Chartering Terms-Definitions-YDS Ders notları

Detailed below is our non-exhaustive list of some of the most frequently used abbreviations and their definitions that you may come across from time to time. A wonderful Glossary of Nautical Terms (circa. 1814) can also be found here. We hope that you will find this information both helpful and informative. Please E-mail us if you have any additional charter term abbreviations or comments or for a quotation on your next project.

FIOS (FREE IN, OUT, STOWED) :
It is most important to remember that the “Free” reference is viewed from the Ship Owners point of view – not the Shipper’s. Some Shippers get caught out when they read the word “Free” as they incorrectly believe that it refers to them.

Freight rates quoted on a FIOS basis specifically exclude all aspects relating to cargo handling operations. The ship is only responsible for expenses arising as a result of the ship calling into the port, i.e. tugs, pilots and light dues etc. Another very important consideration when booking cargo on FIOS terms is that the ship does not bear any responsibility for the speed of loading or discharging.

Usually the rate agreed includes a fixed “free” period of time for loading/discharging operations, after which time a daily demurrage is incurred. Obviously this is of paramount importance where port congestion or stevedoring performance is uncertain. There are many overseas ports which fall into this category and particularly where vessel demurrage rates can vary significantly, depending on the size and type of ship nominated to undertake the particular project.

LINER TERMS – GENERAL STATEMENT :
Liner Terms is a very ambiguous statement and can be interpreted in a variety of ways in different ports of the world and by different Ship Owners/Agents. Personally we would prefer to clearly define the extent of responsibility when quoting on this basis.

LINER TERMS HOOK / HOOK :
Given that this is a notional point in chartering terms, this is best described as the Shipper/Receiver arranging for delivery/receival of cargo to/from directly under ships hook and the ship paying for the labour to stow the cargo in the vessels cargo holds, as well as on-board lashing & securing and provision of dunnage materials, and to discharge again over the ship’s side. Shore based stevedoring aspects remain the responsibility of the shipper/receiver, however, there are some Owners that may incorporate these costs into their LTHH rate. Once again, ask Owners to clearly define this aspect.

Wharfage charges/dues/taxes can be a contentious issue but are usually considered to be for the Shippers/Receivers account and there may also be many other statutory levies on cargo or freight that may apply. Many Shippers/Receivers are unaware of these additional costs and do not include them into their costing and consequently may be left with an unexpected considerable expense at the completion of a project.

FULL LINER TERMS :
This is somewhat a vaguer term given different port practices. However, it generally implies that the freight amount provided includes both shore based and on-board stevedoring, lashing/unlashing, dunnage materials, securing/unsecuring and all costs of presenting to/receiving the cargo from the ship’s side; with the shippers/receivers just bearing the cost of discharging from/reloading to the transport, along with the usual port charges/levies/taxes etc.

Frequently the terms are varied at different ends of the voyage i.e. FILO (Free In/Liner Out), LIFO (Liner In Free Out) or FIFO (Free In/Free Out) etc. To be absolutely sure of all liabilities, it is always advisable to request that terms clearly and concisely indicate what is/isn’t included in your particular contract – in layman’s terms.

I hope you will find this information both helpful and informative. If you require clarification on any aspect, or have any further questions, please don’t hesitate to contact us at any time.

 ABBREVIATIN                                                                             

MEANING

AA Always Afloat
AAAA Always Accessible Always Afloat
AAOSA Always Afloat or Safe Aground. Condition for a vessel whilst in port
AARA Amsterdam-Antwerp-Rotterdam Area
ABAFT Toward the rear (stern) of the ship. Behind.
   
ABOARD On or within the ship
ABOVE DECK On the deck (not over it – see ALOFT)
ABT About
ADCOM Address Commission
ADDENDUM Additional chartering terms at the end of a charter party
AFSPS Arrival First Sea Pilot Station (Norway)
AFFREIGHTMENT The hiring of a ship in whole or part
AFT At or towards the stern or rear of a ship
AGROUND Touching or fast to the bottom
AGW All Going Well
AHL Australian Hold Ladders
AIDS TO NAVIGATION Artificial objects to supplement natural landmarks indicating safe and unsafe waters
ALOFT Above the deck of the ship
AMIDSHIPS In or toward the centre of the ship
ANCHORAGE A place suitable for anchorage in relation to the wind, seas and bottom
ANTHAM Antwerp-Hamburg Range
APS Arrival Pilot Station
ARAG Amsterdam-Rotterdam–Antwerp-Gent Range
ARBITRATION Method of settling disputes which is usually binding on parties. A clause usually in a charter party
A/S Alongside
ASBA American Shipbrokers Association
ASPW Any Safe Port in the World
ASTERN In the back of the ship, opposite of ahead
ATDNSHINC Any Time Day/Night Sundays and Holidays Included
ATHWARTSHIPS At right angles to the centreline of the ship
ATUTC Actual Times Used to Count
BACKLETTER Where a seller/shipper issues a ‘letter of indemnity’ in favour of the carrier in exchange for a clean bill of lading
BAF Bunker Adjustment Factor. A Fuel Surcharge expressed as a percentage added or subtracted from the freight amount, reflecting the movement in the market place price for bunkers.
BALE CAP. Cubic capacity of a vessels holds to carry packaged dry cargo such as bales/pallets
BALLAST Heavy weight, often sea water, necessary for the stability and safety of a ship which is not carrying cargo
BALLAST BONUS Compensation for relatively long ballast voyage
BAREBOAT CHTR. Bareboat Charter – Owners lease a specific ship and control its technical management and commercial operations only. Charterers take over all responsibility for the operation of the vessel and expenses for the duration.
BBB Before Breaking Bulk. Refers to freight payments that must be received before discharge of a vessel commences
BDI Both Dates Inclusive
BEAM The maximum breadth or the greatest width of a ship
BELOW Beneath the deck
BENDS Both Ends (Load & Discharge Ports)
BI Both Inclusive
BIMCO The Baltic and International Maritime Council
BL1 Bale
BL2 (Bill of Lading) A document signed by the carrier which acts as a Contract of Affreightment, a receipt and evidence of title to the cargo.
BM Beam
BN Booking Note
BOB Bunker on Board
BOFFER Best Offer
BOW The forward part of a ship
BROB Bunkers Remaining on Board
BROKERAGE Percentage of freight payable to broker (by owners in c/p’s) or applicable to sale or purchase
BSS Basis
BSS 1/1 Basis 1 Port to 1 Port
BT Berth Terms
BULKHEAD A vertical partition separating compartments
BUNDLING This is the assembly of pieces of cargo, secured into one manageable unit. This is relevant to items such as Structural Steel, Handrails, Stairways etc. Whilst this is a very flexible description, a rule of thumb is to present cargo at a size easily handled by a large (20 tonne) fork lift.
BUNKERS Name given for vessels Fuel and Diesel Oil supplies (Originates from coal bunkers)
BUOY An anchored float used for marking a position on the water or a hazard or a shoal and for mooring
BWAD Brackish Water Arrival Draft
CAF Currency Adjustment Factor
CBM Cubic Metres
CBFT (or CFT) Cubic Feet
CFR (or C&F) Cost and Freight
CHART A map used by navigators
CHOPT Charterers Option
CHTRS Charterers
CIF Cost, Insurance & Freight. Seller pays all these costs to a nominated port or place of discharge.
CKD Completely knocked down
COA Contract of Affreightment – Owners agree to accept a cost per revenue tonne for cargo carried on a specific number of voyages.
CIP Carriage and Insurance paid to…
COACP Contract of Affreightment Charter Party
COB Closing of Business
COBLDN Closing of Business London
COD Cash On Delivery
COGSA Carriage of Goods by Sea Act
CONGESTION Port/berth delays
CONS Consumption
C/SNEE CONSIGNEE. Name of agent, company or person receiving consignment
COP Custom Of Port
CP (or C/P) Charter Party
CPD Charterers Pay Dues
CPT Carriage Paid To
CQD Customary Quick Despatch
CR Current Rate
CROB Cargo Remaining on Board
CRN Crane
CRT Cargo Retention Clauses, introduced by charterers based on shortage of delivered cargo because of increased oil prices
CST Centistoke
CTR Container Fitted
DA Disbursement Account
DAF Deliver At Frontier
DAPS Days all Purposes (Total days for loading & discharging)
DAMFORDET Damages for Detention. Penalty if cargo is not ready when ship arrives for working (1st day of Laycan). This is not detention which is charged for ships time on delay. If the cargo is ready there is no DAMFORDET.
DDU Delivered Duty unpaid.
DDP Delivered Duty Paid.
DECK A permanent covering over a compartment, hull or any part thereof
DEM Demurrage (Quay Rent). Money paid by the shipper for the occupying port space beyond a specified “Free Time” period.
DEQ Delivered Ex Quay
DES Delivered Ex Ship
DESP Despatch. Time saved, reward for quick turnaround- in dry cargo only
DET Detention (See DAMFORDET)
DEV Deviation. Vessel departure from specified voyage course
DFRT Deadfreight. Space booked by shipper or charterer on a vessel but not used
DHDATSBE Despatch Half Demurrage on All Time Saved Both Ends
DHDWTSBE Despatch Half Demurrage on Working Time Saved Both Ends
DISCH Discharge
DK Deck
DLOSP Dropping Last Outwards Sea Pilot (Norway)
DO Diesel Oil
DOLSP Dropping Off Last Sea Pilot (Norway)
DOP Dropping Outward Pilot
DOT Department of Transport
DNRCAOSLONL Discountless and Non-Returnable Cargo and/or Ship Lost or Not Lost
DRAUGHT (or DRAFT) Depth to which a ship is immersed in water. The depth varies according to the design of the ship and will be greater or lesser depending not only on the weight of the ship and everything on board, but also on the density of the water in which the ship is lying.
DRK Derrick
DUNNAGE Materials of various types, often timber or matting, placed among the cargo for separation, and hence protection from damage, for ventilation and, in the case of certain cargoes, to provide space in which the tynes of a fork lift truck may be inserted.
DWAT (or DWT) Deadweight. Weight of cargo, stores and water, i.e. the difference between lightship and loaded displacement.
EBB A receeding current
EC East Coast
EIU Even If Used
ELVENT Electric Ventilation
ETA Estimated Time of Arrival
ETC Estimated Time of Completion
ETD Estimated Time of Departure
ETS Estimated Time of Sailing
EXW Ex Works
FAC Fast as can
FAS Free Alongside Ship. Seller delivers goods to appropriate dock or terminal at port of embarkation and buyer covers costs and risks of loading
FCA Free to Carrier. A modern equivalent of FAS used in intermodal transport where goods are transferred at a nominated forwarders premises, depot or terminal but not actually on board vessel.
FD (FDIS) Free Discharge
FDD Freight Demurrage Deadfreight
FDESP Free Despatch
FDEDANRSAOCLONL Freight Deemed Earned, Discountless And Non-Returnable (Refundable) Ship And Or Cargo Lost Or Not Lost
FENDER A cushion, placed between ships, or between a ship and a pier, to prevent damage
FEU Standard 40’ Container
FHEX Fridays/Holidays Excluded
FHINC Fridays/Holidays Included
FILO Free In/Liner Out. Seafreight with which the shipper pays load costs and the carrier pays for discharge costs.
FIO Free In/Out. Freight booked FIO includes the seafreight, but no loading/discharging costs, i.e. the charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo.
FIOS Free In/Out Stowed. As per FIO, but excludes stowage costs.
FIOST Free In/Out and Trimmed. Charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo, including stowage and trimming.
FIOT Free In/Out and Trimmed. As per FIOS but includes trimming, e.g. the levelling of bulk cargoes. FIOS includes seafreight, but excludes loading/discharging and stowage costs.
FIT Free In Trimmed
FIW Free In Wagon
FIXING Chartering a Vessel
FIXTURE Conclusion of shipbrokers negotiations to charter a ship – an agreement
FLATPACKING Cargo to be presented stacked and secured as an integral unit.
FLT Full Liner Terms
FMC Federal Maritime Commission
FME Force Majeure Excepted
FMS Fathoms
FO1 For Orders
FO2 (IFO) Fuel Oil/Intermediate FO
FO3 Free Out
FOB Free on Board. Seller sees the goods “over the ship’s rail” on to the ship which is arranged and paid for by the buyer
FOFFER Firm Offer
FOG For Our Guidance
FOQ Free On Quay
FOR Free On Rail
FORCE MAJEURE Clause limiting responsibilities of the charterers, shippers and receivers of cargo.
FORE-AND-AFT In a line parallel to the keel
FORWARD Toward the bow of the ship
FOT Free On Truck
FOW1 First Open Water
FOW2 Free On Wharf
FP Free Pratique. Clearance by the Health Authorities
FR First Refusal. First attempt at best offer that can be matched
FREEBOARD The minimum vertical distance from the surface of the water to the gunwale
FRT Freight. Money payable on delivery of cargo in a mercantile condition
FREE DESPATCH If loading/discharging achieved sooner than agreed, there will be no freight money returned.
FREE EXINS Free of any Extra Insurance (Owners)
FREE OUT Free of discharge costs to owners. Includes seafreight only.
FRUSTRATION Charterers when cancelling agreement sometimes quote ‘doctrine of frustration’ i.e. vessel is lost, extensive delays.
FWAD Fresh Water Arrival Draft
FWDD Fresh Water Departure Draft
FYG For Your Guidance
FYI For Your Information
ABBREVIATION MEANING
   
GA General Average
GEAR A general term for ropes, blocks, tackle and other equipment
GLS (GLESS) Gearless
GNCN Gencon (GENERAL CONDITIONS)
GN (or GR) Grain (Capacity)
GO Gas Oil
GP Grain Capacity. Cubic capacity in ‘grain’
GR Geographical Rotation. Ports in order of calling
GRD Geared
GRT Gross Registered Tonnage
GSB Good, Safe Berth
GSP Good, Safe Port
GTEE Guarantee
GUNWALE The upper edge of a ship’s sides
2H Second Half
HA Hatch
HAGUE RULES Code of minimum conditions for the carriage of cargo under a Bill of Lading
HATCH An opening in a ship’s deck fitted with a watertight cover
HBF Harmless Bulk Fertilizer
HDLTSBENDS Half Despatch Lay Time Saved Both Ends
HDWTS Half Despatch Working (or Weather) Time Saved
HHDW Handy Heavy d.w. (Scrap)
HIRE T/C Remuneration
HMS Heavy Metal Scraps
HO Hold
HOLD A compartment below deck in a large vessel, used solely for carrying cargo
HULL The main body of a ship
HW High Water
ICW Intercoastal Waterway : bays, rivers, and canals along the coasts (such as the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts), connected so that vessels may travel without going into the sea
IMDG International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
IMO International Maritime Organisation
IN &/OR OVER Goods carried below and/or on deck
IND Indication
INTERMODAL Carriage of a commodity by different modes of transport, i.e. sea, road, rail and air within a single journey
INCOTERMS (Refer to comments in covering statement on front page A-F)
ITF International Transport Workers Federation (Trade Unions). Complies on crewing
ITINERARY Route.Schedule
IU If Used
IUHTAUTC If Used, Half Time Actually To Count
IWL Institute Warranty Limits
KEEL The centreline of a ship running fore and aft; the backbone of a vessel
KNOT A measurement of speed equal to one nautical mile (6,076 feet) per hour
LANE METER A method of measuring the space capacity of Ro/Ro ships whereby each unit of space (Linear Meter) is represented by an area of deck 1.0 meter in length x 2.0 meters in width.
LASH To hold goods in position by use of Ropes, Wires, Chains or Straps etc.
LAT Latitude. The distance north or south of the equator measured and expressed in degrees.
LAYCAN Laycan (Layday Cancelling Date)
LAYTIME Time at Charterers disposal for purpose of loading/discharging
L/C Letter of Credit
LCR Lowest Current Rate
LEE The side sheltered from the wind
LEEWARD The direction away from the wind. Opposite of windward
LEEWAY The sideways movement of the ship caused by either wind or current
LF Load Factor. Percentage of cargo or passengers carries e.g. 4,000 tons carried on a vessel of 10,000 capacity has a load factor of 40%
LIEN Retention of property until outstanding debt is paid
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas
LOA Length Overall of the vessel
LOAD LINE SEE PLIMSOLL LINE
   
LOF Lloyds Open Form
LOG A record of courses or operation. Also, a device to measure speed
LOI Letter of Indemnity
LONGITUDE The distance in degrees east or west of the meridian at Greenwich, England
LOW Last Open Water
LS (or LUMPS) Lumpsum Freight. Money paid to Shipper for a charter of a ship (or portion) up to stated limit irrespective of quantity of cargo
LSD Lashed Secured Dunnaged
LT1 Liner Terms
LT2 Long Ton = 1,016.05 kilogram (2,240 lbs)
LTHH Liner Terms Hook/Hook
LW Low Water
LYCN Laycan (Layday Cancelling Date)
   
MANIFEST Inventory of cargo on board
MB Merchant Broker
MDO (DO) Marine Diesel Oil
MIDSHIP Approximately in the location equally distant from the bow and stern
MIN/MAX Minimum/Maximum (cargo quantity)
MOA Memorandum of Agreement
MOLCHOPT More or Less Charterers Option
MOLOO More or Less Owners Option
MOORING An arrangement for securing a ship to a mooring buoy or pier
MT Mertic Tonne (i.e. 1,000 kilos)
M/V Motor Vessel / Merchant Vessel
NAABSA Not Always Afloat But Safely Aground
NM Nautical Mile. One minute of latitude; approximately 6,076 feet – about 1/8 longer than the statute mile of 5,280 feet
NAVIGATION The art and science of conducting a ship safely from one point to another
NCB National Cargo Bureau
NESTING Implies that cargo is presented stacked in the contour of similarly shaped cargo, it may be likened to a stack of plates. This is particularly relevant in the presentation of tankage strakes for transport
NON-REVERSIBLE (Detention). If loading completed sooner than expected, then saved days will not be added to discharge time allowed.
NOR Notice of Readiness
NRT Net Restricted Tonnage
NYPE New York Produce Exchange
OO Owners Option
OBO Ore/Bulk/Oil Vessel
OSH Open Shelter Deck
OVERBOARD Over the side or out of the ship  
OWS Owners  
P&I Protection and Indemnity Insurance  
PASTUS Past Us  
PC Period of Charter  
PCGO Part Cargo  
PCT Percent  
PDPR Per Day Pro Rata  
PERDIEM By the Day  
PER SE By Itself  
PHPD Per Hatch Per Day  
PLIMSOLL MARK
alt.
PLIMSOLL LINE
alt.
LOAD LINE
An internationally recognised line painted on the side of merchant ships. When a ship is loaded, the water level is not supposed to go above the line. Water can reach different parts of the line as its temperature and saltiness varies with the season and location. From where Plimsoll Shipping derived its name.  
     
PORT The left side of a ship looking forward. A harbour.  
PRATIQUE Licence or permission to use a port  
PREAMBLE Introduction to a charter party  
PROFORMA Estimated Account  
PUS Plus Us  
PWWD Per Weather Working Day  
RCVR Receiver  
RECAP Recapitulation of the terms and conditions agreed  
REVERSIBLE (Detention). If loading completed sooner than expected at load port, then days saved can be added to discharge operations.  
ROB Remaining On Board  
RT Revenue Tonne (i.e. 1.0 metric tonne or 1.0 cubic meter, whichever greater). The overall RT is calculated on a line by line basis of the Packing List using the largest amount. The overall freight liability is calculated on the total RT amount, multiplied by the freight rate.  
SATPM Saturday P.M.  
SB Safe Berth  
SD (or SID) Single Decker  
SEAFREIGHT Costs charged for transporting goods over the sea. This does not cover haulage or loading/discharging costs but the sea transport only  
SEAWORTHINESS Statement of condition of the vessel (valid certificates, fully equipped and manned etc.)  
SELFD Self Discharging  
SEMI-TRAILERS Are usually 12.0 meter flat bed road trailers  
SF Stowage Factor. Cubic space (measurement tonne) occupied by one tonne (2,240 lbs/1,000 kgs) of cargo  
SHINC Sundays/Holidays Included  
SHEX Sundays/Holidays Excluded  
SKIDS Are bearers (timber or steel) positioned under the cargo to enable forklift handling at port, and for ease of rigging and lashing on board ship.  
SN Satellite Navigation – A form of position finding using radio transmissions from satellites with sophisticated on-board automatic equipment  
SOC Shipper Owned Container  
SOF Statement of Facts  
SP Safe Port  
SPIDERING Is the strengthening of circular tanks for transport, this prevents the tanks from becoming warped. The tanks are strengthened with steel or wood crossbeams giving a “spider” appearance  
SRBL Signing and Releasing Bill of Lading  
SSHEX Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays Excluded  
SSHINC (or SATSHINC) Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays Included  
STABILITY It is paramount that a vessel is stable in all aspects at all times. When cargo is loaded/discharged, the stability is monitored by a computer, which takes into account the weight and position of cargo within the vessel.  
STARBOARD Right side of a ship when facing the front or forward end.  
STEM Subject to Enough Merchandise (Availability of cargo). Also, the forward most part of the bow.  
STERN The aformost or after part of a ship  
SUB Subject (to). Depending upon as a condition  
SUPERCARGO Person employed by a ship owner, shipping company, charterer of a ship or shipper of goods to supervise cargo handling operations. Often called a port captain.  
SWAD Salt Water Arrival Draft  
SWDD Salt Water Departure Draft  
THWARTSHIPS At right angles to the centreline of the ship  
TIDE The periodic rise and fall of water level in the oceans  
TIME BAR Time after which legal claims will not be entered  
TBN To Be Named / To Be Nominated  
TC Time Charter – Owners agree to hire a particular ship for a set length of time and provide technical management, crewing etc.  
TCP Time Charter Party  
TEU Standard 20′ Container  
TOPSIDES The sides of a ship between the waterline and the deck; sometimes referring to onto or above the deck  
TRIM Fore and aft balance of a ship  
TTL Total  
TW Tween Decker  
USC Unless Sooner Commenced  
UU Unless Used  
UUIWCTAUTC Unless Used In Which Case Time Actually Used To Count  
VPD Vessel Pays Dues  
WATERLINE A line painted on a hull which shows the point to which a ship sinks when it is properly trimmed  
     
WAY Movement of a ship through water such as headway, sternway or leeway  
WCCON Whether Customs Cleared Or Not  
WIBON Whether In Berth Or Not  
WIFPON Whether In Free Pratique Or Not  
WINDWARD Toward the direction from which the wind is coming  
WIPON Whether In Port Or Not  
WLTOHC Water Line-To-Hatch Coaming  
WOG Without Guarantee  
WP Weather Permitting. That time during which weather prevents working shall not count as laytime  
WPD Weather Permitting Day  
     
WWD Weather Working Day  
WRIC Wire Rods In Collis  
WWR When, Where Ready  
WWWW Wibon, Wccon, Wifpon, Wipon  
YAR York Antwerp Rules  
YAW To swing or steer off course, as when running with a quartering sea  
Z UTC = GMT  

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