character and personality?

A6

type, typical

  1. __________ type of films do you like?
  2. This is typical __________ him! He is late again!

A7

example, exemplify, instance, sample, specimen

  1. Study example and instance.
  2. Study sample and specimen.
  3. Exemplify = ty _ _ fy

A8

embody, realize

  1. Embody (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Realize (v) à __________ (n)

A9

essence, fact, truth

– This is not _________ essence a book for KPDS and YDS only. As a ___________ of fact, it is for multiple-choice type questions. To tell you _________ truth, even those who prepare for general purpose English can benefit from it.

A10

false, fiction

  1. False (adj) à __________ (v)
  2. Fiction X _ _ _ fiction

A11

actual, concrete, fake, real, virtual

  1. Actual = true, ab _ _ _ _ te
  2. Concrete = actual, s _ _ _ _ d
  3. Fake = false, counter _ _ _ _
  4. Real = actual, ge _ _ _ ne
  5. Virtual = essential, imp _ _ _ _ _

A12

apparent, imaginary

  1. Apparent (adj) à __________ (v)
  2. Imaginary (adj) à __________ (v)

A13

become, happen, occur, take place

  1. What does become mean in the sentence “Being a mother becomes her” ?
  2. Study the difference: happen, occur, take place.

A14

adventure, arise

  1. Adventure = venture, jeo _ _ _ _ _
  2. Study the difference: arise, rise, raise.

A15

affair, circumstance, event, incident, phenomenon

Be careful: phenomenon (n-singular), phenomena (n-plural)

  1. I’m afraid her husband has a revolting __________ with his secretary.
  2. In any __________, we will have to sell the car.
  3. It was through an unfortunate __________ that we realized how bad a person he was.
  4. Total eclipse of the Sun is a natural __________.
  5. Under these __________, there is no point in going any further.

A16

catastrophe, disaster, holocaust, trouble

  1. Study the difference: catastrophe and chaos.
  2. Study the difference: disaster and holocaust.
  3. Study the difference: trouble and problem.
  4. DOING

B1

act, behave, perform, react, respond

  1. Act (v, n) à _________ (n)
  2. Behave (v) à _________ (n)
  3. Perform (v) à _________ (n)
  4. React (v) à _________ (n)
  5. Respond (v) à _________ (n)

B2

practise, repeat

  1. Study the difference: practise, practice and exercise?
  2. Repeat (v) à _________ (n) à _________ (adj)

B3

active, activity, deed, function

  1. Active X _ _ active
  2. Activity = movement, per _ _ _ mance
  3. Deed = act, accomp _ _ _ _ ment
  4. Function = purpose, d _ _ _

B4

inert, listless, passive

  1. Inert (adj) à _________ (n)
  2. Listless (adj) à _________ (n)
  3. Passive (adj) à _________ (n)

B5

action, work

  1. labour, drudgery
  2. movement, activity, behaviour

B6

flourish, manage, prosper, succeed

  1. Study the difference between flourish and prosper.
  2. Study the difference between manage and succeed.

B7

excel, improve

  1. Excel (v) à _________ (adj)
  2. Improve X decline, dete _ _ _ _ _ te

B8

accomplish, achieve, attain

  1. Accomplish (v) à _________ (n)
  2. Achieve (v) à _________ (n)
  3. Attain (v) à _________ (n)

B9

execute, fulfil, implement

  1. He is the chief ___________ of a company. EXECUTE
  2. People find ___________ in working together. FULFIL
  3. Speedy __________ of the plan is of vital importance. IMPLEMENT

B10

accept, agree, transact, undertake

  1. The __________ of the proposal plan came as a real relief! ACCEPT
  2. There is full __________ between the two parties. AGREE
  3. Legal ___________ in a state-controlled system are rather cumbersome. TRANSACT
  4. This is a great ___________. UNDERTAKE

B11

refuse, reject

– Study the difference: refuse, reject, deny.

B12

avoid, evasion

  1. Study the difference between avoid and prevent.
  2. Evasion = _ _ _ _ _ _ fuge

B13

attempt, endeavour, strive, vigour

  1. The athlete was able to qualify for the finals in his third __________.
  2. These problems were discussed with great __________.
  3. They have __________ for freedom for years.
  4. We must wish him good luck in his __________.

B14

aid, assist, subsidy, try

  1. “The car won’t work!” “Shall I give it another __________?”
  2. Doctor Peterson will __________ me during the operation.
  3. It appears that the Municipality has wasted the ____________.
  4. We provide financial __________ to several countries.

B15

auxiliary, benefit, support

  1. additional, subsidiary
  2. aid, assistance
  3. profit

B16

hamper, hindrance, keep, prevent

  1. This constant stream of visitors really hampers ________ (of / from / ) us!
  2. Is hindrance countable or uncountable?
  3. We told the children to keep _________ (of / out / away) from the cake.
  4. There is nothing that will prevent them __________ (from / into / away) invading the city.
  5. CAUSING

C1

arouse, involve, make

Complete with arise, arouse, rise

  1. A serious problem has now __________.
  2. The sun is ________.
  3. This new computer may ________ his interest into his studies.

Involve (v) à __________ (n)

Make (v) à __________ (n)

C2

precipitate, prompt, render, stir

  1. hint, push
  2. make, perform, provide; translate
  3. excite
  4. speed, accelerate

C3

cause, reason

– Study the difference: cause, reason, result.

C4

aftermath, by-product

  1. In the __________ of the Second World War, Germany became a divided country.
  2. This chemical substance is a _________ of our production.

C5

consequence, consequent, effect, effectual, result

  1. __________ a consequence of his efforts, the dog kennel was moved to a safer place.
  2. Consequent (adj) à __________ (adj)
  3. This paper, __________ effect, will change the political layout of the whole state.
  4. Effectual = effective, inf _ _ _ _ _ ial
  5. Result (n, v) à __________ (adj)

C6

compel, constrain, force, impel, indebted, oblige

  1. Compel = force, constrain, _ _ force
  2. Constrain = force, _ _ _ fine
  3. Force = compel, inf _ _ _ _
  4. Impel = propel, mo _ _ _ ate
  5. Indebted = obliged, thank _ _ _
  6. Oblige = compel, force, re _ _ _ re

C7

crush, pressure, push, subject to

  1. Crush X compact, cake, comp _ _ _ _
  2. Pressure X re _ _ ef
  3. Push X pull, drag, d _ _ _

Study the difference:

  1. The new law is subject to change.
  2. The new law is bound to change.

C8

dissuade, persuade

  1. influence, convince
  2. warn, alarm

C9

demand, urge

  1. Demand (n, v) à __________ (adj)
  2. Urge (n, v) à __________ (adj)

C10

must, necessitate, need

  1. A piece of mind is what I really __________.
  2. It is a _________ that you submit your thesis before the end of this month.
  3. This job will __________ working with your hands.

C11

request, require

  1. He made a _________ in writing.
  2. We _________ more people to carry on with the rescue operation.

C12

discourage, encourage

Study the difference: discourage, dissuade; encourage, persuade.

C13

base, establish, found

  1. Base = establish, found, g _ _ _ _ d
  2. Establish = found; verify; _ _ act
  3. Found = establish, set _ _

è Did you know the longest word in English? “Antidisestablishmentialism“.

C14

attentive

Attentive (adj) à __________ (v)

C15

decide, determine

  1. Decide (v) à ___________ (adj)
  2. Determine à ___________ (adj)

C16

resolution, resolve, settle, unravel

  1. Resolution = solution, _ _ _ come
  2. Resolve X _ _ _ solidate
  3. Settle X _ _ _ fuse
  4. Unravel = resolve, _ _ tangle

C17

affect, enhance

  1. What is the difference between affect and effect?
  2. Enhance = inf _ _ _ _

C18

chair, dominate, govern, guide, influence, manipulate, preside, supervise

  1. He is the ___________ of a big company. CHAIR
  2. These genes are __________. DOMINATE
  3. She was elected the __________ of a large town. GOVERN
  4. We need the expert __________ of a medical person. GUIDE
  5. His views have always been __________. INFLUENCE
  6. The careful _________ of the events prevented a disaster. MANIPULATE
  7. Who was the fifth _________ of the USA? PRESIDE
  8. She acts as the legal _________ of us. SUPERVISE

C19

conduct, maintain, organize

  1. Conduct (v) means direct and guide. What does the noun form mean?
  2. Maintain = assist; per _ _ _ _ re
  3. Organize = establish, institute, _ _ _ stitute
  4. ACTIONS AND POSITIONS

D1

kneel, perch, rise, squat

  1. Study the difference: kneel, perch, squat.
  2. Study the difference: arise, rise.

D2

collapse, fall, trip

  1. While he was walking, he ________ (fell / tripped) over a dog’s lead and _________ (fell /
    tripped) flat on to the pavement.
  2. Study the difference between collapse and demolish.

D3

dip, drop, lift, lower, raise

  1. He _________ his biscuit into his tea and popped it into his mouth.
  2. I’m afraid I’ve __________ my bag somewhere.
  3. She __________ the blinds so that the afternoon sun would not disturb the patient’s eyes.
  4. The point he ________ during the monthly meeting was really trivial.
  5. This crane can _________ cargo boxes to a height of 23 meters.

D4

bank, bow, lean, reel

  1. Bank = turn, _ _ cline
  2. Bow = bend, curve, buc _ _ _
  3. Lean = incline, bend, sl _ _ _
  4. Reel = stagger; wh _ _ l

D5

shake, sway, swing

  1. Children were _________ in the park.
  2. The _________ of the huge pendulum of the clock came to a halt.
  3. They _________ hands before they sat at the table.

D6

curl, revolve, rotate, spin, turn, twist, whirl, wind

  1. He has __________ hair. CURL
  2. He pulled out his ________ and fired. REVOLVE
  3. Out of the job ________ policy of our company, I’ll have to work abroad for some time. ROTATE
  4. She was sitting at her _______ wheel and weaving. SPIN
  5. This is a ________ point in history. TURN
  6. A monstrous __________ destroyed houses in the north part of the continent. TWIST
  7. Followers of Mevlana are named _______ dervishes. WHIRL
  8. It was a long, _______ road. WIND

D7

pulse, shiver, shudder, throb

  1. As the was soaked to the skin, she ________.
  2. He was so angry that we could see a vein ________ of his forehead.
  3. I ________ to think of the consequences.
  4. The doctor checked the patient’s ________.

D8

nod, tremble, vibrate, wag, wave

  1. Nod X _______
  2. Study the difference between tremble and vibrate.
  3. The dog ________ (wagged / waved) its tail as soon as it saw its owner.

D9

dangle, hang

  1. Clark Gable was famous for his cigarette ________ (dangling / hanging) from his lips.
  2. Study the difference in meaning:

hang – hanged – hanged

hang – hung – hung

D10

slanted, tilted, upright, vertical

  1. Slanted = tampered _ _ _ _
  2. Tilted = slop _ _ _
  3. Upright = vertical, erect X crooked; horizon _ _ _
  4. Vertical = upright, erect, stand _ _ _

D11

flat, prostrate

  1. Flat (adj) à __________ (v)
  2. Prostrate = flat X elevated, ro _ _ _

D12

deep, low, shallow, wide

  1. Deep (adj, n) à _________ (n) à ___________ (v)
  2. Low (adj) à __________ (v)
  3. Shallow = sh _ _ _
  4. Wide (adj) à ___________ (n) à __________ (v)

D13

fine, narrow

  1. little, minute, small
  2. slender, thin

D14

broaden, shorten

  1. Broaden = length _ _
  2. Shorten = abb _ _ _ _ _ _ _

D15

habit, inclined, liable, lie, prone, tend

  1. These are all __________ actions. HABIT
  2. She has an __________ toward alcoholism. INCLINED
  3. I have certain __________ to bear. LIABLE
  4. He is a really butter-finger and is, therefore, ________-prone; he cuts himself and hurts himself
    too often.
  5. There is an apparent _________ to increase wages. TEND

– Study the difference between lie (v) and lay (v).

  1. CUTTING, JOINING, BREAKING, AND DESTROYING

E1

carve, chop, slice, trim

  1. Can I have another _______ of this delicious bread, please?
  2. He cut himself while he was _________ the hedge around his garden.
  3. I can ________ a better man than you out of this log!
  4. We decided to _______ the tree down because it was too old and would definitely collapse
    during a strong storm.

E2

detach, disengage

– What is the difference between detach and disengage?

E3

divide, part, separate, split

  1. Divide (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Part (v, n) à __________ (adj)
  3. Separate (v, adj) à __________ (adj)
  4. Split (v, adj) à __________ (n)

E4

insulate, isolate

– What is the difference between insulate and isolate?

E5

affix, amalgamate, bang, penetrate, pierce

  1. Affix = attach, app _ _ _
  2. Amalgamate = mix, al _ _ _
  3. Bang = strike, bat _ _ _
  4. Penetrate = pierce, b _ _ e
  5. Pierce = penetrate, enter, d _ _ ll

E6

combine, connect, consolidate, integrate, join, tie, unite

  1. The rescue operation is a ________ undertaking of several rescue teams. COMBINE
  2. He did the cleverest thing and ________ the plug before he opened the cabin door. CONNECT
  3. This has been a real __________. CONSOLIDATE
  4. Reading, writing, listening and speaking are named _________ skills in language teaching.
    INTEGRATE
  5. This is a ________ venture. JOIN
  6. Do you thing you can ________ this lock? Otherwise, I’ll have to cut it. TIE
  7. We need ___________ and loyalty. UNITE

E7

adjunct, junction

  1. addition, appendix
  2. joining, connection

E8

rip, tear

  1. The identity of the famous murderer of the nineteenth century, Jack the ________, will probably
    never be found. RIP
  2. Study the difference between tear (v) and tear (n).

E9

associate, association, incorporate, union

  1. Associate = comrade, coll _ _ _ _ _
  2. Association = alliance, relation _ _ _ _
  3. Incorporate = merge, com _ _ _ _
  4. Union = coalition, un _ _ _

E10

blast, break

  1. Blast = explosion, _ _ _ charge
  2. Break = frac _ _ _ _

E11

shatter, smash, snap

  1. Study the difference between shatter and smash.
  2. Study the difference between snap and snatch.

E12

depress, dready, press

  1. Study the difference between depress and press.
  2. Study the difference between dready and dreary.

E13

bruise, rub, squeeze

  1. He _________ the lemon, but it was too green.
  2. He survived the accident with minor cuts and __________.
  3. If you want to polish your silverware, you need to _________ it with some polishing liquid.

E14

hit, kick, knock, strike

  1. Hit = blow, strike, cr _ _ _
  2. Kick = blow with the _ _ _ _
  3. Knock = rap, _ _ p
  4. Strike = hit, b _ _ t

E15

burst, erupt, explode

  1. Finally, she _________ into tears.
  2. The volcano _________ with a great roar.
  3. When the bomb ________, I was within the radius of the hazardous area.

E16

damage, harm, hurt, spoil

  1. Alcohol apparently did great __________ on his health.
  2. His being drunk ________ the party.
  3. I didn’t want to ________ her feelings! I thought she deserved to know the truth.
  4. The dam was seriously _________ because of the earthquake.

E17

annihilate, destroy, eradicate

  1. demolish, dissolve
  2. destroy, demolish, overthrow
  3. end, exterminate, destroy

E18

devastate, disrupt, ruin, undermine

  1. The blaze was __________! The factory was destroyed completely. DEVASTATE
  2. It is impossible to tolerate further _________. DISRUPT
  3. We visited the archaeological site where some of the _________ were yet to be uncovered. RUIN
  4. Undermine = threaten, w _ _ _ en

E19

deteriorate, worsen

– What is the difference between deteriorate and worsen?

  1. SHOWING, HIDING, FINDING, SAVING, AND SIMILAR WORDS

F1

demonstrate, display, indicate, point

  1. Demonstrate = show, explain, il _ _ _ _ rate
  2. Display = exhibit, ex _ _ _ _
  3. Indicate = point, show, _ _ note
  4. Point = indicate, sug _ _ _ _

F2

exhibit, expose, exposure, reveal, revelation

  1. Study the difference: exhibit, expose and reveal.
  2. Exposure = _ _ _ closure
  3. Revelation = an _ _ _ _ _ _ ment

F3

conceal, hide

– What is the difference between conceal and hide?

F4

discover, track down, trace

  1. Discover (v) à __________ (n)
  2. What is the difference between track down and trace?

F5

find, hunt, lose, search, seek, stalk

  1. Find (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Study the difference: hunt, search, seek, stalk.
  3. Study the difference: lose, loss, loose and loosen.

F6

explore, inspect, investigate

  1. Explore (v) à __________ (n)
  2. Inspect (v) à __________ (n)
  3. Investigate (v) à __________ (n)

F7

check, examine, probe, research

  1. Can you __________ whether we’ve remembered to bring our portable gas stove?
  2. The doctor __________ the patient casually.
  3. Trying to figure out a solution to this problem is like _________ in darkness.
  4. We’ll have make a detailed __________ into the causes of this office fire.

F8

conserve, preserve

– What is the difference between conserve and preserve?

F9

salvage, save

– Study the difference: salvage, save, rescue.

F10

rescue, reserve, withhold

  1. Study the difference: rescue, help, survive.
  2. Study the difference: reserve, preserve.
  3. Withhold = disown, _ _ _ claim

F11

care, guard, protect, secure, vulnerable

  1. She is a tender and __________ mother. CARE
  2. It will be very hard to persuade the _________ to let us see the prisoners. GUARD
  3. Government __________ on public enterprises can be harmful. PROTECT
  4. How do you obtain __________ here? SECURE
  5. Switzerland’s complete _________ to attack any neighbouring country has secured its
    independence through centuries. VULNERABLE

    Tümce Analizi

Tümce analizini bir tümce üzerinde incelersek,

The student revolt is not only a thorn in the side of the president’s newly established government, but it has international implications as well.

tümcenin türünü (basit tümce ya da bileşik tümce) saptayın. Basit tümce ise S+V+O unsurlarını saptayın. Bileşik tümce ise yan tümce ile ana tümceyi saptayarak ayrı ayrı S+V+O unsurlarını saptayın. Esas yüklemi saptayabilmek en önemli nokta.

Tümcenot only … but (also/as well)” yapısı içeren bir bileşik tümce.

The student revolt is not only a thorn in the side of the president’s newly established government, // but it has international implications as well.

tümcenin okunması esnasında kafa karıştıracak türden her türlü yapıyı parantez içine alarak şimdilik gözardı edin:

The student revolt is not only a thorn (in the side of the president’s newly established government), but it has international implications as well.

tümcede bir başka yapının yerine geçebilecek sözcükleri (reference words) analiz edin:

…, but it has international implications as well. it = The students revolt

birden fazla yapıda farklı anlamlar taşıyabilen as, for, yet, since gibi yapıları mutlaka inceleyin; sözcüklerin Türkçesini belirleyin; tümceyi sözcük sözcük olarak değil, anlamını anladığınız şekilde Türkçeye aktarın; parantez içine aldığınız yapıları dilerseniz çeviri esnasında da gözardı edip sonradan tümcenize uygun bir şekilde ekleyebilirsiniz; çevirinizin Türkçesini kontrol edin. Kontrol esnasında ölçütünüz şu olmalı: Türkçe tümce İngilizce tümceyi hiç okumamış biri tarafından okunduğunda, bu kişi İngilizce tümcenin taşıdığı anlamın aynısını çıkarabilir mi?

ALIŞTIRMA 1

Tümcelerin anlamına yönelik soruları yanıtladıktan sonra tümceleri analiz ederek Türkçeye aktarın.

  1. I disagreed then as now with many of John Smith’s judgements, but always respected him, and this book is a welcome reminder of his big, honest, friendly, stubborn personality.
    How does the author of this sentence feel about John Smith ?

_____ a. He dislikes him but agrees with his ideas.
_____ b. He considers him to be a disagreeable person.
_____ c. He disagrees with his ideas but respects him.
_____ d. He disagreed with him then but agrees with him now.

  1. Concepts like passivity, dependence, and aggression may need further research if they are to continue to be useful ways of thinking about human personalities.
    What might require more research ?

_____ a. Human thought processes
_____ b. Certain concepts
_____ c. Human personalities
_____ d. Useful ways of thinking

  1. In order for you to follow the schedule set by the publisher, your paper must be looked over over the weekend, revised, and handed in in its final form on Monday.
    What must you do on Saturday and Sunday ?

_____ a. Meet the publisher
_____ b. Examine your paper
_____ c. Hand in paper
_____ d. Look over the weekend

  1. The real reason why prices were, and still are, too high is complicated, and no short discussion can satisfactorily explain this problem.
    What word or phrase best describes prices ?

_____ a. Complicated
_____ b. Adequately explained
_____ c. Too high in the past, but low now
_____ d. To high in the past and in the present

  1. This is not just a sad-but-true story; the boy’s experience is horrible and damaging, yet a sense of love shines through every word.
    How does the author of this sentence feel about the story ?

_____ a. It transmits a sense of love.
_____ b. It is just sad.
_____ c. It is not true.
_____ d. It is horrible and damaging.

  1. In the past five years the movement has grown from unorganized groups of poorly armed individuals to a comparatively well-armed, well-trained army of anywhere from 10,000 to 16,000 members.
    What is the present condition of the movement ?

_____ a. The members are poorly armed.
_____ b. There are only a few poor individuals.
_____ c. There are over 16,000 members.
_____ d. The members are organized and well-armed.

  1. The financial situation isn’t bad yet, but we believe that we have some vital information and, if it is correct, unemployment will soon become a serious problem.
    What do we know about the economic situation ?

_____ a. It won’t change.
_____ b. It will become a serious problem.
_____ c. It is not bad now.
_____ d. It will improve.

  1. The general then added, “The only reasonable solution to the sort of problems caused by the current unstable political situation is one of diplomacy and economic measures and not the use of military force.”
    What type of solution does the general support ?

_____ a. Economic and diplomatic action.
_____ b. Diplomatic and economic action if military force fails.
_____ c. Only diplomatic action.
_____ d. Military actions in response to political problems.

  1. Because the supply of natural gas was plentiful in comparison to other choices like coal and fuel oil, and because it burns cleaner, many people changed their heating systems to natural gas, thereby creating shortages.
    Why did people prefer gas ?

_____ a. It was natural.
_____ b. There were no other choices.
_____ c. The other fuels were dirtier and less plentiful.
_____ d. There is, even today, a plentiful supply of it.

  1. Few phenomena in history are more puzzling than this one: that men and women with goals so vague, with knowledge so uncertain, with hopes so foggy, still would have risked dangers so certain and tasks so great.
    What historical fact is puzzling ?

_____ a. That ordinary people had such vague goals.
_____ b. That people took such great risks.
_____ c. That people had foggy hopes and uncertain knowledge.
_____ d. That ordinary people completed such great tasks.

  1. Next he had to uncover the ancient secret – so jealously guarded by the ancients that no text of any kind, no descriptive wall painting, and no tomb inscription about making papyrus are known to exist.
    What secret did this man want to discover ?

_____ a. How to understand wall paintings.
_____ b. How to read tomb inscriptions.
_____ c. How to read the ancient texts.
_____ d. How to produce papyrus.

  1. Alexis, the ruler of a city where politics was a fine art, concealed his fears, received the noblemen with extravagant ceremonies, impressed them with his riches, praised them, entertained them, bribed them, made promises he had no intention of keeping – and thus succeeding in keeping their troops outside the city walls.
    Why did Alexis give money and attention to the noblemen?

_____ a. Because they praised him.
_____ b. In order to prevent their armies from entering the city.
_____ c. In order to impress them with his riches.
_____ d. Because they were his friends.

ALIŞTIRMA 2

Aşağıdaki tümcelerde uygun seçeneği işaretleyin. Ardından tümceleri analiz ederek Türkçeye aktarın.

  1. My discovery of Tillie Olsen was a gift from a friend; years ago she gave me her copy of Tell Me A Riddle, because she liked the stories and wanted to share the experience.
    What do we know about Tillie Olsen ?

_____ 1. She is a friend.
_____ 2. She likes stories.
_____ 3. She likes gifts.
_____ 4. She is an author.

  1. A few government officials even estimate that the war has created more than half a million refugees who need immediate food, clothing, and shelter.
    Exactly how many refugees are there ?

_____ 1. Half a million.
_____ 2. Over half a million.
_____ 3. We do not know exactly.
_____ 4. Only a few government officials know the exact figure.

  1. The Green Tiger Press believes that the relatively unknown works of great children’s illustrators are sources of vast beauty and power, and is attempting to make these treasures more easily available.
    What is the goal of this printing company ?

_____ 1. To publish more children’s books.
_____ 2. To develop powerful stories.
_____ 3. To make children’s illustrations more easily available.
_____ 4. To encourage artists to become children’s illustrators.

  1. Although he calls the $1,000 donation “a very generous amount, especially in these times,” the president expresses hope that the project will attract additional funds from companies and other sources so that it can continue beyond this year.
    What does the president know about this project ?

_____ 1. It will cost only $1,000.
_____ 2. It is very special.
_____ 3. Special sources will support it.
_____ 4. It cannot continue without additional support.

  1. Any thought that this new custom will remain unchanged – or in Europe will remain uniquely English – is ridiculous.>
    What does the author believe about the new custom ?

_____ 1. It will remain limited.
_____ 2. The custom will change.
_____ 3. Acceptance of the custom is ridiculous.
_____ 4. The custom will remain in Europe.

  1. These robust and persistent sailors gathered from all the nations of Western Europe, and set out on the voyages that laid foundations for four great empires with no other power than sail and oar.
    Why were these voyages important ?

_____ 1. Sailors came from many countries in Europe.
_____ 2. The voyages laid the foundation of western Europe.
_____ 3. The foundations for empires were laid.
_____ 4. Western Europe lost its power.

  1. Young people need to develop the values, attitudes, and problem-solving skills essential to their participation in a political system which was designed, and is still based, on the assumption that all citizens would be so prepared.
    What is a basic assumption of this political system ?

_____ 1. All the people will be capable of participation.
_____ 2. All people participate in the system.
_____ 3. All people should have the same values and attitudes.
_____ 4. Most people cannot develop the skills to participate in the system.

  1. While we may be interested in the possibilities of social harmony and individual fulfillment to be achieved through nontraditional education, one cannot help being cautious about accepting any sort of one-sided educational program as a cure for the world’s ills.
    How does the author feel about nontraditional education?

_____ 1. He believes that it has no possibility of success.
_____ 2. He doubts that it can cure the world’s ills.
_____ 3. He feels that it is a cure for the world’s ills.
_____ 4. He believes that it will bring social harmony.

ALIŞTIRMA 3

Tümce ile aynı anlamı taşıyan tümceyi işaretleyin.

  • Nine out of ten doctors responding to a survey said they recommend our product to their patients if they recommend anything.
  1. Nine out of every ten doctors recommend the product in surveys.
  2. Of the doctors who responded to a survey, nine out of ten doctors recommend the product.
  3. Not many doctors recommend the product if they have to, according to a survey.
  4. Nine out of ten doctors who responded to a survey report that they recommend anything but the product.
  5. If they recommend anything, what nine out of ten doctors recommend in surveys is the product.
  • This organization may succeed marvelously at what it wants to do, but what it wants to do may not be all that important.
  1. The organization is marvelous.
  2. The organization is likely to succeed in achieving this great goal.
  3. Although the organization may reach its goal, it is doubtful whether the goals are so great.
  4. What the organization wants to reach looks marvelous but not important.
  5. Even unimportant goals might be reached by so marvelous organizations.
  • This book contains a totally new outlook which combines the wisdom of the past with scientific knowledge to solve the problems of the present.
  1. Problems of the past and present are solved in this book through a new and scientific approach.
  2. In this book, current knowledge and past wisdom are combined to solve current problems.
  3. Today’s problem’s cannot be solved in this book by using knowledge of the past and present.
  4. None of today’s problems can be solved without scientific knowledge and past experiences, this book suggests.
  5. This book is different because it combines the wisdom of the past with scientific knowledge.
  • Like other timeless symbols, flags have accompanied mankind for thousands of years, gaining ever wider meaning, yet losing none of their inherent and original force.
  1. In spite of losing their original force, flags are a timeless symbol which have been with mankind for thousands of years.
  2. Timeless symbols such as flags typically gain wider meaning while losing none of their inherent force as they accompany mankind through thousands of years.
  3. Thousands of years ago flags used to accompany mankind but through time, like other timeless symbols, they have lost not only some inherent value but also their original force.
  4. As they are considered a timeless symbol, flags have gained continually wider meaning without losing their inherent original force throughout history.
  5. Flags have existed for thousands of years as a timeless symbol, never gaining wider meaning and losing none of their inherent original force.
  • The project of which this book is the result was first suggested in the summer of 1962, in the course of some leisurely conversations at the foot of and (occasionally) on the top of the Alps of western Austria.
  1. This book was written in 1962.
  2. This book was written in Austria.
  3. This book is a collection of seminars held in 1962.
  4. This book is the end result of a project.
  5. This book is about western Austria.
  • Taxes being so high, the descendants of the wealthy class of the nineteenth century are being forced to rent out their estates to paying guests.
  1. In the nineteenth century, the wealthy class rented out its estates to pay their descendants’ taxes.
  2. Owing to high taxes, families which were once rich now rent out their estates.
  3. Guests pay high taxes when they rent old estates of those once rich families.
  4. Some families the parents of whom were once rich are having trouble paying their taxes and rents.
  5. High taxes have put the once wealthy families of the nineteenth century into such a terrible situation that they need to rent out their estates.
  • There is a question about the extent to which we can be free of a prejudiced view in the area of religion.
  1. To a certain extent we can never be free of prejudice in the area of religion.
  2. Everyone without exception questions the prejudice view in the area of religion.
  3. A prejudiced view in anyone in the area of religion is questionable.
  4. None one of us can be free of prejudice in the area of religion.
  5. Because we cannot be free of prejudice in the area of religion, we cannot question it.
  • If this book begins with a familiar theme – the Indian experience of the last 120 years – the author brings to it great power and deep understanding.
  1. This book was written 120 years ago on the Indian experience.
  2. The Indian experience of the last 120 years is a familiar topic and nothing new can be written about it.
  3. The book is powerful in that it treats a powerful theme: the Indian experience of the last 120 years.
  4. It may be that the great power and deep understanding is there to be found in the book, yet the theme is a familiar one.
  5. The book treats a familiar theme – the Indian experience of the last 1200 years – in a powerful way.
  • People should choose their elected representatives partly on the basis of how well they believe these representatives, once elected, can convince them to do or support whatever needs to be done.
  1. People should choose representatives whom they believe will convince them to take action.
  2. People should choose representatives on the basis of whether or not they believe the representatives can be convinced to do whatever needs to be done.
  3. Although people should choose representatives whom they believe will convince them to take action, often they do not.
  4. Representatives should be elected only as far as they are convinced to take action.
  5. People should choose representatives whom they believe they can convince to do or support whatever needs to be done.

ALIŞTIRMA 4

İkinci paragrafı oluşturan uzun tümcenin yüklemini bulun.

UNITED NATIONS

In one very long sentence, the introduction to the U.N. Charter expresses the ideals and the common aims of all the peoples whose governments joined together to form the U.N.

“We the peoples of the U.N. determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold suffering to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, and for these ends, to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain peace and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of economic and social advancement of all peoples, have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims.”

The name United Nations is accredited to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and the first group of representatives of member states met and signed a declaration of common intent on New Year’s Day in 1942. Representatives of five powers worked together to draw up proposals, completed at Dumbarton Oaks in 1944. These proposals, modified after deliberation at the conference on International Organization in San Francisco which began in April 1945, were finally agreed on and signed as the U.N. Charter by 50 countries on 26 June 1945. Poland, not represented at the conference, signed the Charter later and was added to the list of original members. It was not until that autumn, however, after the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the U.S.S.R., the U.K. and the U.S. and by a majority of the other participants that the U.N. officially came into existence. The date was 24 October, now universally celebrated as United Nations day.

The essential functions of the U.N. are to maintain peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to cooperate internationally economic, social, cultural and human problems, promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and to be centre for co-ordinating the actions of nations in attaining these common ends.

No country takes precedence over another in the U.N. Each member’s rights and obligations are the same. All must contribute to the peaceful settlement of international disputes, and members have pledged to refrain from the threat or use of force against other states. Though the U.N. has no right to intervene any state’s internal affairs, it tries to ensure that non-member states act according to its principles of international peace and security. UN members must offer every assistance in an approved U.N. action and in no way assist states against which the U.N. is taking preventive or enforcement action.

ALIŞTIRMA 5

Ettirgen yapılar içeren aşağıdaki tümceleri inceleyin ve Türkçeye çevirin.

  1. Detailed calculations find that the acceleration of an object under gravity depends on both the mass and temperature of an object in a way that makes heavier, or cooler objects fall faster than lighter or hotter ones.
  2. The job of the typographer is to make the reading of the printed page easy and pleasant, and in illustrated books to make sure that, for example, the connection between text and illustrations is clear.
  3. To be a good teacher, you need to make the material varied, interesting, and understandable to your students.
  4. Although Miss Quested had not made herself popular with the English, she brought out all that was fine in her character.
  5. Probably the child first becomes aware of causality when he himself causes things to move by pushing, pulling, and shaking them. Such movements occur at first by chance, and then the child begins to produce them intentionally. Thus one of Piaget’s children found at the age of three months that by kicking around in her cot she could make her dolls, which were suspended from a framework above the cot, move to and fro.
  6. The mere fact that something has happened a certain number of times causes animals and men to expect that it will happen again. Thus our instincts certainly cause us to believe that the sun will rise tomorrow.
  7. (In India) To send a telegram in the ordinary public fashion necessitates at least four separate but interrelated operations. First, you approach the counter, which is besieged by a shrilling, gesticulating crowd.
  8. Gandhi was released from prison early in 1924. Almost his first public act was a three-week fast in the cause of communal unity. This led to a conference on unity, and once more he was in the centre of affairs.
  9. Mrs. Thatcher has succeeded in making people believe in her economic “miracle”, which, as we have repeatedly argued, is largely an illusion.
  10. As one delegate to the Cannes film festival put it: “Technically the British are always superb, but when you are watching a comedy show only one question really counts – does it make you laugh ?”
  11. It is not surprising to find that success or failure in a task has some effect on the performance of that task itself, and may also affect tasks performed immediately afterwards.
  12. Make-up does several things to the human face. It may disguise it or protect it from the sun; it may make it look younger and healthier, or it may label it as belonging to a particular social category.
  13. A type of reading which necessitates careful attention to detail is proof-reading, in which the reader, in order to detect misprints, has to notice not so much on the meaning of what he reads as the exact shapes and order of letters and words in the text.
  14. In any interaction which makes you anxious, you can learn to adjust your own body language and feel more confident. Try to avoid wringing your hands, as this conveys nervousness, or raising your forefinger when you speak because the implicit aggression will arouse an unco- operative response.
  15. Immunotoxins
    The administration of active toxins to an animal or person will probably produce adverse side effects because the poison kills normal cells as well. It would be a good idea if we could modify the toxins so that they kill only cancer cells. One way is to attach these toxins to substances called antibodies, which react specifically with tumour cells to produce “immunotoxins”. Antibodies are protein molecules produced by animals, in response to a foreign substance, or antigen. Antibodies combine specifically with the substance that induced their formation. In this case, specific active molecules on the surface of the cancer cells trigger the formation of antibodies. Therefore, in theory, the immunotoxin will selectively seek out and kill the tumour cell.

 

Exercise

 

Find synonym for the underlined word.

  1. Natural occurrences such as hurricanes, earthquakes and tornadoes can have catastrophic effects on people.
A) disastrous B) killing C) categorical D) unimaginable
  1. Unicorns, dragons and centaurs are all imaginary animals.
A) magic B) unimportant C) pictorial D) unreal
  1. A huge mountain chain in Europe is formed by linking the Alps, the Pyrenees, the
    Balkans, the Caucaus, and the Carpathians.
A) dividing B) surpassing C) surrounding D) joining
  1. Women in England achieved the right to vote only after various protest movements.
A) fought for B) gained C) wrote about D) chose
  1. Martin Luther King fought to put an end to racial segregation.
A) integration B) education C) separation D) torture
  1. Her early skills with numbers was an indicative of a genius in mathematics.
A) giving direction B) giving indication C) giving assistance D) giving approval
  1. Property deeds belong in a safe deposit box.
A) actions B) legal papers C) wills D) addresses
  1. A computer may be used in the math classroom to implement the lesson.
A) implant B) learn C) entreat D) carry out
  1. The pilot miraculously survived the crash unscathed.
A) unsurprised B) unhurt C) unhappy D) undeterred
  1. The first man to reach the summit of Mt. Everest won worldwide acclaim for his feat.
A) deed B) climb C) courage D) stamina

 

Çeviri Notları

Metin Analizi ve Çevirisi

Bu bölümde İngilizce-Türkçe çeviri için çeşitli metinler yer almaktadır.

  1. Genel amaçlı çeviriyi hedefleyenler amaçlandığı için, metinlerde belli bir konu (tıp, ekonomi gibi) sınırlandırması yoktur.
  2. Bir ya da birkaç örnek metnin çevirisinin yapılması, çeviride yetkinliğin ölçütü olamaz. Bu durumda da seçilen metinlerin belli başlı çeviri sorunlarını örneklemesi hedeflenmiştir.
  3. Metinlerin olabildiğince güncel ve ilginç olması amaçlanmıştır.
  4. Metinlerin uzunluğu görecelidir. Çok uzun bir metin çok az çeviri sorunu örnekleyebileceği gibi bunun tersi durumlar da söz konusu olabilir. Bu nedenle önemli olan metnin uzunluğu değil o metinde ön plana çıkarılan tümcelerdir.

 

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